39,365,000 (1995). Republic of Poland. Literacy rate 98% to 99%. Also includes Greek 114,000, Lithuanian 11,500, Russian 60,000, Slovak 38,000. Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, secular. Blind population 21,523. Deaf population 50,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 11. The number of languages listed for Poland is 10.
BELORUSSIAN (BYELORUSSIAN, WHITE RUSSIAN) [RUW] 230,000 in Poland (1993 Johnstone); 4,782 in Azerbaijan (1979); 10,200,000 in all countries. Mainly in Belarus. Also in other republics of the former USSR, Canada and USA. Indo-European, Slavic, East. Cyrillic alphabet. Bible 1973. NT 1931. Bible portions 1517-1995.
GERMAN, STANDARD [GER] 1,400,000 in Poland (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 98,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Silesia and elsewhere. Indo-European, Germanic, West, Continental, High. Bible 1466-1982. NT 1522-1983. Bible portions 1522-1987.
KASHUBIAN (CASHUBIAN, CASSUBIAN) [CSB] 200,000 (1993 Johnstone). The left bank of the Lower Vistula in north central Poland, near the Baltic coast, west of the Bay of Gdansk, and a narrow strip inland, southwest from Gdynia. Also spoken by possibly 10,000 to 20,000 as second language in Canada, Northern Ontario, around Barry's Bay west of Ottawa. Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Dialects: KASHUBIAN PROPER, SLOVINCIAN. Heavily Germanicized. There are transitional dialects between Kashubian Proper, Slovenian, and Polish. Survey needed.
POLISH (POLSKY) [PQL] 36,554,000 in Poland, 98% of the population (1986); 2,437,938 in USA (1970 census); 134,780 in Canada (1971 census); 1,151,000 in Ukraine (1979); 403,000 in Belarus; 61,445 in Kazakhstan; 258,000 in Lithuania; 50,000 in Czech Republic; 50,000 in Slovakia; 241,000 in Germany; 57,000 in Latvia (1994); 39,000 in Austria (1995); 13,782 in Australia; 100,000 in Israel (1992); 10,000 Romania; 1,264 in Azerbaijan; 21,000 in Hungary; 94,000 in Russia; 44,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Also in Finland. Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Dialects: MAZOVIAN, MALOPOLSKA, SILESIAN, WIELKOPOLSKA-KUJAWY. Written in Roman alphabet. About 2,000 families of Polish-speaking Muslim Tatar live in the USA, mainly in Brooklyn. National language. Typology: SVO. Christian, Muslim. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1561-1965. NT 1553-1991. Bible portions 1522-1984.
POLISH SIGN LANGUAGE [PSO] (50,000 deaf, 25,000 members of Polish Association of the Deaf; 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Deaf sign language. Various regional dialects. 5,000 deaf children in deaf schools, plus 1,000 who attend school with hearing children. There is a committee for the unification of Polish Sign Language. TV programs since 1982. Not intelligible with American Sign Language. Used since 1889. Elementary schools for deaf children since 1817. Signed interpretation required in court, provided for some college students and in important public events. Sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. Many sign language classes for hearing people. There is a committee on national sign language. There is a manual system for spelling. Dictionary. Grammar. Films, video.
ROMANI, BALTIC [ROM] 30,000 in Poland; 100,000 in all countries. Reported to be 81,000 Romani in Poland (1993 Johnstone). Baltic region, central and southern parts; eastern Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia. Also Russia in Siberia, Podolia. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern. Dialects: LATVIAN ROMANI (LETTISH ROMANI), NORTH RUSSIAN ROMANI, WHITE RUSSIAN ROMANI, ESTONIAN ROMANI, POLISH ROMANI. A Gypsy language. Ethnic groups: Pólska Foldítka, Romá. Christian. Bible portions 1933. Survey needed.
ROMANI, CARPATHIAN [RMC] (220,000 in Czech Republic and Slovakia; 3,000 in Hungary; 1980 UBS: 18,000 to 25,000 in USA; 1990 I. Hancock). One dialect is in south Poland, east Hungary, and Galicia; another in Transylvania, Romania; others in Czech Republic and Slovakia; Ukraine, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern. Dialects: GALICIAN, TRANSYLVANIAN. A Gypsy language. Christian. Bible portions 1936. Work in progress.
ROMANI, SINTE (SINTI, TSIGANE, MANUCHE, MANOUCHE) [RMO] 200,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Also in Germany, Austria, Italy, Yugoslavia, Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Czech Republic, Kazakhstan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern. Not intelligible with Vlach Romani. A Gypsy language. Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian. Bible portions 1875-1930. Work in progress.
ROMANI, VLACH [RMY] 5,000 Lovari in Poland; 1,500,000 in all countries Vlach (1986 estimate). Also in Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Italy, England, Germany, France, Norway, Sweden, Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Greece, Albania, Netherlands, Ukraine, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. Dialect: LOVARI. A Gypsy language. Christian. NT 1984-1995. Bible portions 1930-1986.
UKRAINIAN [UKR] 1,500,000 in Poland; 100,000 in Slovakia; 31,058,000 in Ukraine; 309,855 in Canada; 249,351 in USA (1970 census); 22,896 in Yugoslavia; 41,000,000 in all countries. Also in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Hungary, Romania, republics of the former USSR. Indo-European, Slavic, East. The largest minority language group in Poland. Christian. Bible 1903-1962. NT 1880-1942. Bible portions 1869-1942.
Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.
If you have questions, comments, or updates on the Ethnologue, go to the Feedback page.
[Europe | Areas | Ethnologue Home | SIL Home]