Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Sudan

29,116,000 (1995). Republic of the Sudan. Jamhuryat as-Sudan. Literacy rate 20% to 27%; 18.4% (1977 C. M. Brann). Information mainly from SIL 1996; M.L. Bender 1983; Doornbos and Bender 1983; R.C. Stevenson 1984. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Sunni Muslim, traditional religion, Christian, secular. Blind population 110,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of languages listed for Sudan is 142. Of those, 132 are living languages and 10 are extinct.

ACHERON (GARME) [ACZ] Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, southern Nuba Hills. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho. Dialects: EASTERN ACHERON, WESTERN ACHERON. Not a dialect of Moro.

ACHOLI (ACOLI, ATSCHOLI, SHULI, GANG, LWO, AKOLI, ACOOLI, LOG ACOLI, DOK ACOLI) [ACO] 27,000 in Sudan (1978 SIL); 746,796 in Uganda (1991 census); 773,800 in all countries. Southern Sudan, Opari District, Acholi Hills. Primarily in Uganda. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi. Bible 1986. NT 1933. Bible portions 1905-1962.

AFITTI (DITTI, UNIETTI, AFFITTI, DINIK) [AFT] 4,512 (1984 R. C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills, eastern Jebel ed Dair. Main center is Sidra. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang. 59% lexical similarity with Nyimang; not inherently intelligible. Muslim. Survey needed.

AJA (AJJA, ADJA) [AJA] 200 in Sudan (1993 R. Brown SIL). Southern Sudan, Western Bahr el Ghazal Province. Also reported to be in western CAR along the Sudan border near the Shinko and Sapo rivers. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh. They consider themselves to be a Kresh tribe, but their language is not intelligible to the Kresh. Santandre reports it to be half-way between Banda and Kresh; nearer to Banda in vocabulary and Kresh in structure. Speakers are mostly bilingual in Kresh. Wooded savannah. Rolling plains with granite domes. Swidden agriculturalists. Survey needed.

AKA (SILLOK, JEBELS SILLOK, JEBEL SILAK, FA-C-AKA) [SOH] A few hundred (1989 Bender). Northern Sudan, Sillok (Silak) Hills, west of the main Berta-speaking people. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo. Heavily Arabicized and influenced by Berta. A remnant group (1983 Bender). They call themselves 'Fa-c-aka', 'people of Aka'. Survey needed.

AMA (NYIMANG, INYIMANG, NYIMA, NYIMAN) [NYI] 70,000 (1982 SIL). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, northwest of Dilling on range of hills of which Jebel Nyimang is a part, and on the Mandal range. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang. 59% lexical similarity with Afitti. Education is in Arabic. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1950.

ANUAK (ANYWAK, ANYWA, YAMBO, JAMBO, NURO, ANYUAK, DHO ANYWAA) [ANU] 52,000 in Sudan (1991 UBS); 26,000 in Ethiopia (1991 UBS); 78,000 in all countries. Upper Nile Province, Pibor and Lower Akobo Rivers. From Akobo Post to latitude 6.45N. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak. Riverine. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1962-1965. Bible portions 1956-1993.

ARABIC, STANDARD [ABV] Middle East, North Africa. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Preserves ancient grammar. Used for nearly all written materials and formal speeches. Not a mother tongue, but taught in schools. Not intelligible with Sudanese Spoken Arabic or Sudanese Creole Arabic. Very little known and even less used in the south. Serious educational and sociolinguistic problems in the north also. National language. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1984-1991. NT 1980-1982. Bible portions 1984.

ARABIC, SUDANESE CREOLE (JUBA ARABIC, SOUTHERN SUDAN ARABIC, PIDGIN ARABIC) [PGA] 20,000 first language and 44,000 second language speakers in Juba alone (1987 estimate). Southern Sudan, in the towns and many villages all over Equatoria Region, and up into Bahr al Ghazal and Upper Nile regions. There may be some in Kenya, Uganda, and Zaïre. Creole, Arabic based. Also used as the major language of communication among speakers of different languages in Equatoria, south of Wau and Malakal. Used in many church services as first or second language in Juba and a few other towns. Many school teachers use it at least part of the time. Difficult intelligibility with Nubi, Sudanese Arabic, or Modern Standard Arabic. Most people in towns speak at least two languages, and it is common for them to speak Creole Arabic, English, and 1, 2, or 3 vernaculars. Creole Arabic is gaining at the expense of English and the vernaculars, although most people keep their vernaculars as first, or at least second language. Trade language. Typology: SVO, tonal. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1983-1985. Survey needed.

ARABIC, SUDANESE SPOKEN (KHARTOUM ARABIC) [APD] 15,000,000 or more in Sudan, 51% of population (1991); 1,000,000 to 4,000,000 in Egypt (1991); fewer than 100,000 in Eritrea (1991); 16,000,000 to 19,000,000 in all countries. Northern Sudan primarily. Some in Saudi Arabia and possibly the Gulf nations. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Dialects: KHARTOUM, WESTERN SUDANESE, OMDURMAN, NORTH KORDOFAN ARABIC, JA'ALI, SHUKRI. Western Sudan Spoken Arabic, Juba Arabic, and Khartoum Arabic have little compatibility (Alan S. Kaye 1988). Trade language. Muslim, some Christian. NT 1978. Bible portions 1927-1964.

ATUOT (ATWOT, THOK CIENG) [ATU] 25,000 (1971 Welmers). Southern Sudan, Lakes District, near Yirol. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer. Dialects: APAK (AFAK), ARIL, ATUOT. 77% lexical similarity with Nuer, 49% with Dinka. They live among the Dinka, 100 km. from the Nuer. They are culturally Dinka. Subtribes: Apak, Luac, Jilek, Rorkec, Akot, Kuek. 'Thok Cieng' is their name for their language; 'Reel' for the people. Pastoralists. Survey needed.

AVOKAYA (ABUKEIA, AVUKAYA) [AVU] 15,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL), including 2,800 Ajigu and 12,000 Ojila; 25,000 in Zaïre (1989 SIL); 40,000 in all countries. Southern Sudan, Western Equatoria Province. The Ajiga dialect is north of Yei and south of Maridi, the Ojila dialect is mainly between the Naam (Era) and Olo rivers and farther east. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Dialects: OJILA (ODZILA, ODZILIWA), AJIGU (ADJIGA, OJIGA, AGAMORU). Closely related to Logo. There is intermarriage and bilingualism with the Baka and Mundu, especially near Maridi. Some speakers are bilingual in Zande. Bible portions 1986-1990. Work in progress.

BAI (BARI) [BDJ] 2,500 (1971 Welmers). Southern Sudan, Western District, on Wau-Deim Zubeir road, west of Sere. A few north of Tembura. 2 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Ndogo.

BAKA (TARA BAAKA, MBAKA) [BDH] 25,000 in Sudan (1993 UBS); 1,300 in Zaïre. Southern Sudan, Western Equatoria Province, south and west of Maridi, northwest of Yei. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka. Different from, and unrelated to, Baka of Cameroon. Zande is taught in school and used in EP church. Some speakers intermarry with the Avokaya and Mundu, and are bilingual in those languages. 5% to 25% literate. Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

BANDA-BANDA [BPD] (102,000 in Central African Republic; 1996). Southern Sudan, town of Sopo near CAR border. Refugees in Khartoum. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda. Dialects: GOVORO (GOVHOROH), VIDIRI (MVEDERE, VODERE, VIDRI, VADARA), WUNDU. Survey needed.

BANDA-MBRÈS (BANDA OF MBRÈS, BANDA-MBRE) [BQK] In Central African Republic: 42,500 (1996). Southern Sudan, town of Sopo, near the CAR border, and refugees in Khartoum. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres. Dialects: BUKA (BOUKA), MBRE (MBERE, MBELE), MORUBA (MOROUBA, MARABA), SABANGA (SANGBANGA), WADA (OUADDA). Survey needed.

BANDA-NDÉLÉ (BANDA OF NDÉLÉ, NYELE) [BFL] (35,500 in Central African Republic; 1996). Southern Sudan, town of Sopo near the CAR border, and refugees in Khartoum. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele. Dialects: JUNGURU (DJINGBURU, NGURU), TANGBAGO (TAMBOLO, TAMBAGGO, TOMBAGGO, TANGAGO), BANDA-KPAYA. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion. Survey needed.

BANDA, MID-SOUTHERN [BJO] (100,000 in Central African Republic; 1996). Southern Sudan, town of Sopo, near CAR border, and refugees in Khartoum. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern. Dialects: DUKPU, WASA. Survey needed.

BANDA, TOGBO-VARA [TOR] 24,000 or more in all countries; 12,000 in Zaïre (1984 census); 12,000 in CAR (1996). Southern Sudan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara. Dialect: TOGBO (TOHGBOH, TAGBO). Different from Tagbu (Tagbo, Tagba) of Zaïre in Sere group. They view themselves as very different from Mono. Not intelligible with other Banda languages or dialects in Sudan. Survey needed.

BANDA, WEST CENTRAL (GOLO) [BBP] 3,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 4,500 in CAR (1996); 7,500 in all countries. Between Wau and Mboro. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Ndogo in Sudan. Survey needed.

BARI (BERI) [BFA] 226,000 in Sudan (1978 SIL), including 26,400 in Kuku, 18,000 in Nyangbara, 3,400 in Nyepu, 25,000 in Pojulu; 60,000 in Uganda; a small minority in Zaïre; 286,000 in all countries or more. Southern Sudan, both banks of the Nile, south of Terakeka on the west bank, south of Mongalla on the east bank, as far as the Kajo Kaji Escarpment, from 5.30N on left bank, 5.15N on right bank to just south of latitude 4.15N. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Dialects: KUKU, NYANGBARA (NYANGWARA, NYAMBARA), NYEPU (NYEFU, NYEPO, NYPHO, NGYEPU), PÖJULU (PAJULU, FADJULU, FAJELU, MADI), LIGO (LIGGO). 86% lexical similarity with Ngyepu, 85% with Pöjulu, 81% with Kuku, 80% with Nyanggwara, 71% with Mondari, 73% with Kakwa. Ethnic groups: Dupi (serfs), Kulu'ba, Liggi, Lui (free men), Tomonok (fishing, smithing). The Marshia (Marsanit) are professional smiths within the Bari group, who live in and around Rimo (Remo), and keep to themselves. Bushy, savannah, swamps, forests. Plains, shallow ravines, mountains. Blacksmiths: iron ore; pastoralists: cattle, goats, sheep; agriculturalists: millet, eleusine, simsim, peanuts, cassava, sweet potatoes. Altitude: 1,700 to 3,000 feet. Traditional religion. Bible 1979. NT 1954. Bible portions 1927-1964.

BAYGO (BAIGO, BEGO, BEKO, BEIGO, BEYGO) [BYG] (850 in ethnic group; 1978 GR). Northern Sudan, Southern Dar Fur, in the hills east of Kube (Kubbi). Jebel Beygo. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju. Close to Daju of Dar Fur. They do not use the name 'Daju'. Muslim. Extinct.

BEDAWI (BEJA, BEDAWIYE, BEDAUYE, TO-BEDAWIE, BEDJA, BENI-AMER) [BEI] 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); including 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1982 SIL); 120,000 in Eritrea (1993); 77,000 in Egypt (1993); 1,148,000 in all countries. Northeastern Sudan along the Red Sea coast. Also in adjacent southeastern Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North. Dialects: HADENDOA (HADENDOWA, HADENDIWA), HADAREB (HADAAREB), BISHARIN (BISARIAB). Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar. 'Bedawi' is their own name. 'Beni-Amer' is the name of some of the people. Halenga and Arteiga are ethnic groups. Arabic or Tigre are used as second languages. Grammars, dictionary. Desert, coastal. Pastoralists. Sunni Muslim.

BELANDA BOR (DE BOR) [BXB] 8,000 (1983 SIL). Southern Sudan, on the main road south of Wau. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Bor. Most people are bilingual in Belanda Viri. There is much intermarriage between the two groups. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Work in progress.

BELANDA VIRI (VIRI, BVIRI, BIRI, GUMBA, GAMBA, MBEGUMBA, MVEGUMBA, BELANDA) [BVI] 16,000 (1971 Welmers). Southern Sudan, scattered, around Raffili, on the Wau road, on the Kuru River, 40 miles from Deim Zubeir, around Tembura among the Zande, on the Iba River near Yambio. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri. They call themselves 'Viri'. Some bilingualism in Belanda Bor. Work in progress.

BELI (BEHLI, BEILI, JUR BELI, 'BELI) [BLM] 6,600 including 5,000 Beli, 1,600 Sopi (1982 SIL). Southern Sudan. One group is southwest of Rumbek, at Wulu, westward along the road to Bahr Gel and south toward the southern border of Lakes Province. In some areas they are heavily intermingled with Dinka. Another group lives east of Mvolo and has no links with the first group. They are centered around Bahri Girinti (Lake Nyiropo) just west of Yei River. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli. Dialects: WULU, BAHRI GIRINTI, SOPI (SUPI). 46% lexical similarity with Jur Modo, 45% with Bongo, 41% with Mo'da and Morokodo, 39% with Baka.

BERTA (BARTA, BURTA, "BENI SHANGUL", WETAWIT) [WTI] 50,000 in all countries (1971 Bender); 28,000 in Ethiopia (1972 J. Bendor-Samuel). Northern Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Berta. Dialects: SHURU, BAKE, UNDU, MAYU, FADASHI. "Beni Shangul" is the Arabic name, and is reported to be derogatory. Probably two or more languages. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim.

BERTI [BYT] Northern Sudan. Tagabo Hills, Dar Fur, and in Kordofan. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern. Muslim. Extinct.

BIRKED (BIRGUID, BIRGID, BIRKIT, BIRQED, MURGI, KAJJARA) [BRK] Northern Sudan, north Dar Fur, north and east of Daju and Baygo, east of Jebel Marra between Jebel Harayt and the Rizaykat (Arab) country. Also north of Nyala. A few in north Kordofan south of El Obeid. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Birked. 60% lexical similarity with Kadaru; 51% with Meidob (closest). Muslim. Extinct.

BONGO (BUNGU, DOR) [BOT] 5,000 to 10,000 (1987 SIL). A large sparsely populated area reaching from Tonj and Wau on the north, the Beli on the east, the Zande on the south, and the Bor on the west. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Bongo. Dialects: BUSERE BONGO, TONJ BONGO, BUNGO. Close to Jur Beli cluster, but bilingualism in Jur Beli is low. Generally, adults understand Zande, and adult males understand Dinka Rek. Younger people do not understand Zande or Dinka because education is mostly in Arabic with some English. Slight dialect differences between those on the River Busere, who have had Zande influence, and those around Tonj. Bungo dialect has minor differences. Many students drop out of school because they cannot understand the language being used. Different from Bongo which is a dialect or closely related language to Banda of CAR and Zaïre. Typology: SVO. Hunters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

BURUN (BARUN, LANGE, CAI, BORUN) [BDI] 18,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northern Sudan, Blue Nile Province. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Burun. Dialects: RAGREIG, ABULDUGU (BOGON, MUGO-MBORKOINA), MAIAK, MUFWA (MOPO), MUGHAJA (MUGAJA, MUMUGHADJA). Some southern dialects are intelligible with Mabaan.

DAGIK (MASAKIN, MASAKIN DAGIG, DAGIG, REIKHA, DENGEBU) [DEC] (38,000 with Ngile; 1982 SIL). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mts., on some outlying hills in Mesakin Hills, Reika village. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu. 80% lexical similarity with Ngile (closest). Survey needed.

DAIR (DAIER, THAMINYI) [DRB] 1,000 (1978 GR). Northern Sudan, west and south parts of Jebel Dair, Kordofan. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

DAJU, DAR FUR (NYALA-LAGOWA, FININGA, DAGU, DAJU FERNE, BEKE) [DAJ] 70,000 to 90,000 all Daju in Dar Fur (1983 Bender). Northern Sudan, Dar Fur Province, in the Daju Hills 25 miles northeast of Nyala. Also in Geneina District in Dar Masalit. The West Kordofan dialect is in the Daju Hills near Lagowa, with main settlements at Dar el Kabira, Nyukri, and Tamanyik and other hills. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju. Dialects: NYALA, LAGOWA. 83% lexical similarity between Nyala and Lagowa, 74% with Sila, 62% with Shatt, 56% with Liguri. Muslim. Survey needed.

DAJU, DAR SILA (SILA, SULA, MONGO-SILA, BOKOR, BOKORUGE, BOKORIKE) [DAU] 33,000 in all countries (1971 Welmers). Northern Sudan. Nearly all those Daju of Dar Sila who are in Sudan have migrated into Dar Fur and settled there in recent times. Primarily in Chad. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju. Dialects: MONGO, SILA. 74% lexical similarity with Daju of Dar Fur (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Shatt, 57% with Liguri. Little education. Traditional religion, some Muslim.

DIDINGA ('DI'DINGA, XAROXA, TOI, LANGO) [DID] 58,000 (1978 SIL). Southern Sudan, Didinga Hills and north of Nagishot. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim. 83% lexical similarity with Longarim, 71% with Murle. Ethnic groups: Chukudum, Lowudo. Slight differences in speech between Chukudum and Lowudo, apparently mainly phonetic. Distinct from Lango which is related to Lotuko. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1994. Work in progress.

DILLING (DELEN, WARKI, WARKIMBE) [DIL] 5,295 (1984 R. C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Southern Kordofan, town of Dilling and surrounding hills, including Kudr. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified. Dialects: DILLING, DEBRI. 94% lexical similarity with Debri, 93% with Kadaru. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

DINKA, NORTHEASTERN (PADANG, WHITE NILE DINKA, JAANG) [DIP] 320,000 (1986 UBS) including 7,200 Abialang, 9,000 Dongjol, 2,500 Luac, 16,000 Ngok-Sobat, 20,000 Jok, 13,500 Ageer, 2,000 Rut, 400 Thoi. Southern Sudan, northeast of the Sudd, along both sides of the White Nile, and along the Sobat River. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka. Dialects: ABILIANG (DINKA IBRAHIM, AKOON, BAWOM, BOWOM), DONGJOL, LUAC (LUAIC), NGOK-SOBAT (NGORK, JOK), AGEER (AGER, AGEIR, ABUYA, BEER, NIEL, NYEL, PALOC, PALOIC), RUT, THOI. Dongjol has been chosen as the literary standard for Northeastern Dinka. 92% lexical similarity with Northwestern Dinka, 88% with Southwestern Dinka, 88% with Southeastern Dinka. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1952. Bible portions 1926-1943.

DINKA, NORTHWESTERN [DIW] 80,000 Ruweng (1986). Southern Sudan, north of the Bahr el Ghazal River, and southern Kordofan around Abyei. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka. Dialects: ALOR, NGOK-KORDOFAN, PAN ARU, RUWENG. 88% lexical similarity with Southwestern Dinka and Southeastern Dinka, 84% with South Central Dinka, A separate language from other Dinka (J. Duerksen SIL). Survey needed.

DINKA, SOUTH CENTRAL (AGAR, CENTRAL DINKA) [DIB] 250,000 including 2,000 Aker, 2,000 Thany, 22,000 Ciec, 25,000 Gok (Tucker and Bryan). (Total Dinka 2,000,000 or more; 1983 Job Malou). Southern Sudan, west of the Nile, south of the Sudd. Aker is southeast of the Agar; Aliap is south of the Bor in a few fishing villages mainly on the right bank of the Nile. Ciec is in Lakes District on the left bank of the Nile. Gok is between the Agar and the Rek in Jur River and Lakes districts. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka. Dialects: ALIAP (ALIAB, THANY, AKER), CIEC (CIEM, CIC, CHIECH, KWAC, AJAK, ADOR), GOK (GAUK, COK), AGAR. 90% with Southeastern Dinka. Gok is also influenced by Southwestern Dinka and has a number of Arabic loans. Agar is becoming accepted as the educational standard for South Central Dinka. Pastoralists, agriculturalists (grain, corn, peanuts, beans). Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1866-1916. Work in progress.

DINKA, SOUTHEASTERN (BOR, EASTERN DINKA) [DIN] 250,000 including 21,000 Atoc, 9,000 Ghol, 4,000 Nyarueng, 35,000 Twi, 21,000 Bor Gok (Tucker and Bryan); 500,000 including South Central (Agar) and Southeastern (Bor) (1982 UBS). Southern Sudan, east of the Nile, around Bor and northwards. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka. Dialects: BOR (BOR GOK), ATHOC (ATHOIC, ATOC, BORATHOI, BOR ATHOIC), GHOL, NYARWENG (NYARUENG, NARREWENG), TUIC (TWI). Speakers of some dialects also speak Nuer Gewaar and Nuer Lou. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1940. Bible portions 1915-1936.

DINKA, SOUTHWESTERN (REK, WESTERN DINKA) [DIK] 450,000 (1982 UBS) including 55,000 Abiem, 15,000 Luac, 40,000 Malual, 17,000 Paliet, 35,000 Palioupiny, 50,000 Tuic. Southern Sudan, north and northwest of Wau. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka. Dialects: REK (RAIK), ABIEM (AJONG DIT, AJONG THI, AKANY KOK, AKERN JOK, APUOTH, APWOTH, ANEI), AGUOK (AGWOK), APUK, AWAN, LAU, LUAC, MALUAL (MALWAL, ATOKTOU, DULIIT, KOROK, MAKEM, PETH), PALIET (BALIET, AJAK, BUONCWAI, BON SHWAI, BWONCWAI, KONGDER, KONDAIR, THANY BUR, TAINBOUR), PALIOUPINY (PALIOPING, AKJUET, AKWANG, AYAT, CIMEL, GOMJUER), TUIC (TWIC, TWICH, TWIJ, ADHIANG, AMIOL, NYANG, THON). 89% lexical similarity with South Central Dinka, 90% with Southeastern Dinka. Luac dialect is different from Luac dialect in Northeastern Dinka. Pastoralists: cattle. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Work in progress.

DONGOTONO [DDD] Southern Sudan, eastern Equatoria Province, Dongotono Hills southeast of Torit. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. 60% lexical similarity with Otuho. Survey needed.

EL HUGEIRAT [ELH] 1,000 (1978 GR). Northern Sudan, West Kordofan on El Hugeirat Hills. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

FEROGE (FERROGE, FEROGHE, KALIGI, KALIKI, KALIGE, KALIKE) [FER] 8,000 (1982 SIL). Southern Sudan, Western Bahr el Ghazal at Khor Shamam, 8 miles northeast of Raga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya. Indri, Mangaya, and Togoyo are closely related languages. Many are bilingual in Sudanese Arabic. Their own name is 'Kaligi'. 'Feroge' is the Arabic name for the people. Muslim. Survey needed.

FONGORO (GELE, KOLE) [FGR] (1,000 in ethnic group; 1983 Bender). On both sides of the Chad-Sudanese border in Dar Fongoro. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi. The people have shifted to Fur linguistically and culturally. There may be a few elderly speakers left and some living in isolated places. The tse-tse fly is a problem in the area. Mountains. Hunter-gatherers: honey, hides and skins; fishermen: dried fish. Extinct.

FULFULDE, ADAMAWA (FELLATA) [FUB] 90,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 668,700 in Cameroon (1986); 760,000 or more in all countries. Northern Sudan, region of Maiurno and Kordofan. Also in Nigeria and Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, Eastern. Dialect: GOMBE. Previous migrations from Sokoto, Nigeria; Maasina, Mali; Liptaako and Jelgooji, Burkina Faso; Adamawa and Gombe, Nigeria; and the Wodaabe lineage have settled in Sudan. Some also from Cameroon. Predominant Fulfulde in Sudan is Adamawa. Influenced by Arabic. Many speak Arabic; some also speak Hausa and Songai as second languages. Few monolinguals; most are children. Muwalid group is monolingual in Sudanese Colloquial Arabic; Mahdist group is bilingual in Fulfulde and Sudanese Arabic. Muslim. Bible 1983. NT 1963-1964. Bible portions 1919-1966.

FUR (FOR, FORA, FORDUNGA, FURAWI, FURAKANG, FORTA, FOROK, KONJARA, KUNGARA, YERGE, ONAGE, KORRA, KADIRGI, KURKA, DALA, LALI) [FUR] 500,000 in Sudan (1983 Bender); 1,800 in Chad; 502,000 in all countries. Northern Sudan, Dar Fur, and Gedaref region on the Ethiopian border. Nilo-Saharan, Fur. Largely uniform with some dialect differences. Those in urban situations are shifting to Arabic. Typology: SOV. Mountains, foothills, lowland. Agriculturalists: millet, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, spices, fruit; cattle. Muslim.

GAAM (INGASSANA, INGESSANA, TABI, METABI, MUNTABI, MAMEDJA, MAMIDZA, KAMANIDI) [TBI] 30,000 (1975 W.J. Crewe). Northern Sudan. The main center is in and around Jebel Tabi, on Tabi Massif and outlying hills. A small community in Khartoum. Not in Ethiopia. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Gaam. Ethnic groups: Agadi, Bagis, Beek, Bulmut, Kilgu, Kukuli, Mugum, Sidak. Not closely related to other languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

GHULFAN (GULFAN, WUNCI, WUNCIMBE) [GHL] 16,000 (1984 R. C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Kordofan, in two hill ranges 25 to 30 miles south of Dilling: Ghulfan Kurgul and Ghulfan Morung. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

GULA (KARA, KARA OF SUDAN, YAMEGI) [KCM] 200 to 2,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL); 12,860 in CAR (1996) 13,000 to 15,000 in all countries. Southern Sudan at Kafia Kingi in extreme western Bahr el Ghazal Province and at Kata. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Dialects: GULA (GOULA), NGURU (BUBU, KOYO). Different from Kara of CAR, Kare of Chad, or Gula of Chad. Many in Sudan are reported to be bilingual in Kresh or Arabic. Survey needed.

GULE (FUNJ, ANEJ, FUNGI, HAMEJ, FECAKOMODIYO) [GLE] Northern Sudan, Jebel Gule, San and Roro hills north of the Tabi, west of Er Roseires. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. The people now speak Arabic. Muslim. Extinct.

GUMUZ (GUMIS, GOMBO, SHANKILLINYA, SHANQILLA, MENDEYA, DEBATSA, DEGUBA, DEHENDA) [GUK] 40,000 in Sudan; 50,000 in Ethiopia (1985 P. Unseth); 90,000 in all countries. Northern Sudan, around Famaka, Roseires from Ethiopia border possibly as far as Fazoglo. Also Ethiopia (mainly), east of the Berta. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz. Dialects: DISOHA (DESUA), DAKUNZA (DEGOJA, DUKUNZA, GUNZA, GANZA, DUKUNA, DUGUNZA), SAI, SESE (SAYSAY), DEKOKA, DEWIYA, KUKWAYA, GOMBO, JEMHWA, MODEA. Dialects are inherently intelligible. Work in progress.

HAUSA [HUA] 418,000 in Sudan (1993 Johnstone); 22,000,000 in all countries, first language (1991); 38,000,000 first and second language speakers (1995 WA). Northern Sudan. Mainly in Nigeria. Also in Niger, Cameroon, Chad, Togo, Ghana, Benin. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. In Sudan many speakers are probably ethnic Fulani who no longer speak Fulfulde. Trade language. Muslim. Bible 1932-1980. NT 1880-1965. Bible portions 1857-1988.

HEIBAN (EBANG, DHEBANG) [HEB] 4,412 (1984). Northern Sudan, around Heiban, Abul (Obul) and nearby hills. In Heiban town on the Abri-Talodi road. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru. 90% lexical similarity with Laro (closest). NT 1966. Bible portions 1931-1955.

HOMA [HOM] Southern Sudan, around towns of Mopoi and Tambura. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30). Extinct linguistically in 1975.

INDRI (YANDERIKA, YANDIRIKA) [IDR] 700. Southern Sudan, southwest, in a small area around Raga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo. Closest to Feroge. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Arabic or Feroge. Survey needed.

JUMJUM (BERIN, OLGA, WADEGA) [JUM] 25,000 to 50,000 (1987 SIL). Northern Upper Nile Province, along Khor Jumjum on Jebels Tunga, Terta, and Wadega. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban. Survey needed.

JUR MODO [BEX] 15,400 (1982 SIL). Southern Sudan, vicinity of Mvolo and on the Naam (Olo) River. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli. Dialects: LORI, MODO (JUR MODO, MODO LALI), WIRA, WETU. The Wetu dialect is apparently extinct. Bible portions 1986-1993. Work in progress.

KACIPO-BALESI [KOE] 5,000 in Sudan (1983 SIL); 2,000 to 3,000 in Ethiopia (1982 SIL); 7,000 to 8,000 in both countries. Southern Sudan, on the Boma Plateau among the Murle, near the Ethiopian border. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi. Dialects: KICHEPO, SURI, WESTERN SURI. Related to Murle and Didinga. Almost completely monolingual. They have little contact with the outside world. They call themselves 'Kacipo'. Traditional religion.

KADARU (KADARO, KADERO, KADERU, KODORO, KODHIN, KODHINNIAI) [KDU] 7,000 including Western Kadaru (1978 GR). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, Nuba mountains, north and east part of the Kadaru Hills between Dilling and Delami. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan. Dialect: WESTERN KADARU. 93% lexical similarity with Dilling; 92% to 87% with Debri; 60% with Birked. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

KAKWA (BARI KAKWA, KAKUA, KWAKWAK, KAKWAK) [KEO] 40,000 in Sudan (1978 SIL); 86,472 in Uganda (1991 census); 20,000 in Zaïre; 146,500 in all countries. Southern Sudan, Yei District, extending into Zaïre in the west at Aba and in the south around Mahagi. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. The Zaïre and Sudan dialects differ only slightly. Some treat Kakwa as a dialect of Bari, but they are separate (SIL 1978). Agriculturalists: maize, eleusine, peanuts, simsim, sweet potatoes, cassava, honey; pastoralists: goats, few sheep, cattle. Traditional religion. Bible 1983. NT 1974. Bible portions 1930-1967.

KALIKO (KELIKO) [KBO] 7,000 in Sudan (1978 SIL); 7,500 in Zaïre (1989 SIL); 14,500 in all countries. Southern Sudan, southern part of Yei District. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Dialects: EASTERN KALIKO, WESTERN KALIKO. The two dialects in Sudan are inherently intelligible. Traditional religion, Christian.

KANGA (KUFO, KUFA) [KCP] 8,000 (1989). Northern Sudan, Miri Hills, west and southwest of Kadugli. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kadugli, Central. Dialects: ABU SINUN, CHIRORO-KURSI, KUFA-LIMA. 85% lexical similarity with Tumma (closest). Survey needed.

KANURI, YERWA (KANOURI, "BERIBERI", BORNU, BORNOUANS, KANOURY, KOLE, SIRATA) [KPH] 195,000 in Sudan (1993 Johnstone); 56,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 3,000,000 or more in Nigeria (1985); 100,000 or more in Chad (1985); 50,000 in Niger (1991); 3,500,000 in all countries (1987 UBS). Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Dialects: DAGARA, KAGA (KAGAMA), SUGURTI, LARE, KWAYAM, NJESKO, KABARI (KUVURI), NGAZAR, GUVJA, MAO, TEMAGERI, FADAWA, MAIDUGURI. Ajami script used. "Beriberi" is considered a derogatory name. Muslim. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1949.

KARKO (GARKO, KITHONIRISHE) [KKO] 12,986 (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Kordofan, in Karko Hills 20 miles west of Dilling, including Dulman. May also be spoken on Abu Jinik to the west (1,000) and El Tabaq southwest of Katla (800). Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

KATCHA-KADUGLI-MIRI [KAT] 74,935, including 48,864 Kadugli and Katcha, 26,071 Miri (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, in the southern hills of the Nuba Hills area. Katcha is in villages a short distance south of Kadugli and southeast of the Miri Hills. Kadugli is also in villages surrounding Kadugli. Miri is in Miri village south of Kadugli. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kadugli, Central. Dialects: KATCHA (TOLUBI, DHOLUBI, TUNA, KACA), KADUGLI (DAKALLA, TALLA, DHALLA, TOMA MA DALLA, KUDUGLI, MORTA), MIRI. 85% lexical similarity between Katcha, Kadugli, and Miri. R.C. Stevenson treats them as dialects of one language. Ruhlen (1987) and Schadeberg (1989) treat them as separate. Dimmendaal (OIEL 1992) treats Kadugli as Nilo-Saharan. Orthography in use developed by Stevenson in Katcha. Some Daju live among the Kadugli.

KATLA (AKALAK, KALAK) [KCR] 14,208 (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills, Katla Hills 35 miles southwest of Dilling. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Katla. Dialects: BOMBORI, KATEIK, KIDDU, KIRKPONG, KAROKA, KOLDRONG, JULUD (GULUD). Tima is a related, but separate language. The dialects listed are place names where variations are spoken.

KEIGA (YEGA, KEIGA-TIMERO, KEIGA-AL-KHEIL, DEMIK, AIGANG) [KEC] 6,072 (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills area, Jebel Demik, north of Miri. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kadugli, Western. Dialects: DEMIK (ROFIK), KEIGA (AIGANG). 60% lexical similarity with closest Kadugli languages. Survey needed.

KELO (TORNASI, KELO-BENI SHEKO, NDU-FAA-KEELO) [TSN] Northern Sudan, Tornasi Hills; Jebels Tornasi (Keeli village) and Beni Sheko. West of Berta speaking people. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo. Muslim. Extinct.

KENUZI-DONGOLA (DONGOLA-KENUZ, NILE NUBIAN, DONGOLAWI) [KNC] 180,000 in Sudan (1996); 100,000 in Egypt (1996); 280,000 in all countries. Northern Sudan, mainly at Dongola and surrounding regions, Northern Province. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Dongolawi. Dialects: DONGOLA, KENUZI (KENUZ, KUNUZI). 67% lexical similarity with Mahas-Fiadidja; not intelligible. 56% lexical similarity with Debri. Bible portions 1912. Survey needed.

KO (KAU, FUNGOR, FUNGUR) [FUJ] 2,683 (1984 R. C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, on small isolated hills in the extreme eastern part of the Nuba hills, between Talodi and the White Nile. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, Eastern. Dialects: KAU (KO), NYARO. Nyaro and Kau may be the same dialect. 67% lexical similarity with Warnang (closest). Traditional religion. Survey needed.

KOALIB (KAWALIB, KOWALIB, NGIRERE, NIRERE, RERE, LGALIGE, ABRI) [KIB] 44,258 (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, southern Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, around Delami, including Umm Berumbita and Turum (Nguqwurang), south and southwest of Abri around Koalib range (Ngunduna), at and around Nyukwur, also at Umm Hertan and Hadra (Nginyukwur), in villages scattered over the plain around Abri (Ngirere). Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Rere. Dialects: NGUQWURANG, NGUNDUNA, NGINYUKWUR, NGIRERE. 75% lexical similarity with closest Heiban languages. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1967-1994. Bible portions 1937-1989.

KOMO (KOMA OF DAGA, COMO, CENTRAL KOMA, GOKWOM, HAYAHAYA, MADIIN) [KOM] 10,000 in Sudan (1979 James); 1,500 in Ethiopia (1975 Bender); 11,500 in all countries. Northern Sudan, around Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers, in southern Funj region of Blue Nile Province. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. Dialects: BEILLA, CHALI. Different from Koma of Cameroon. 52% lexical similarity with Uduk. Those listed as dialects may be separate languages. Dictionary.

KRESH (KPARLA, KPALA, KPARA, KREISH, KREDJ, KREICH) [KRS] 16,000 (1987 SIL. About 4,000 others speak Kresh as second language. Southern Sudan, Western Bahr el Ghazal Province. At Kuru, Deim Zubeir, Raga, Angbanga, Kata, Menangba, Boro, Kafia Kingi. The Dongo are reported by Fr. Santandrea to be in Hobbinya District of Southern Dar Fur Province. Also communities in Wau and Khartoum. Largest numbers in Raga and Boro. A few refugees have settled in Central African Republic and elsewhere. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh. Dialects: NAKA (KRESH-BORO), GBAYA-NDOGO (KRESH-NDOGO), GBAYA-NGBONGBO (KRESH-HOFRA), GBAYA-GBOKO, ORLO (WORO), GBAYA-DARA, DONGO. 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood. Men and those who have been to school speak Sudanese Arabic as second language for most common topics. Do not accept Standard Arabic, except for a few who have been to school. Typology: SVO, prepositions, genitives and articles after noun heads, adjectives before, numerals usually before, relatives after, CV, V, CCV (CVC rare), 5 tones. Wooded savannah. Rolling plains with granite domes. Swidden agriculturalists; craftsmen in towns. Altitude: 400 meters (Wau), 600 meters (Raga), 700 meters (Boro). Muslim, Christian.

KRONGO (KORONGO, KURUNGU, KADUMODI, TABANYA, DIMODONGO) [KGO] 21,688 (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Krongo Hills, south of Masakin range and west of Talodi, Kordofan Province. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kadugli, Eastern. Dialect: FAMA-TEIS-KUA. 85% lexical similarity with Tumtum. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1963. Bible portions 1934-1943.

LAFOFA (KIDIE, TEGEM) [LAF] 5,140 (1984 R. C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills, central Eliri range and on two hills to the south and east. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Tegem. Dialects: JEBEL EL AMIRA (EL AMIRA), JEBEL TEKEIM (JEBEL, TEKEIM, TEGEM), LAFOFA. 25% lexical similarity with closest languages. Survey needed.

LANGO (LANGGO) [LNO] 20,000 possibly (1987 SIL). Southern Sudan, eastern Equatoria Province, Torit District. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. A separate language from Otuho. The people are bilingual in Otuho. Distinct language from Lango of Uganda, or Lango, an alternate name for Didinga of Sudan. Pastoralists: cattle; agriculturalists: millet, beans, sweet potatoes, tobacco, bananas. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

LARO (LARU, AALEIRA, YILLARO, NGWULLARO) [LRO] 7,548 (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills on the hills of Laro (Alleira) and a few small hills nearby. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru. Dialect: IGWORMANY. 90% lexical similarity with Heiban (closest). Survey needed.

LOGOL (LUKHA) [LOF] 2,600 (1956 Tucker and Bryan). Northern Sudan, on small isolated hills in the extreme eastern part of the Nuba Hills, between Talodi and the White Nile. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Logol. 85% lexical similarity with Otoro (closest). Traditional religion. Survey needed.

LOGORIK (LIGURI) [LIU] 2,000 (1971 Welmers). Northern Sudan, central Nuba Mts., Jebel Liguri and other hills northeast of Kadugli. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju. Dialects: SABURI, TALLAU (TALAU, TALO), LIGURI. 64% lexical similarity with Shatt, 56% with Daju of Dar Fur (Nyala and Lagowa), 57% with Sila. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Survey needed.

LOKORO (PARI) [LKR] 28,000 (1987 SIL). Southern Sudan, Upper Nile Province. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified. Work in progress.

LOKOYA (LOKOIYA, LOKOJA, LOQUIA, LOWOI, OWOI, LOIRYA, OIRYA, ELLYRIA, OXORIOK, KOYO) [LKY] 12,392 (1952). Southern Sudan, eastern Equatoria, Torit District Province. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. 64% lexical similarity with Otuho, 57% with Lopit, 56% with Dongotono. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Lotuko. Ethnic groups: Irya and Owe. Animal husbandry: sheep, goats, cattle, fowl; agriculturalists: millet, simsim, beans, tobacco. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

LOMON (LUMUN, KUKU-LUMUN) [LMD] Northern Sudan, Talodi, Moro Hills. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho. 70% lexical similarity with closest Talodi languages.

LONGARIM (NARIM, LARIM, LARIMINIT, BOYA) [LOH] 6,000 (1982 SIL). Southern Sudan, Boya Hills, north of the Didinga. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim. 74% lexical similarity with Murle, 83% with Didinga. 'Narim' is their name for themselves. Survey needed.

LOPIT (LOPID, LOFIT, LAFITE, LAFIT, LAFIIT) [LPX] 50,000 (1995 Scott Randal). Southern Sudan, eastern Equatoria Province, Lopit Hills, northeast of Torit. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. 63% lexical similarity with Otuho. Blacksmiths, swidden agriculturalists, cattle raisers. Survey needed.

LULUBA (OLUBOGO, OLUBOTI, OLU'BO, ONDOE, LOLUBO) [LUL] 15,000 in all countries (1985 SIL). Southern Sudan, eastern Equatoria Province, about 30 miles east of the Nile River. Also Uganda. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern. Many are bilingual in Bari, but there is strong interest in using Luluba for education. Pastoralists; traders. Traditional religion.

LUWO (LWO, JUR LUO, JUR LWO, JO LWO, DHE LWO, DHE LUWO, GIUR) [LWO] 54,000 (1982 SIL). Southern Sudan, north of Wau toward Aweil, southeast of Wau as far as Tonj. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Jur. Different from Lwo of Uganda, or Luo of Kenya and Tanzania, but closely related. Bible portions 1954-1995. Work in progress.

MABAAN (MAABAN, MEBAN, SOUTHERN BURUN, GURA, TUNGAN, BARGA, TONKO, ULU) [MFZ] 25,000 to 50,000 (1987 SIL). On the border of Blue Nile and Upper Nile provinces, between Yabus and Tombak rivers in the north and Khor Daga in the south (Maban). Not in Ethiopia. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban. Partially intelligible with some southern dialects of Burun. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1988. Bible portions 1947.

MADI (MA'ADI, MA'DITI, MA'DI) [MHI] 18,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 130,558 in Uganda (1991 census); 150,000 in all countries. Southern Sudan, Equatoria Province, Madi Subdistrict, Opari District, West Nile District. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern. Dialects: PANDIKERI, LOKAI, 'BURULO. NT 1977. Bible portions 1935-1938. Work in progress.

MANDARI (MONDARI, MUNDARI, SHIR, CHIR, KIR) [MQU] 35,812 (1952). Southern Sudan, near Bari; 1 division around Tali, the other on both sides of the Nile between Tombe and Mongalla. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. 75% lexical similarity with Nyanggwara, 71% with Bari and Ngyepu, 70% with Pöjulu, 66% with Kuku, 61% with Kakwa. A different language and culture from Bari. Nomadic. Ethnic groups: Mondari Boronga, Sere, Böri. Arid, acacia and scrub forest. Plain. Pastoralists: cattle, goats; agriculturalists: peanuts, beans, millet, simsim, maize, sugar cane, cassava, tobacco, Indian hemp, honey; gatherers: wild vegetables; fishermen; hunters. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

MANGAYAT (MANGAYA, MONGAIYAT, BUG) [MYJ] 400 (1987 SIL). Southern Sudan, in Western Bahr el Ghazal, some in Raga, most in Mangayat, 18 miles southeast of Raga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya. Many are bilingual in Kresh or Arabic. Call themselves 'Bug'. Survey needed.

MASALIT (MASSALIT, KAANA MASALA, JWISINCE) [MSA] 145,000 in Sudan; 50,847 in Chad (1993 census); 250,000 in all countries (1983 Doornbos and Bender). Northern Sudan, Dar Fur Province, Dar Masalit and Nyala District, scattered colonies in Dar Fongoro and to the south and east, and Gedaref region; Geneina, Mistere, and Habila Kajangise. Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Mabang, Masalit. Dialect: SURBAKHAL. The majority use Arabic as second language; however, people in the central area and women known only limited Arabic. The dialect in Dar Masalit in Dar Fur differs from that spoken in Nyala District. Muslim. Work in progress.

MIDOB (MEIDOB, MIDOBI, TIDDA, TID, TID-N-AAL) [MEI] 30,000 (1983 Thewell). Northern Sudan, Dar Fur Province, Jebel Midob, and settled communities in Omdurman and Gezira Aba. The center is Malha. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Western. Dialects: SHELKOTA (SHALKOTA), TORTI, URRTI (UURTI). The dialects are inherently intelligible. 51% lexical similarity with Birgid (closest). Pastoralists. Muslim. Survey needed.

MITTU [MWU] Southern Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli. Extinct.

MO'DA (GBERI, GWERI, GBARA, MUDA) [GBN] 600 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Southern Sudan, northwest of Mvolo on both sides of the border of Lakes and Western Equatoria provinces. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo'da. 64% lexical similarity with Morokodo, 58% with Jur Modo, 41% with Beli, 49% with Bongo, 38% with Baka. Survey needed.

MOLO (MALKAN, TVRA-KA-MOLO) [ZMO] 100 (1988 M.L. Bender). At Jebel Malkan, near the Berta language, south of the Blue Nile, near the Ethiopian border. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo. They call themselves 'Tvra-Ka-Molo', meaning 'speech of Molo'. Reported to be bilingual in Arabic and Berta. Muslim. Survey needed.

MORO (DHIMORONG) [MOR] 30,000 (1982 SIL); including 4,100 Abu Leila and Lebu, 460 Umm Dorein, 9,000 Umm Gabralla (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northern Sudan, eastern Nuba Mountains, Kordofan Province. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Western. Dialects: ABU LEILA, LEBU (DORONG), UMM DOREIN (LOGORBAN), UMM GABRALLA. Dialects are named by place names. 75% lexical similarity with Tira (closest). NT 1965-1994. Bible portions 1951-1989.

MOROKODO (MA'DI) [MGC] 3,400 or more; including 280 Biti (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Southern Sudan, in the area between Amadi and Maridi. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo'da. Dialects: BITI, MA'DU, MOROKODO. 63% lexical similarity with Jur Modo, 41% with Beli, 45% with Bongo, 43% with Baka. Ma'du may be extinct (1984). A dialect cluster. Many speakers use Moru as second language.

MORU (KALA MORU) [MGD] 70,000 (1982 SIL), including 1,200 Agi, 2,500 Andri, 5,000 Kadiro, 9,000 Miza, 400 Wa'di. Southern Sudan, Mundri District, Equatoria Province. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Northern. Dialects: AGI, ANDRI, 'BALI'BA, KADIRO, LAKAMA'DI, MIZA, MORUWA'DI. Andri and 'Bali'ba dialects are similar, Kadiro and Lakama'di are nearly identical. 85% literate. Orthography problems. Typology: SVO, SOV. NT 1951, in press (1996). Bible portions 1928-1963.

MÜNDÜ (MUNDO, MOUNTOU, MONDU, MONDO) [MUH] 23,000 in Sudan; 2,800 in Zaïre; 25,800 in all countries (1982 SIL). Southern Sudan, western Equatoria Province northwest of Yei and in Moru District south of Maridi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu. Dialect: SHATT. Closest to Mayogo and Bangba of Zaïre. There is intermarriage with the Avokaya and Baka, and bilingualism in those languages. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1984-1995. Work in progress.

MURLE (MURELEI, MERULE, MOURLE, MURULE, BEIR, AJIBBA, AGIBA, ADKIBBA) [MUR] 60,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 6,000 in Ethiopia (1982 SIL); 66,000 in all countries. Southern Sudan, Upper Nile Province, Pibor District, south of the Akobo River, Boma Plateau, and to east and north. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle. 74% lexical similarity with Longarim, 71% with Didinga. Ethnic groups: Lotilla, Boma, Olam (Ngalan). Dictionary. Grammar. Flood plains, savannah. Semi-nomadic pastoralists. Traditional religion, Christian. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1969-1985.

NDING (ELIRI) [ELI] 3,513 (1984 Stevenson). Northern Sudan, southern Eliri range. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Nding. 70% lexical similarity with closest Talodi languages. Survey needed.

NDOGO [NDZ] 20,000 (1993). Southern Sudan, Western District along Wau-Deim Zubeir Road between Mboro and Kpango rivers. A few are north of Tembura among the Zande. Not in CAR. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere. Gbaya-Ndogo is a different language. Spoken as a second language by a few Golo and by Kresh at Deim Zubeir. Bible portions 1985-1990. Work in progress.

NGILE (MASAKIN, MESAKIN, DALOKA, TALOKA, DARRA) [MAS] 38,000 including Dagik (1982 SIL). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, in Mesakin Hills on some outlying hills. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu. Dialects: AHEIMA (EL AKHEIMAR), DALOKA (TALOKA), MASAKIN GUSAR (MESAKIN QUSAR, MASAKIN BURAM), MASAKIN TUWAL (TIWAL, TOWAL).

NJALGULGULE (NYOLGE, NYOOLNE, NGULGULE, BEGI, BEGE, BEKO, NJANGULGULE) [NJL] 900 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Southern Sudan, on the Sopo River just above the Sopo-Boro confluence, and west of the Dinka. 1 village. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju. Bilingual in Arabic. Muslim. Survey needed.

NOBIIN (MAHAS-FIADIDJA, MAHAS-FIYADIKKYA, FIADIDJA-MAHAS) [FIA] 295,000 in Sudan (1996); 200,000 in Egypt (1996); 50,000 scattered elsewhere; 545,000 in all countries. Northern Sudan, between Dongola and the Egyptian border, Wadi Halfa, Khashim el Ghirba, Kalagla (in Khartoum), villages along the Nile. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Northern. Dialects: MAHAS (MAHASI, MAHASS), FIYADIKKA (FEDICCA, FADICHA, FADICCA, FADIJA, FIADIDJA), NOBIIN. 67% lexical similarity with Kenuzi-Dongola; not intelligible. Spoken by the Mahas in Sudan and the Fedicca in Egypt. Called 'Fiadidja-Mahas' in Egypt. Muslim. Bible portions 1860-1899. Survey needed.

NUER (NAATH, NAADH) [NUS] 740,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); including 2,935 Western Jikany, 12,500 Lou, 1,100 Nyuong, 2,500 Thiang, 5,900 Bul, 2,400 Jagai, 6,700 Laak, 4,900 Leik, 1,600 Door, 17,600 Eastern Jikany (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 40,000 in Ethiopia (1982 UBS); 840,000 in all countries (1990 UBS). Southern Sudan, east Upper Nile Province, in the region of Nasir on the upper Sobat River, in and around a triangle formed between Bahr el Zeraf and Bahr el Jebel, and extending up the Sobat River across the Ethiopian border. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer. Dialects: DOR (DOOR), EASTERN JIKANY (JIKAIN, JEKAING), ABIGAR, WESTERN JIKANY, CIEN, THOGNAATH, LOU (LAU), NYUONG, THIANG (BUL, GAWAAR, JAGAI, LAAK, LEIK). Dialects correspond mainly to geographic divisions. They call themselves 'Naath'. Severe disruption in residence patterns caused by fighting in Sudan and Ethiopia. Many are refugees or homeless (1991). Plains. Pastoralists: cattle; fishermen. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1968. Bible portions 1935-1968.

NYAMUSA-MOLO [NYO] 1,200 Nyamusa (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Southern Sudan, western Equatoria Province, southeast of Beli, northeast of Morokodo. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo'da. Dialects: NYAMUSA, MOLO. 84% lexical similarity between Nyamusa and Molo, 70% to 75% with Jur Modo dialect cluster. Survey needed.

OPUUO (OPO-SHITA, OPO, OPUO, LANGA, SHITA, SHITTA, CITA, CIITA, ANSITA, KINA, KWINA) [LGN] 2,000 to 5,000 in all countries (1982 SIL). Northern Sudan. Also in Ethiopia. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. 24% lexical similarity with Koma. Survey needed.

OTORO (UTORO, DHITORO, LITORO, KAWAMA, KAWARMA) [OTR] 13,000 (1989). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains region, Otoro Hills south of Heiban and west of the Heiban-Talodi road. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Utoro. Dialects: DIJAMA, DUGWUJUR, DOKWARA, DOROMBE, DOGORINDI, DAGARRO, DUGURILA. All Otoro dialects are inherently intelligible. NT 1966.

OTUHO (LOTUKO, LOTUHO, LOTUXO, LOTUKA, LATTUKA, LATUKO, LATUKA, LATOOKA, OTUXO, OLOTORIT) [LOT] 185,000 (1982 SIL); including Dongotono, Lopit (1982 SIL), 2,500 Koriok, 1,000 Lomya (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Southern Sudan, Torit District, eastern Equatoria Province, east and southeast of the Luluba and the Lokoya. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. Dialects: KORIOK, LOGIRI (LOGIR), LOMYA (LOMIA), LORWAMA, LOWUDO (LOUDO, LAUDA), LOGOTOK. 64% lexical similarity with Lokoya, 63% with Lopit, 60% with Dongotono. The people are 10% literate. Agriculturalists: millet, eleusine, maize, simsim, peanuts, sweet potatoes, tobacco; pastoralists: cattle, sheep; hunters; fishermen. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1969. Bible portions 1954-1961.

SHATT [SHJ] 15,000 (1984 R. C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Shatt Hills southwest of Kadugli (Shatt Daman, Shatt Safia, Shatt Tebeldia) and parts of Abu Hashim and Abu Sinam. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju. 64% lexical similarity with Liguri, 62% with Daju of Dar Fur (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Sila. This name is applied by Arabic speakers to inhabitants of the Kordofan Hills. It means 'dispersed', 'scattered', and is applied to various groups. Distinct from Shatt (Thuri) in the Lwo group, or the Shatt dialect of Mundu. Typology: SVO.

SHILLUK (COLO, DHOCOLO, CHULLA, SHULLA) [SHK] 175,000 (1982 SIL). Southern Sudan, Upper Nile Province, between Nile and Kordofan Province boundary, from Latitude 11 in the north to about 80 miles west of Tonga; also on the east bank of the Nile around the junction of the Nile and Sobat rivers, and for about 20 miles up the Sobat River. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Shilluk. 60% lexical similarity with Anuak, Pari, Luwo. 20% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1977. Bible portions 1911-1961. Work in progress.

SHWAI (SHIRUMBA, SHUWAY, LUDUMOR) [SHW] 3,500 (1989). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, in villages in the Shwai Hills, northwest of Otoro near Heiban-Kadugli road. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Shirumba. Dialects: SHABUN, CERUMBA (SHIRUMBA), NDANO. Survey needed.

SINYAR (SINYA, SHEMYA) [SYS] 5,000 to 10,000 speakers in all countries (1983 Bender). The main center is at Foro Boranga. Also in Chad. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar. They are geographically cut off from speakers of other Bongo-Bagirmi languages. Muslim.

SUNGOR (SOUNGOR, ASSAGORI, AZANGORI, ASONGORI, ASUNGORE, ERENGA, MADUNGORE, SHAALE) [SUN] 15,000 in Sudan, 23,500 in Chad (1993 cnsus); 38,500 in all countries. Northern Sudan, Dar Fur, Melmele in Dar Masalit. Bounded on the west by the Tama, south by the Masalit, east by Arabic-speaking nomadic groups, north by the Gimr and Jebel Mun. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor. Dialects: GIRGA, WALAD DULLA, ERENGA. Culturally Maba. Girga and Walad Dulla are ethnic groups which may or may not speak different dialects. Agriculturalists; cattle. Muslim. Survey needed.

SURI (SURMA) [SUQ] 1,000 Tirma in Sudan (1983 SIL); 20,000 to 40,000 in Ethiopia; 21,000 to 41,000 in both countries. Southern Sudan, Boma Plateau near the Ethiopian border. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri. Dialect: TIRMA (TIRIMA, TEREMA, TERNA, DIRMA, CIRMA, TIRMAGA, TIRMAGI, TID, CHAI (CACI, CAI). Closely related to Mursi of Ethiopia. Work in progress.

TAGOI (TAGOY) [TAG] 13,000 (1982 SIL); including 2,000 Tagoi, 552 Moreb, 1,100 Tumale (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, at Moreb, Tagoi, Turjok, Tumale Hill, possibly Tuling village. Tukum and Turum are places where Tagoi dialects are spoken (1956 Tucker and Bryan). Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Rashad. Dialects: MOREB, TUMALE, TAGOI. Survey needed.

TALODI (GAJOMANG, AJOMANG, JOMANG) [TLO] 1,500 (1989). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills, in Talodi town and hill, including the villages of Tasomi and Tata. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Jomang. The dialects are nearly identical. 70% lexical similarity with closest Talodi languages. Survey needed.

TEGALI (TAGALE, TEGELE, TOGOLE, TEKELE) [RAS] 35,738 (1984 R.C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, Tegali Range, Rashad hills and town of Rashad. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Rashad. Dialects: RASHAD (KOM, NGAKOM, KOME), TEGALI. Tegali and Rashad are nearly identical. Typology: SOV. Muslim. Survey needed.

TEMEIN (TEMAINIAN, RONE, RONGE) [TEQ] 10,000 (1984 R. C. Stevenson). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills in the Temein hills southwest of Dilling, between Jebels Ghulfan Morung and Julud (Gulud). Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein. 67% lexical similarity with Keiga Jirru. Survey needed.

TENNET (TENET) [TEX] 4,000 (1994 SIL). Southern Sudan, Equatoria Province, Lopit Hills, northeast of Torit, 5 villages. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Tenet. Related to Murle. Speakers are of all ages. A strong sense of Tenet ethnic identity. They have a number of Lopit loan words. They use Lopit, Otuho, Toposa, or Arabic as second languages, mainly Lopit or Otuho. Those over 20 years use Toposa. Those with schooling know a little Arabic. 2% can read haltingly in Tennet or Arabic. Motivation for literacy is high. Grammar. Typology: VSO; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word final; 4 suffixes; word order distinguishes given and new information; noun affixes indicate case; verb affixes mark person, number; agreement obligatory; passives; antipassives; causatives; comparatives; (C)(G)V(:)(C) or (C)V(G)(C); tonal. Savannah, surrounding plain, tropical forest on the hill. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists; cattle raisers; Blacksmiths. Altitude: 600 to 1200 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. Selections 1993. Work in progress.

TESE (TEIS-UMM-DANAB, KEIGA JIRRU, KEIGA GIRRU) [KEG] 1,400 (1971 Welmers). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills, Keiga Jirru west of Debri, and in 6 villages, northeast of Kadugli. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein. 67% lexical similarity with Temein. Survey needed.

THURI (DHE THURI, JO THURI, WADA THURI, SHATT) [THU] 6,600 (1956 Tucker and Bryan). Southern Sudan between Wau and Aweil, between Jur and Lol rivers, on Raga-Nyamlell road, and on Wau-Deim Zubeir road. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Thuri. Dialects: BODHO (DHE BOODHO, DEMBO, DEMEN, DOMBO), COLO (DHE COLO, JUR SHOL, JO COLO), MANANGEER (JUR MANANGEER). It is reported that all Thuri groups speak Dinka or Luwo and are nearly absorbed into Dinka. Distinct from Shatt in the Daju group. Survey needed.

TIGRÉ (KHASA, XASA) [TIE] 683,000 in all countries (1993 Johnstone). Northern Sudan. Primarily in Eritrea. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Dialect: MENSA. Believed by some to be a direct linguistic descendant of Ge'ez. Muslim. Bible 1988. NT 1902-1931. Bible portions 1889-1981.

TIMA (LOMORIK, LOMURIKI, TAMANIK, YIBWA) [TMS] 1,100 ? (1956). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills in villages on and near Jebel Tima, 10 miles southwest of Katla, West Kordofan District. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Katla. Survey needed.

TINGAL (KAJAKJA, KAJAJA) [TIG] 8,000 (1982 SIL). Northern Sudan, Tegali Hills. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Rashad. Survey needed.

TIRA (TIRO, THIRO, LITHIRO) [TIR] 40,000 (1982 SIL). Northern Sudan, Nuba Hills in villages extending from near Otoro to the neighborhood of Talodi. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, West-Central, Western. Dialects: KINDERMA (KANDERMA), TIRA EL AKHDAR (TIRA DAGIG), TIRA LUMUM (LUMAN), TIRA MANDI. There are slight variations among the dialects. 75% lexical similarity with Moro (closest). Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

TOCHO (TOICHO, TACHO) [TAZ] 3,800 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northern Sudan, Talodi, Moro Hills. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho. 70% lexical similarity with closest Talodi languages.

TOGOYO (TOGOY) [TGY] Southern Sudan, west, in a small area around Raga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo. Extinct.

TOPOSA (TAPOSA, TOPOTHA, AKARA, KARE, KUMI) [TOQ] 100,000 (1984 M. Schroeder). Southern Sudan, along both sides of Singaita and Lokalyen rivers. The southern boundary is 4.30' N, northern 5 N, western 33.22' E, eastern 34 E. Ritual center at Loyooro River. They migrate as far as Moruangipi (34.30 E to 5.10 N), and occasionally farther east into the disputed Ilemi Triangle at the Ethiopian border for seasonal grazing. They have no permanent settlements there. The Jiye live at 5.20 N 33.45 E. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Teso-Turkana, Turkana. Dialects: EASTERN TOPOSA, WESTERN TOPOSA, JIYE. Eastern Toposa and Jiye are linguistically closer to Turkana; Western Toposa to Karamajong. The Toposa are peaceful with the Karamojong, have a mutual non-agression pact with the Nyangatom, are intermittenly hostile to the Jiye of Sudan, permanently hostile to the Turkana, and to the Murle-Didinga group (Murle, Didinga, Boya-Longarim). Inherently intelligible with Nyangatom, Karamojong, and Turkana, but each has strong ethnic attitudes. Separate literature is needed also because of loans from different second languages, and different discourse stuctures. Limited intelligibility with Teso. Most are monolingual. A small number speak Southern Sudanese Arabic for trading. Semi-nomadic. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: VSO; highly inflectional; grammatical tone (tense, case); vowel harmony; voiceless vowels, questions: yes and no sentence final, content questions sentence initial and final. Cattle breeding, limited agriculture. Traditional religion, Christian.

TORONA [TQR] Northern Sudan, Talodi, Moro Hills. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho. The ethnic group now speaks Tira. Extinct.

TULISHI (TULESH, THULISHI) [TEY] 8,628 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin), including 3,000 Kamdang, 2,500 Tulishi. Northern Sudan, hills south of the Nuba Hills on Jebel Tulishi south of Katla, on Jebel Kamdang north of Lagowa, south of Tulishi. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kadugli, Central. Dialects: TULISHI, KAMDANG, DAR EL KABIRA (TURUJ, TRUJ, LOGOKE, MINJIMMINA). Dar el Kabira and Kamdang dialects are similar. Survey needed.

TUMMA (SANGALI) [TBQ] 6,500 (1956 census). Northern Sudan, hills south of Nuba Hills between the Katla range and Miri. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kadugli, Central. Dialects: BELANYA, KRONGO ABDALLAH, TUMMA. 85% lexical similarity with Kanga (closest). Survey needed.

TUMTUM [TBR] 7,300 including 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum. Northern Sudan, Upper Nile Province; Kurondi south of Eliri, Talassa in the northern part of Eliri. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kadugli, Eastern. Dialects: KARONDI (KURONDI, KORINDI), TALASSA (TALASA), TUMTUM. 85% lexical similarity with Krongo (closest). Survey needed.

UDUK (TWAMPA, KWANIM PA, BURUN, KEBEIRKA, OTHAN, KORARA, KUMUS) [UDU] 20,000 in both countries (1995 W. James). Northern Sudan, Upper Nile Province from Belila in the north, southwards along Blue Nile Province boundary to Yabus River. Most now in a refugee camp in Ethiopia. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. Typology: SVO. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1963. Bible portions 1947-1966.

WALI (WALARI, WALARISHE) [WLL] 487 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 1,000 (1978 GR). Northern Sudan, in the Wali Hills, south of Karko Hills. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

WARNANG (WERNI) [WRN] 1,100 (1956 census). Northern Sudan, on small isolated hills in the extreme eastern part of the Nuba Hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Kordofanian Proper, Heiban, Eastern. 67% lexical similarity with Ko (closest). Traditional religion. Survey needed.

YULU (YOULOU) [YUL] 3,000 in Sudan, including 2,000 Yulu and 1,000 Binga (1987 SIL); 4,000 in CAR (1996); 7,000 in all countries, or more. Southern Sudan. The Yulu are at Khor Buga, 2 miles west of Raga in Western Bahr el Ghazal Province, and in Habbaniya District of Dar Fur. The Binga are at Menangba, west of Raga and in Zaïre. The Yulu are also in Central African Republic. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Dialects: BINGA, YULU. Many people are reported to be bilingual in Kresh or Arabic. Aja is not a dialect of Yulu, but of Kresh (R. Brown SIL). Survey needed.

ZAGHAWA (SOGHAUA, ZEGGAOUA, ZAGAOUA, ZORHAUA, ZAGAWA, ZEGHAWA, ZAUGE, BERRI, BERI, BERI-AA, MERIDA, KEBADI, KUYUK) [ZAG] 102,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 17,500 in Chad; 35,000 in Niger (1991); 7,000 in Libya (1993); 161,500 in all countries. Northern Sudan, northwest Dar Fur (northern Magdumate and Dar Kabja), and scattered farther south. Also in Kordofan and Libya. Surrounded on three sides by the Sahara. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern. Better educated than other groups. Ethnic subgroups are Kobe, Dor, Anka, with slight dialect differences. Semi-nomadic. Groups in Sudan are Arabic speaking. Mountains. Animal husbandry; gatherers; agriculturalists; traders: livestock, hides and skins, butter, salt. Altitude: 600 meters. Muslim, traditional religion.

ZANDE (AZANDE, ZANDI, PAZANDE, ASANDE, BADJANDE, SANDE, BAZENDA, MBOMU) [ZAN] 350,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 730,000 in Zaïre; 62,000 in Central African Republic (1996), 1,142,000 in all countries. Southern Sudan, Zaïre (primarily, and Central African Republic in an elongated semicircle with Uele River as its base. Some projections south. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Dialects: DIO, MAKARAKA (ODIO). The speech of the Zande in Sudan is fairly uniform except for the Mbomu, Sueh-Meridi, Bile, Bandiya, Bamboy, Bomokandi, Anunga. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1978. NT 1938-1952. Bible portions 1918-1952.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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