Ethnologue: Areas: Europe


23,816,000 (1995). Literacy rate 96% to 98%. Also includes Slovak 34,000, Ukrainian 67,000. Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, secular, Muslim. Blind population 15,918. Deaf institutions: 20. The number of languages listed for Romania is 14.

BULGARIAN [BLG] 10,439 (1966 census); 9,000,000 in all countries (1981 WA). Romanian Banat. The Palityan dialect is also in Bulgaria and Hungary. Also in Moldova, Yugoslavia, Greece, USA, Canada. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern. Dialect: PALITYAN (PALITIANI, BOGOMIL). The Palityan dialect is apparently intelligible with other Bulgarian dialects. In Romania it is a recognized minority language. Christian. Bible 1864-1923. NT 1840-1927. Bible portions 1823-1994.

CRIMEAN TURKISH (CRIMEAN TARTAR) [CRH] 25,000 in Romania (1982 estimate); 189,000 in Uzbekistan (1993); 6,000 in Bulgaria (1990); 300,000 or more in all countries. Eastern Romania. Also in Kyrghyzstan, Moldova, Turkey, Ukraine, USA. Altaic, Turkic, Southern. Dialects: NORTHERN CRIMEAN (CRIMEAN NOGAI, STEPPE CRIMEAN), CENTRAL CRIMEAN, SOUTHERN CRIMEAN. Muslim. NT 1666-1825. Bible portions 1659-1996. Work in progress.

GAGAUZ (GAGAUZI) [GAG] 198,000 in all countries (1993 UBS); 12,000 in Bulgaria; 173,000 in Moldova. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Dialects: BULGAR GAGAUZ, MARITIME GAGAUZ. Christian. Bible portions 1927-1996. Work in progress.

GERMAN, STANDARD [GER] 150,000 in Romania (1993); 98,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Transylvania. Indo-European, Germanic, West, Continental, High. Dialect: TRANSYLVANIA. Over 70% of the 500,000 1988 population has emigrated to Germany since 1988 (1993 Johnstone). The people are known as 'Saxons'. Bible 1466-1982. NT 1522-1983. Bible portions 1522-1987.

GREEK [GRK] 12,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Greek, Attic. The Karakatchan are Romanian nomadic shepherds who speak Greek. Bible 1840-1955. NT 1638-1989. Bible portions 1547-1949.

HUNGARIAN (MAGYAR) [HNG] 2,500,000 to 3,000,000 in Romania (1987); 14,500,000 in all countries. Trans-Carpathian provinces. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Ugric, Hungarian. There are Hungarian newspapers. Bible 1590-1991. NT 1541-1952. Bible portions 1533-1988.

POLISH (POLSKY) [PQL] 10,000 in Romania; 44,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Christian. Bible 1561-1965. NT 1553-1991. Bible portions 1522-1984.

ROMANIAN (RUMANIAN, MOLDAVIAN, DACO-RUMANIAN) [RUM] 20,520,000 in Romania, 90% of the population (1986); 2,664,000 in Moldova (1979 census); 33,000 in Kazakhstan; 1,375 in Kyrghyzstan; 178,000 in Russia; 580 in Tajikistan; 1,561 in Turkmenistan; 250,000 to 750,000 in Ukraine (1995); 3,152 in Uzbekistan; 200,000 to 300,000 in Yugoslavia; 100,000 in Hungary (1995); 56,590 in USA (1970 census); 11,300 in Canada (1971 census); 250,000 in Israel (1993); 1,397 in Azerbaijan; 1,000 in Finland; 26,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Moldavian is in Moldova to the northeast, and Muntenian in Muntenia, or Wallachia in the southeast, other dialects in the north and west, including much of Transylvania. Also in Australia. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern, North. Dialects: MOLDAVIAN, MUNTENIAN (WALACHIAN), TRANSYLVANIAN, BANAT, BAYASH. The Bayash are Gypsies who have lost their language and now speak Romanian based on the Banat dialect with Romani and Hungarian influences. Romanian has 77% lexical similarity with Italian, 75% with French, 74% with Sardinian, 73% with Catalan, 72% with Portuguese and Rheto-Romance, 71% with Spanish. National language. Typology: SVO. Christian. Braille Bible portions. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1688-1989. NT 1648-1993. Bible portions 1561-1993.

ROMANIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [RMS] Deaf sign language. Survey needed.

ROMANI, BALKAN [RMN] 1,000,000 in all countries. Black sea region. Also Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Iran, Moldova, Ukraine. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan. Dialect: URSÁRI (USARI). Many have gone to Germany since 1989. A Gypsy language. Muslim. Bible portions 1912-1937. Work in progress.

ROMANI, CARPATHIAN [RMC] (220,000 in Czech Republic and Slovakia; 3,000 in Hungary; 1980 UBS; 18,000 to 25,000 in USA; 1990 I. Hancock). One dialect is in Transylvania, another in south Poland, east Hungary, Galicia; others in Czech Republic and Slovakia, Ukraine, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern. Dialects: GALICIAN, TRANSYLVANIAN. A Gypsy language. Christian. Bible portions 1936. Work in progress.

ROMANI, VLACH (GYPSY, TSIGENE, ROMANESE, VLACH ROMANY, VLAX ROMANI, DANUBIAN) [RMY] 200,000 to 250,000 in Romania; 100,000 to 210,000 in Latin America, including 5,000 in Mexico (1993); 650,000 in North America; 1,500,000 in all countries (1986 estimate). 500,000 Gypsies in Romania use a variety of Romani as first or second language (1985 Gunnemark and Kenrick); 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 total Gypsies in the world (I. Hancock 1987). Also in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Italy, England, Germany, France, Sweden, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Slovakia, Norway, Poland, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, USA, Colombia, Canada, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. Dialects: SEDENTARY ROMANIA, KALDERASH (KELDERASHÍCKO, COPPERSMITH), UKRAINE-MOLDAVIA, EASTERN, CHURARI (CHURARÍCKO), LOVARI (LOVARÍCKO), MACHVANO (MACHVANÍCKO), NORTH ALBANIAN, SOUTH ALBANIAN, SERBO-BOSNIAN, ZAGUNDZI, SIEVEMAKERS, SEDENTARY BULGARIA, GHAGAR, GREKURJA (GRECO). A Gypsy language. The Vlax were slaves in Romania for 500 years. Kalderash is an occupational ethnonym; Machvano is a geographical one. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have a south Slavic superstratum; Russian Kalderash is influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian; Lovari is influenced by Hungarian; Grekurja is probably Turkish influenced and is distinct from the Greek Romani dialect of Balkan Romani. All Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; the differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). Ethnic groups: Chache, Kaldarari, Lovári. Christian. NT 1984-1995. Bible portions 1930-1991.

SERBO-CROATIAN (SERBIAN) [SRC] 80,000 in Romania (1993 Johnstone); 21,000,000 in all countries (1995). Also in Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Slovakia, Macedonia, Italy, Turkey, Sweden, Russia, USA, Canada, Australia. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western. Several dialects. Christian, Muslim. Bible 1804-1968. NT 1563-1983. Bible portions 1564-1987.

TURKISH (OSMANLI) [TRK] 150,000 in Romania (1993 Johnstone); 59,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Along the Danube in southeast Romania. Also in Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrghyzstan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Iran, USA, and Canada. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Dialect: DANUBIAN. Muslim. Bible 1827-1941. NT 1819-1991. Bible portions 1782-1985.

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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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