10,429,000 (1995). Data accuracy estimate: B. Republic of Portugal, República Portuguesa. Literacy rate 83% to 84%. Also includes Arabic 27,000, from Goa India 20,000, from Timor Indonesia 3,000, from Brazil 103,000, from Angola or Mozambique 100,000, from Cape Verde 31,000, from elsewhere in Africa 800,000. Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, secular. Blind population 8,225. Deaf population 8,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 16. The number of languages listed for Portugal is 6.
CALÓ (CALÃO, GITANO, IBERIAN ROMANI) [RMR] 5,000 in Portugal; 40,000 to 140,000 in Spain; 10,000 to 20,000 in France; 10,000 in Latin America; 65,000 to 175,000 in all countries. Reported to be 10,400 Gypsies in Portugal (1993 Johnstone). Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Central. Dialects: SPANISH CALO, PORTUGUESE CALÃO (CALÃO, LUSITANO-ROMANI), CATALONIAN CALO, BASQUE CALO, BRAZILIAN CALÃO. A Gypsy language very different from other Romani. Calão of Portugal is structured on Portuguese regional dialects where the overlap is not distinct between Spanish and Portuguese. Christian. Bible portions 1837-1872.
GALICIAN (GALEGO, GALLEGO) [GLN] 15,000 in Tras Os Montes (1994 D. and N. Burns); 3,173,400 in Spain (1986); 4,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Northern provinces of Entre-Minho-e-Douro and Trazoz-Montes (Tras Os Montes). Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Western. Galician is intermediate between Portuguese and Spanish. There is an Academy of the Galician Language. There is tension between those in Tras Os Montes Portugal and Spain over orthography, dialect differences, and identity. Bible 1989-1992. NT 1974-1980. Bible portions 1861-1967.
MIRANDESA (MIRANDES) [MWL] 10,000 (1995 SIL). Northeast Portugal, southeastern tip of Tras Os Montes area, on the Spain border, at the latitude of Zamora, city of Miranda. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Central. Related to Asturian and Leonés. Probably separated from them at the time of the invasion of the Moors. A folklore group is promoting the language and culture. There is a museum, and a language and culture library. The language has been introduced into the schools, and literary production is being promoted. The people have a different style of dress from their neighbors (black, handwoven). Agricultural. Survey needed.
PORTUGUESE [POR] 10,000,000 in Portugal; 2,100 in Andorra (1993); 80,000 in Belgium; 163,000,000 in Brazil; 86,925 in Canada (1971 census); 600 in Congo (1993); 750,000 in France; 78,000 in Germany; 250,000 in Goa (India); 5,000 in Jamaica; 50,000 in Luxembourg; 2,000 in Macau; 9,000 in Malawi (1993); 30,000 in Mozambique; 636,000 in Paraguay; 617,000 in South Africa; 86,000 in Switzerland; 28,000 in Uruguay; 365,000 in USA (1970 census); 170,000,000 in all countries, first language speakers (1995 WA); 182,000,000 with second language speakers. Iberia, Azores, Madeira. Also in Angola, Antigua, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Timor (Indonesia), São Tomé, Spain, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Surinam, United Kingdom. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Western. Dialects: BEIRA, GALICIAN, MADEIRA-AZORES, ESTREMENHO, BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE. Standard Portuguese of Portugal is based on Southern or Estremenho dialect (Lisbon and Coimbra). National language. Typology: SVO. Christian. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1751, in press (1993). NT 1681-1982. Bible portions 1505-1951.
PORTUGUESE SIGN LANGUAGE (LINGUA GESTUAL PORTUGUESA) [PSR] (Used by a considerable portion of the 8,000 deaf persons; 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Deaf sign language. Dialects: LISBON, OPORTO. Not derived from Portuguese. Different dialects in 2 different deaf schools in Lisbon and Oporto. Related to Swedish Sign Language. Signed Portuguese has similar signs to Signed Swedish. It began in 1823.
ROMANI, VLACH [RMY] 500 Kalderash in Portugal; 1,500,000 in all countries Vlach (1986 estimate). Also in Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, Slovakia, Poland, Italy, England, Germany, France, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, Greece, Ukraine, Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. Dialect: KALDERASH. A Gypsy language. Christian. NT 1984-1986. Bible portions 1930-1986.
Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.
If you have questions, comments, or updates on the Ethnologue, go to the Feedback page.
[Europe | Areas | Ethnologue Home | SIL Home]