Ethnologue: Areas: Europe

Norway

4,271,000 (1995). Kingdom of Norway, Kongeriket Norge. Literacy rate 96% to 100%. Also includes Chinese 3,000, Danish 12,000, Finnish 12,000, Kurmanji 3,000, Russian 3,000, Spanish 6,500, Swedish 21,000, Tibetan, Urdu 14,000, Vietnamese 99,000, from Africa 7,000, English. Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, secular. Blind population 4,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population 4,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 12. The number of languages listed for Norway is 11. Of those, 10 are living languages and 1 is a second language with no mother tongue speakers.

NORWEGIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [NSL] 4,000 deaf users out of about 4,000 deaf (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Deaf sign language. Dialects: HOLMESTRAND, OSLO, TRONDHEIM. Intelligible with Danish and Swedish sign languages with only moderate difficulty. Not intelligible with Finnish Sign Language. Used since 1815. The first deaf school was begun in 1825, first club in 1878. It is passed to the next generation mainly through the schools. 3 dialects are associated with 3 schools. Signed Norwegian is used by teachers; pupils use Norwegian Sign Language among themselves. Signed interpretation required in court, provided some for college students, in mental health programs. Sign language instruction provided for parents of deaf children. Many classes for hearing people. Some use on TV. There is a committee on national sign language. There is a manual system for spelling. Films, videos. Survey needed.

NORWEGIAN, BOKMAL (BOKMAL, RIKSMAL, DANO-NORWEGIAN, NORWEGIAN) [NRR] 4,250,000 including Landsmal, 99.5% of population (1991 WA); 612,862 in USA (1970 census); 28,000 in Sweden (1993); 27,405 in Canada (1971 census); 11,000 in Ecuador; 5,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, North, Transitional Scandinavian. Norwegian form of Danish. One of the two norms for written Norwegian. No dialects. Primarily urban. It was reported in 1971 that 82.5% of the pupils used Riksmal as their main language. Dictionary. National language. Typology: SVO. Braille Bible. Bible 1834-1978. NT 1819-1988. Bible portions 1851-1967.

NORWEGIAN, NYNORSK (LANDSMAL, NEW NORSE, NYNORSK) [NRN] Indo-European, Germanic, North, West Scandinavian. Primarily rural. One of the two norms for written Norwegian. In 1971 17.5% of the pupils used Nynorsk as their main language. The linguist Ivar Aasen founded this speech variety in the 1850's from spoken Norwegian and Old Norse. National language. Typology: SVO. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1921-1938. NT 1889-1961. Bible portions 1882-1930.

RODI (TRAVELLER NORWEGIAN, SMÅVANDRER, MELTRAVER, ROTWELSCH) [RMG] Indo-European, Germanic, North, West Scandinavian. An independent language based on Norwegian with heavy lexical borrowing from Northern Romani and Jenisch. Not intelligible with Angloromani or Swedish Romani. It is intelligible with Traveller Danish. Speakers were indigenous Travellers with Norwegian origin, also had intermarriage with Gypsies, Danish Travellers and German Jenisch Travellers. Not Gypsies.

ROMANI, VLACH [RMY] 500 Lovari in Norway; 1,500,000 in all countries (1985 estimate). Reported to be 3,500 Gypsies in Norway (1993 Johnstone). Also in Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Italy, England, Germany, France, Sweden, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Slovakia, Netherlands, Ukraine, Portugal, Spain, Poland, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. Dialect: LOVARI. A Gypsy language. 75% to 100% literate. Christian. NT 1984-1986. Bible portions 1930-1986.

SAAMI, LULE (LULE, SWEDISH LAPP, SAAME, SAAMI, "LAPP") [LPL] (2,000 in Sweden; 1994 SIL). 17,000 ethnic Saami in Norway; 58,000 in all countries ethnic Saami (1987 Swedish Saami Association). Tysfjord, Hamaroy, and Folden, Norway. Also in Sweden. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. 75% to 100% literate. Traditionally hunters, fishermen, reindeer herders. NT 1903. Work in progress.

SAAMI, NORTHERN ("NORTHERN LAPPISH", "NORWEGIAN LAPP", SAAMI, SAME, SAMIC, "LAPP") [LPR] 10,000 in Norway (1987); 5,000 in Sweden (1994 SIL); 1,600 in Finland (1987); 16,600 in all countries. Finnmark, Troms, Nordland, Ofoten. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Northern. Dialects: RUIJA, TORNE, SEA LAPPISH. Two-thirds of all Saami speak Ruija. The people are called 'Finns'. The name "Lapp" is derogatory. Use in schools is now encouraged. 75% to 100% literate. Bible 1895. NT 1840-1874. Bible portions 1838-1954. Work in progress.

SAAMI, PITE ("LAPP", PITE) [LPB] (1,000 in Sweden; 1994). Between Saltenfjord and Ranenfjord in Norway. Also in Sweden. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. Bible 1811. NT 1755. Bible portions 1648-1881.

SAAMI, SOUTHERN ("LAPP", SOUTHERN LAPP, SÖR-LAPSKA) [LPC] 2,500 in Norway; 2,500 in Sweden; 5,000 in all countries (1991 UBS). Hatfjelldal and Wefsen, south to Elga. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. 75% to 100% literate. Work in progress.

SAAMI, UME ("LAPP", UME) [LPU] (500 in Sweden; 1994 SIL). Between the Arctic Circle and 66 degrees latitude southeast from Mo i Rana town. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Cheremisic, Finno-Mordvinic, Finno-Lappic, Lappic, Southern. Survey needed.

SCANDINAVIAN PIDGIN SIGN LANGUAGE [SPF] Also in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Deaf sign language. Used for intercommunication among users of Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, and Swedish sign languages. Second language only. No mother tongue speakers.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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