Ethnologue: Areas: Europe

Sweden

8,326,000 (1995). Kingdom of Sweden, Konungariket Sverige. Literacy rate 99%. Also includes Albanian 4,000, Amharic, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Danish 35,000, Estonian 60,000, Western Farsi 35,000, Finnish 443,000 (1995), Greek 50,000, Kurmanji 10,000, Latvian 6,000, Norwegian 28,000, Serbo-Croatian 120,000 or more, Somali, Spanish, Turkish 20,000, Turoyo 20,000, Chinese, from Latin America 35,000, from Iraq 6,000, others from Eritrea, North Africa. Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, secular. Blind population 15,716. Deaf population 8,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 72. The number of languages listed for Sweden is 11. Of those, 10 are living languages and 1 is a second language with no mother tongue speakers.

ROMANI, KALO FINNISH (FÍNTIKA RÓMMA) [RMF] 1,000 to 2,000 in Sweden; 5,000 to 8,000 in all countries. Also in Finland. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern, Nordic. A Gypsy language. Christian. Bible portions 1971. Work in progress.

ROMANI, VLACH (ZIGENARE) [RMY] 500 Kalderash, 1,000 Lovari in Sweden; 1,500,000 in all countries Vlach (1986 estimate). Also in Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Italy, France, England, Norway, Netherlands, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Poland, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Sweden, Ukraine, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. Dialects: KALDERASH, LOVARI. A Gypsy language. Christian. NT 1984-1986. Bible portions 1930-1986.

SAAMI, LULE (LULE, "SWEDISH LAPP", "LAPP") [LPL] 2,000 in Sweden (1994 SIL). 8,500 speakers out of an ethnic population of 17,000; all Saami in Sweden (1987 Swedish Saami Association). Lapland along the Lule River in Gällivare and Jokkmokk. Also in Tysfjord, Hamaroy, and Folden, Norway. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. The name "Lapp" is derogatory. Lule Saami is quite distinct. 75% to 100% literate. NT 1903. Work in progress.

SAAMI, NORTHERN (NORTHERN LAPPISH, NORWEGIAN LAPP, "LAPP", SAAMI, SAMIC, SAME) [LPR] 5,000 in Sweden (1994 SIL); 1,600 in Finland (1987); 10,000 in Norway; 16,600 in all countries. Karesuando and Jukkasjärvi. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Northern. Dialects: RUIJA, TORNE, SEA LAPPISH. 75% to 100% literate. Bible 1895. NT 1840-1874. Bible portions 1838-1893. Work in progress.

SAAMI, PITE ("LAPP", PITE) [LPB] 1,000 in Sweden (1994 SIL). Lapland along Pite River in Arjeplog and Arvidsjaur. Also in Norway between Saltenfjord and Ranenfjord. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. Pite Saami is very distinct. 75% to 100% literate. Bible 1811. NT 1755. Bible portions 1648-1881.

SAAMI, SOUTHERN ("LAPP", SOUTHERN LAPP) [LPC] 2,500 in Sweden; 2,500 in Norway; 5,000 in all countries (1991 UBS). Vilhelmina in Lapland, in Jämtland, Härjedalen, and Idre in Dalarna. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. 75% to 100% literate. Work in progress.

SAAMI, UME ("LAPP", UME) [LPU] 500 in Sweden (1994 SIL). Lycksele, Mala, Tärna, and Sorsele, along the Ume River. Also in Norway. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. 75% to 100% literate. Survey needed.

SCANDINAVIAN PIDGIN SIGN LANGUAGE [SPF] Also in Denmark, Finland, and Norway. Deaf sign language. Used for intercommunication among users of Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, and Swedish sign languages. Second language only. No mother tongue speakers.

SWEDISH [SWD] 7,825,000 in Sweden, 93% of the population (1986); 296,000 in Finland; 626,102 in USA (1970 census); 21,680 in Canada (1971 census); 21,000 in Norway; 9,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). The Göta dialect group is southern, including parts of Smaland, south Swedish provinces, Värmland, Västergötland; the Svea dialect group is northern, including Hälsingland, parts of Ostergotland and Uppland, and the Swedish-speaking parts of Finland. Nearly extinct in Estonia. Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian. Dialects: SOUTHERN SWEDISH (SKA@NE, SKA@NSKA), CENTRAL SWEDISH (GÖTA, SVEA), NORTHERN SWEDISH (NORRLAND), EASTERN SWEDISH (FINLAND SWEDISH), DALSKA (DALECARLIAN). 'Proper' Swedish is considered to be spoken in Svealand. Dialect investigation is needed of diverse varieties Dalecarlian, Gutniska, Överkalixma@l, Nörpes, Pitema@l, Ska@ne. National language. Braille Bible. Bible 1541-1977. NT 1526-1981. Bible portions 1536-1991.

SWEDISH SIGN LANGUAGE [SWL] 8,000 deaf primary users, and the first language of many hearing children of deaf parents (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Deaf sign language. Sign language used since 1800. The first deaf school was established in 1809. No origins from other sign languages, but it has influenced Portuguese and Finnish sign languages. Intelligible with Norwegian and Danish sign languages with only moderate difficulty. Not intelligible with Finnish Sign Language. Today the deaf are regarded as a bilingual minority. There are 5 deaf schools, and they use Swedish Sign Language for instruction in all subjects. Also taught at the University of Stockholm. Many sign language classes for hearing people. Government interpreters assist the deaf in contacts with official and private institutions. Some use on TV. There is an organization for sign language teachers. Signed Swedish is distinct. Much research. Dictionary. Grammar. Films, video.

TAVRINGAR ROMANI (GYPSY/TRAVELLER SWEDISH, SVENSK ROMANI, "TATTARE", "TATERE") [RMU] Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian. A Romani (Gypsy) dialect spoken in Sweden and Norway since the 15th century. Intelligible with Angloromani. Is not intelligible with Traveller Norwegian or Traveller Danish. Speakers are descended from the first diaspora of Romani/Gypsies from India. Romani people arrived in Sweden via Denmark in 1512, lather some groups were abandoned on the coast of Norway from British ships from 1544 onwards. Speakers are Tavringar (also called Vandriar, Dinglare, Romanisæl or Resande - Tattare), a group of Gypsies in Scandinavia. There are some 25 thousand speakers in Sweden, and 12 thousand in Norway. Christian.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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