Ethnologue: Areas: Europe


53,770,000 (1995). Formerly part of USSR. Capital: Kiev. 233,100 square miles. Literacy rate 99%. Also includes Abkhaz 476, Tosk Albanian 5,000, Armenian 54,000, Bashkir 3,672, Belorussian 440,000, Bulgarian 234,000, Crimean Turkish 200,000, Czech 21,000 (1970), Dargwa 634, Erzya 19,000, Gagauz, Georgian 24,000, German 38,000, Greek 104,000, Jakati, Karaim, Kazakh 7,555, Lak 574, Lezgi 1,708, Osetin 4,554, Polish 1,151,000, Russian 11,335,000, Serbo-Croatian 5,000, Slovak 12,000, Tajiki 2,215, Tatar 90,542, Turkish, Northern Uzbek 10,563, possibly Yiddish. Data accuracy estimate: B. Information mainly from National Geographic March 1993:38-53, Iosif L.R. Bena 1995 email <>. Christian, Muslim, Jewish (634,000). The number of languages listed for Ukraine is 9. Of those, 8 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

GOTHIC [GOF] Bulgaria and central Europe. Indo-European, Germanic, East. Dialects: CRIMEAN GOTHIC, OSTROGOTH, VISIGOTH. Some settlements survived in Crimea until the 18th century (Bloomfield 1933). Bible 520. Bible portions c. 350-1665. Extinct.

HUNGARIAN (MAGYAR) [HNG] 187,000 in Ukraine (1993 Johnstone), 95% speak it as mother tongue; 14,500,000 in all countries. Transcarpathian Ukraine. Also Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Austria, surrounding countries, Israel, USA. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Ugric, Hungarian. Closest to Vogul (Mansi) of Russia. A community of Gypsies in Transcarpathia speak Hungarian as mother tongue. Christian. Bible 1590-1991. NT 1541-1952. Bible portions 1533-1988.

ROMANIAN (RUMANIAN, MOLDAVIAN, DACO-RUMANIAN) [RUM] 250,000 to 750,000 in Ukraine (1995 I. Bena); 20,520,000 in Romania (1986); 26,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). 1,000,000 in the ethnic group in Ukraine (1995). Historically Romanian regions of Bucovina and southern Basarabia (Chernowitz or Cernauti and Odessa regions), which were incorporated into the USSR from Romania by the Ribentrop-Molotov treaty in 1939. Also in many other countries. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern, North. Bible 1688-1989. NT 1648-1993. Bible portions 1561-1993.

ROMANI, CARPATHIAN [RMC] 235,000 or more in all countries; 3,000 in Hungary (1980 UBS); 220,000 in Czech Republic and Slovakia; 18,000 to 25,000 in USA (1990 I. Hancock). Ukraine, Transcarpathia. One dialect is in east Hungary, south Poland, and Galicia; another in Transylvania, Romania; others in Czech Republic and Slovakia, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern, Vlax. A Gypsy language. Ethnic group: Ungrike Romá (Ukraine). Christian. Bible portions 1936. Work in progress.

ROMANI, VLACH [RMY] 10,000 Kalderash in Ukraine, Moldova, and Russia; 1,500,000 in all countries (1986 estimate). Eastern and western Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia, Moldova, Russian SFSR. Also in Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Italy, England, Germany, France, Sweden, Norway, Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Poland, Albania, Greece, USA, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. Dialects: UKRAINIAN VLACH ROMANI, CENTRAL VLACH ROMANI, KALDERASH. A Gypsy language. Vlach from the former USSR are called 'Rusurja'. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). Christian. NT 1984-1995. Bible portions 1930-1986.

RUSYN (RUTHENIAN, CARPATHIAN, CARPATHO-RUSYN) [RUE] (100,000 in Slovakia; 1993). Transcarpathian Oblast of Ukraine. Also possibly in Romania. Indo-European, Slavic, East. Rusyn is called a dialect of Ukrainian, but speakers are reported to consider themselves distinct from Ukrainians. Standard Ukrainian used for literature, radio, TV, signs. Ethnic Rusyns in Yugoslavia (25,000 in 1970) speak Eastern Slovak, Sarish dialect, not Rusyn. Christian. Survey needed.

UKRAINIAN [UKR] 31,058,000 in Ukraine (1993), 83% of 37,419,000 in the ethnic group (1993 Johnstone); 8,000 in Armenia (1993); 32,000 in Azerbaijan; 291,000 in Belarus; 309,855 in Canada (1971 census); 24,135 in Estonia; 52,000 in Georgia; 300,000 in Hungary; 898,000 in Kazakhstan; 109,000 in Kyrghyzstan; 78,000 in Latvia (1994); 45,000 in Lithuania; 600,000 in Moldova; 26,000 in Paraguay; 1,500,000 in Poland; 67,000 in Romania; 4,363,000 in Russia; 100,000 in Slovakia; 41,000 in Tajikistan; 37,118 in Turkmenistan; 153,000 in Uzbekistan; 249,351 in USA (1970 census); 22,896 in Yugoslavia; 41,000,000 in all countries. 75% of the Republic of Ukraine is ethnic Ukrainian. Western Ukraine, adjacent republics, and Siberia. Also in Argentina, Brazil. Indo-European, Slavic, East. Dialects: NORTHWEST UKRAINIAN, SOUTHWEST UKRAINIAN, EAST UKRAINIAN. Dialect differences are slight. Cyrillic script. National language. Christian. Braille code available. Bible 1903-1962. NT 1880-1942. Bible portions 1869-1942.

UKRAINIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [UKL] Deaf sign language. Survey needed.

URUM [UUM] Several thousand in all countries (1935 B. Podolsky). A few villages in the Conetsk Oblast of southeastern Ukraine, Donec'k region. Mainly in Georgia. 10 villages total. Altaic, Turkic. Related to Crimean Tatar. A number of inherently intelligible dialects. Spoken by ethnic 'Greeks'. Survey needed.

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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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