Ethnologue: Areas: Europe

Yugoslavia

10,787,000 (1995). Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socijalisticka Federativna Republika Jugoslavija. Now includes Serbia and Montenegro republics. Literacy rate 90% to 93%. Also includes Romani, Turkish 250,000 (including Macedonia), Ukrainian 22,896 (1971). Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, secular, Muslim. Blind population 23,000 in the former larger Yugoslavia (1982 WCE). Deaf population 60,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 56. The number of languages listed for Yugoslavia is 10.

ALBANIAN, GHEG (GEG) [ALS] 1,372,750 to 1,800,000 in Yugoslavia (1992); 242,250 in Macedonia (1992); 300,000 in Albania (L. Newmark); 17,382 in USA (1970 census); 1,000 in Bulgaria (Newmark); 2,000,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Kossovo-Metohija (Kosmet) and Macedonia. Also in Romania. Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg. Speakers are called Kossovars in Yugoslavia. Books and newspapers are published in Gheg in Yugoslavia. Official regional language in Kossovo. However, ethnic Albanians have boycotted schools and Kossovo's university from 1990 to 1992 to protest lack of instruction in their language. Shiptars: Muslim. Braille code available. NT 1869-1872. Bible portions 1866-1978. Work in progress.

BULGARIAN [BLG] 9,000,000 in all countries (1981 WA). Dmitrovgrad and Bosiljgrad districts. Also Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Moldova, Greece, Turkey, Israel, USA, Canada. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern. Catholic Bulgarians are in Yugoslav and Romanian Banat. Bible 1864-1923. NT 1840-1927. Bible portions 1823-1994.

HUNGARIAN (MAGYAR) [HNG] 450,500 in Yugoslavia (1986); 10,500 in Slovenia (1976 Stevens); 14,500,000 in all countries. Vojvodine. Also in Hungary, Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Austria, Israel, Australia, USA, Canada. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Ugric, Hungarian. Official regional status in Vojvodine. Closest to Vogul (Mansi) of Russia. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1590-1991. NT 1541-1952. Bible portions 1533-1988.

ROMANIAN (RUMANIAN, MOLDAVIAN, DACO-RUMANIAN) [RUM] 200,000 to 300,000 in Yugoslavia (1995 Iosif Bena); 20,520,000 in Romania (1986); 26,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). 500,000 in the ethnic group in Yugoslavia (1995). Vojvodina and the Timoc Valley. Also in many other countries. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern, North. Daily TV and radio programs. Bible 1688-1989. NT 1648-1993. Bible portions 1561-1993.

ROMANI, BALKAN [RMN] 120,000 in Yugoslavia and Macedonia including 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi; a few hundred in Brooklyn and Queens, New York, USA; 1,000,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Balkans, Kossovo. Also in Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, France, Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Iran. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan. Dialects: ARLIJA, DZAMBAZI, TINNERS ROMANI. The Arlija dialect (252,000 to 367,000 total) is understood by Greek Romani and Dzambazi speakers. Ethnic group: Jerlídes (Macedonia, southern Serbia). A Gypsy language. Muslim. Bible portions 1912-1937. Work in progress.

ROMANI, SINTE (ROMMANES, SINTE, SINTI) [RMO] 31,000 in Yugoslavia including 30,000 Serbian, 1,000 Manouche; 10,000 Slovenian-Croatian in Slovenia and Croatia; 30,500 or more in Germany; 500 to 1,000 in the Netherlands; 500 in Austria; 10,000 to 30,000 in France; 14,000 in Italy; 200,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Kossovo. Also in Switzerland, Kazakhstan, Poland, Czech Republic. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern. Dialects: ABBRUZZESI, SLOVENIAN-CROATIAN ROMANI, SERBIAN ROMANI. Rommanes is the self-name. Croatian, Slovenian, and Serbian Romani speakers understand each other. Those varieties may be quite distinct from the German varieties. Sinte is characterized by German influence. A Gypsy language. Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian. Bible portions 1875-1930. Work in progress.

ROMANO-SERBIAN (TENT GYPSY) [RSB] Serbia. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western. A Gypsy language. Related to Serbian with influences from Romani. Survey needed.

SERBO-CROATIAN (SERBIAN) [SRC] 10,200,000 in Yugoslavia and Macedonia (1981 WA); 4,800,000 in Croatia (1995); 4,000,000 in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1995); 652,000 in Germany; 142,000 in Switzerland; 120,000 or more in Sweden; 20,000 in Turkey; 32,130 in Hungary; 60,000 in Austria (1993); 80,000 in Romania (1993); 93,860 in Canada (1971 census); 249,257 in USA (1970 census); 38,753 in Australia; 5,000 in Russia; 5,000 in Ukraine; 3,500 in Italy (1987); 9,000 in Bulgaria (1993); 21,000,000 in all countries (1995). Serbia, Kossovo, and Montenegro. Also in Greece, Slovakia, Slovenia. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western. Dialects: CHAKAVIAN, KAJKAVIAN, STOKAVIAN, TORLAKIAN. Roman script used by Croats, Cyrillic by Serbs and Montenegrins. Literary language based on Stokavian dialect. National language. Typology: SVO. Greek Orthodox (most Serbs). Braille code available in Serbian. Bible 1804-1968. NT 1563-1983. Bible portions 1564-1992.

SLOVAK [SLO] 100,000 in Yugoslavia (1985 Gunnemark and Kenrick); 4,865,450 in Slovakia (1990 WA); 510,366 in USA (1970 census); 17,370 in Canada (1971 census); 12,000 in Ukraine (1970 census); 100,000 or more in Hungary; 5,606,000 in all countries. Vojvodine. Indo-European, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. All dialects of Slovak and Czech are inherently intelligible to all speakers. Official regional status in Vojvodine. Bible 1832-1926. NT 1913-1993. Bible portions 1904-1991.

YUGOSLAVIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [YSL] 30,000 in all countries users out of 60,000 deaf persons in the former larger Yugoslavia (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Deaf sign language. Dialect: SERBIAN SIGN LANGUAGE. Origins from deaf schools in Austria and Hungary. First deaf school in 1840, but sign language is not used in schools. Interpreters are furnished in court. Monthly TV program. There are regional variants, but no problem in comprehension. Since 1979 there have been efforts to standardize. Slovenian Sign Language used in Slovenia is a dialect.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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