Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

India

904,800,000 (1995). Indo-Aryan languages: 491,087,116, 74.24%; Dravidian languages: 157,836,723, 23.86%; Austro- Asiatic languages: 7,705,011, 1.16%; Tibeto-Burman languages: 4,071,701, .62% (1987 Mahapatra). Republic of India, Bharat. Literacy rate 36% to 52%. 15 national languages, plus English, associate official. Indo- Aryan languages 72%, Dravidian languages 25%. Also includes Armenian 560, Portuguese 250,000, Russian, Uyghur, Arabic, Chinese, people from United Kingdom. Information mainly from Hugoniot 1970, Marrison 1967, Voegelin and Voegelin 1977. 1,683 'mother tongues' (official figure). An estimated 850 languages in daily use (Todd and Hancock 1986). Data accuracy estimate: B, C. Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, traditional religion, Buddhist. Blind population 9,000,000. Deaf population 1,500,000 or more (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 149. The number of languages listed for India is 418. Of those, 407 are living languages and 11 are extinct.

AARIYA [AAR] Madhya Pradesh. Unclassified. Survey needed.

ABUJMARIA (ABUJHMADIA, ABUJMARIYA, ABUJHMARIA, ABUJMAR MARIA, HILL MARIA) [ABJ] 16,000 (1981 GR). Madhya Pradesh, Bastar District, Narayanpur, Abujmar Hills. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Gatte Maria is an ethnic group that seems to not be distinctive linguistically from Abujmaria. A separate language from Muria, Dandami Maria, Gondi of Adilabad, and Koya. May be intelligible with Maria of Bhamragarh. Hills. Survey needed.

ADI (ABOR, ARBOR, ABOR-MIRI) [ADI] 442,896 in all countries; 164,236 Adi (1994 IMA), 278,660 Miri in India (1994 IMA). North hills of the Assam valley, between Bhutan and the Buruli River and Arunachal Pradesh. Also reported to be in Sinag. Tibet, China. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Dialects: ADI, MIRI (MISHING). Some sources separate Adi and Miri as two languages. Agriculturalists: rice, grain, beans, fruit, eggs; hunters; weavers (Miri). Traditional religion. NT 1988. Bible portions 1932-1986.

ADIYAN (ERAVAS) [ADN] 2,500 to 5,700. Cannanore District, Kerala; Tamil Nadu; Karnataka. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Survey needed.

AGARIYA (AGHARIA, AGORIA) [AGI] 11,793 to 22,054. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Unclassified. Survey needed.

AHOM (TAI AHOM) [AHO] Assam. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Former language of the Tai-Ahom Kingdom. No longer spoken in daily life, but used in religious chants and literary materials. Possibly 8,000,000 Assamese speakers claim to be of Ahom descent (A. Diller 1990). Extinct.

AIMOL [AIM] 108 (1961 census). Assam, Manipur. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Central. Dialect: LANGRONG. Langrong may be a separate language. Related to Chiru, Purum. Survey needed.

AITON (AITONIA) [AIO] Several thousand speakers and semi-speakers (1990 A. Diller). Assam. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Related to Shan of Myanmar. Survey needed.

AJMERI [AJM] 580 (1961 census). Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari. Survey needed.

AKA-BEA (BEA, BEADA, BIADA, AKA-BEADA, BOJIGNIJI, BOGIJIAB, BOJIGYAB) [ACE] Andaman Islands, coasts of South Andaman Island except northeast coast, and north and east interiors; coastal Rutland Island except south coast; small islands southeast of Rutland; and Labyrinth Islands. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central. Extinct.

AKA-BO (BO, BA) [AKM] Andaman Islands, east central coast of North Andaman Island, and Nth Reef Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern. Extinct.

AKA-CARI (CARI, CHARIAR) [ACI] Andaman Islands, north coast of North Andaman Island, Landfall Island, and other nearby small islands. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern. Extinct.

AKA-JERU (JERU, YERAWA) [AKJ] Andaman Islands, interior and south North Andaman Island, and Sound Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern. Extinct.

AKA-KEDE (KEDE) [AKX] Andaman Islands, central and north central Middle Andaman Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central. Extinct.

AKA-KOL (KOL) [AKY] Andaman Islands, southeast Middle Andaman Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central. Extinct.

AKA-KORA (KORA) [ACK] Andaman Islands, northeast and north central coasts of North Andaman Island, and Smith Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern. Extinct.

AKAR-BALE (BALE, BALWA) [ACL] Andaman Islands, Ritchie's Archipelago, Havelock Island, Neill Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central. Extinct.

ALLAR (CHATANS) [ALL] 350. Palghat District, Kerala. Dravidian, Unclassified. Survey needed.

ALU (ALU KURUMBA) [AUX] 2,000 (1987). Andhra Pradesh, Nilgiri District. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Work in progress.

AMWI [AML] Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian. A distinct language from Khasi. Survey needed.

ANAL (NAMFAU) [ANM] 14,507 in India (1994 IMA). Southeast Manipur. Also Myanmar, possibly Bangladesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Lamgang. Dialects: LAIZO, MULSOM, MOYON-MONSHANG. Declared themselves Nagas (ethnically) 1963. Typology: SOV. NT 1983. Bible portions 1949-1983.

ANDH (ANDHA, ANDHI) [ANR] 80,000 (1991 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. Unclassified. People may speak Marathi. Survey needed.

ANGA (ANGIKA, ANGIKAR) [ANP] 690,308 (1994 IMA). Bihar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Survey needed.

APATANI (APA) [APT] 21,720 (1994 IMA). Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. It may be intelligible with Nisi. Survey needed.

A-PUCIKWAR (PUCIKWAR, PUCHIKWAR) [APQ] 24 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Andaman Islands, Boratang Island, south coast of Middle Andaman Island, northeast coast of South Andaman Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central. Other languages in the Central Andamanese group are extinct. Survey needed.

ARAKANESE (MOGH, MOG, MAGH, MAGHI, MORMA, YAKAN, YAKHAING, RAKHAIN, MARMA) [MHV] 22,870 in India (1994 IMA); 185,000 in Bangladesh (1993); 1,875,000 in Myanmar (1993); 2,083,000 in all countries. Assam, Tripura, Mizoram. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Burmish, Southern. Bible portions 1914.

ARAKH (ARRAKH) [AAH] Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. Unclassified. Survey needed.

ARANADAN (ERANADANS) [AAF] 600. Tamil Nadu; Karnataka; Calicut and Palghat Districts, Kerala. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Survey needed.

ARE (ADE BHASHA, ARAY, ARREY, ARYA, KALIKA ARYA BHASHA) [AAG] 2,591 (1961 census). Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified. Survey needed.

ASSAMESE (ASAMBE, ASAMI, ASAMIYA) [ASM] 14,604,000 in India (1994 IMA); a few in Bangladesh (1991 D. Barrett SB). Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh. Also in Bhutan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Dialects: JHARWA (PIDGIN), MAYANG, STANDARD ASSAMESE, WESTERN ASSAMESE. State language of Assam. Bengali script. National language. Braille code available. Bible 1833, in press (1995). NT 1819-1993. Bible portions 1822-1974.

ASURI (ASHREE, ASURA, ASSUR) [ASR] 5,819. Bihar, Raigarh in east Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sambalput and Oriya in Orissa, West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Dialects: BRIJIA (KORANTI), MANJHI. Possible Mundari dialect. Survey needed.

AWADHI (ABADI, ABOHI, AMBODHI, AVADHI, BAISWARI, KOJALI, KOSALI) [AWD] 20,000,000 in India (1951 census); 540,000 in Nepal (1993 Johnstone); 20,316,950 in all countries. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur, Delhi. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone. Dialects: GANGAPARI, MIRZAPURI, PARDESI, THARU, UTTARI. Awadhi is the standard for literature. There is considerable epic literature. 'Kosali' is a name used for the Eastern Hindi group. Caribbean Hindi is related to Awadhi. 50% to 75% literate. Bible portions 1820-1911. Work in progress.

BADAGA (BADAG, BADAGU, BADUGU, BADUGA, VADAGU) [BFQ] 171,000 (1994 IMA). Madras-Nilgiri, Tamil Nadu, Kunda hills. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Bible portions 1852-1992. Work in progress.

BAGATA (BAGAT, BAKTA, BHAKTA, BAGBOT) [BFX] 86,000 (1991 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. The speakers are known by the Adiwasi Oriya people. Survey needed.

BAGHELI (BAGELKHANDI, BHUGELKHUD, MANNADI, RIWAI, GANGGAI, MANDAL, KEWOT, KEWAT, KAWATHI, KENAT, KEVAT BOLI, KEVATI, KEWANI, KEWATI, NAGPURI MARATHI) [BFY] 376,907 in India (1994 IMA). Northeast Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh. Also in Nepal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone. Dialects: MARARI, OJHI, POWARI, BANAPARI, GAHORE, TIRHARI, GODWANI (MANDLAHA), SONPARI. NT 1821, out of print.

BAGRI (BAGARI, BAGRIA, BAGRIS, BAORIAS, BAHGRI) [BGQ] 1,721,000 in India (1994 IMA); 200,000 in Pakistan (1993); 1,921,000 in all countries. Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Nomadic between Pakistan and India. Survey needed.

BAHAWALPURI (BHAWALPURI, RIASATI, REASITI) [BGB] 640 (1961 census). Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. May also be in Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. May be intelligible with Siraiki. Survey needed.

BAIGA (BAIGANI, BEGA, BHUMIA) [BFV] 18,114 (1994 IMA). Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone. Dialect: GOWRO. Survey needed.

BALOCHI, EASTERN (BALUCHI, BALUCI, BALOCI) [BGP] 5,000 in India (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 1,730,000 in Pakistan (1981); 1,735,000 in all countries. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Baluchi. Distinct from Western Balochi of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan; and Southern Balochi of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, United Arab Emirates. Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1815-1906.

BALTI (SBALTI, BALTISTANI, BHOTIA OF BALTISTAN) [BFT] 63,640 in India (1994 IMA); 270,000 in Pakistan or 90% of the Baltistan population (1992); 333,640 in all countries. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Western. 87% to 100% lexical similarity among dialects, 78% to 85% with Purik. Chorbat is the most divergent dialect. Speakers call themselves and their language 'Balti'. Some Shina is used as second language, and Urdu proficiency is reported to be high in some places. Women and uneducated people have little knowledge of Urdu. Many Purik have shifted to Balti. Perso-Arabic script is the accepted one. Shi'ah Muslim. Bible portions 1903-1940. Needs survey.

BARELI (BAREL, BARELI PAURI, BARELA) [BGD] 374,955 (1994 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, northern Dhule District, Mandvi, Bhusha, Shahana. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. 87% to 93% lexical similarity among Bareli dialects; 73% to 79% between Bareli and Rathwi Pauri dialects (closest). Bilingualism in Marathi is limited. Survey needed.

BATERI [BTV] About 200 families in India. 25,000 to 45,000 in Pakistan (1983). Reported near Srinagar, Jammu, Kashmir. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. Closer to Indus Kohistani than to Shina, but distinct from both. Survey needed.

BATHUDI [BGH] 104,542. Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal. Unclassified. Survey needed.

BAURIA (BADAK, BABRI, BASRIA, BAWARI, BHORIA, VAGHRI, BAORI) [BGE] 9,697 (1971 census). Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Survey needed.

BAZIGAR [BFR] 100 (1951). Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka. Dravidian, Unclassified. Survey needed.

BEDIA (BEDIYA, BERIYA) [BXD] 32,195 (1941). Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, West Bengal. Unclassified. Bedia are reported to speak Chik Baraik and Awadhi. May be the same as Chik Barik. Survey needed.

BELLARI [BRW] Dravidian, Southern, Tulu. Related to Tulu and Koraga. Survey needed.

BENGALI (BANGALA, BANGLA, BANGLA-BHASA) [BNG] 67,200,000 in India (1994 IMA); 100,000,000 in Bangladesh (1994 UBS); 70,000 in United Arab Emirates (1986); 600 in Singapore; 189,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). West Bengal and neighboring states. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Dialects: BARIK, BHATIARI, CHIRMAR, KACHARI-BENGALI, LOHARI-MALPAHARIA, MUSSELMANI, RAJSHAHI, SAMARIA, SARAKI, SIRIPURIA. Bengali script. State language of West Bengal. National language. Hindu. Braille Bible portions. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1809, in press (1996). NT 1801-1984. Bible portions 1800-1980.

BHADRAWAHI (BADERWALI, BADROHI, BHADERBHAI JAMU, BHADERWALI PAHARI, BHADRAVA, BHADRI, BAHI) [BHD] 65,526 (1994 IMA). Jammu and Kashmir. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Dialects: BHALESI, PADARI. Pangi is reported to be nearly the same as Bhadrawahi. Survey needed.

BHALAY [BHX] Maharashtra, Amravati District; up to 40% of the population of some villages. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified. Survey needed.

BHARIA (BHAR, BHARAT, BHUMIA, BHUMIYA, PALIHA) [BHA] 5,381 (1971 census). Bilaspur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Durg, Jabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Rewa, Sidhi, Surguja, Tikamgarh districts of Madhya Pradesh; also Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Survey needed.

BHATTIYALI (BHATEALI, BHATIALI PAHARI, BHATIYALI) [BHT] 102,252 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Bhattiyat Tehsil, Sihunta Sub-Tehsil. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. 86% lexical similarity with Chambeali, 83% with Palampur Kangri, 76% with Bilaspuri. Spoken by all ages. Speakers also use Hindi, Panjabi, and Urdu as second languages. Typology: SOV. Mountain slope, valley. Agriculturalists: rice, maize, millet. Altitude: 300 to 1,350 meters. Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Christian. Survey needed.

BHATNERI [BHN] 134,000 in India (1991 IMA). Northwest, Bhattiana region, Madhya Pradesh. Also in Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified. Rajput group. Devanagari script. Considered to be a mixture of Panjabi and Rajasthani. Existence unconfirmed; may be the same as another listing. Muslim. NT 1818-1826, out of print.

BHATOLA [BTL] Madhya Pradesh. Unclassified. Survey needed.

BHATRI (BHATTRI, BHATTRA, BHATRA) [BGW] 169,139 (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa. Largest populations in Kotpad and Jagdalpur tahsils. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. All dialects understand each other at 88%. Closely related to Halbi. 58% lexical similarity with Adwasi Oriya. Communities in Madhya Pradesh have limited bilingual proficiency in Hindi. Those in Orissa have limited proficiency in Oriya. 1/3 of the speakers have enhanced understanding of Halbi because of closeness to the Halbi-speaking area. Bhatri is preferred in home and religious domains. Language use is vigorous. Work in progress.

BHILALA (BHILALI) [BHI] 551,000 (1991 IMA). Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Survey needed.

BHILI (BHILBARI, BHILBOLI, BHILLA, BHIL, VIL) [BHB] 1,600,000 (1986 MARC); 5,624,000 including languages in the Bhil group (1994 IMA). Kotvali 12,688 (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jammu, Kashmir, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tripura; mountainous areas. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialects: ANARYA, BAORIA, BHIMCHAURA, CHARANI, DHODHRI, HABURI, KOKNA, KOTALI, KOTVALI (KOTWALIA), MAGRI, NAIKI, NEELISHIKARI, PADVI, PANCHALI, PITTALA BHASHA, RANAWAT, RANI, SIYALGIRI, TADAVI, TAKANKARI, TAKARI, VALVI. Connecting link between Gujarati and Rajasthani. 'Bhil' is an ethnic designation (caste or tribe). Dewali (Dehawali) is a cover term for Vasavi and Kotali, among others. 25% to 50% literate. Traditional religion. Tadavi Bhil are Muslim. NT 1930. Bible portions 1916-1927.

BHILORI (BHILODI) [BQI] Maharashtra, northern Dhule District, around Dhadgaon. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialects: BHILODI, NOIRI (SATPUDA NOIRI). The Noiri dialect of the Satpudas is nearly identical to Bhilori (95% lexical similarity), but other Noiri dialects have not been investigated. Noiri may be the same as Nora. Bhilori has 70% to 64% lexical similarity with Bareli Pauri, 50% to 53% with Rathwi Pauri, 66% to 70% with Vasavi. Limited bilingual proficiency in Marathi. Low literacy rate.

BHIM (BHINA) [BMM] 19,941. Tripura. Unclassified. Survey needed.

BHOJPURI (BHOJAPURI, BHOZPURI, BAJPURI, BIHARI) [BHJ] 23,375,000 in India (1994 IMA); 1,370,000 in Nepal (1993); 25,000,000 in all countries. Bihar Purnea area, Assam, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Dialects: NORTHERN STANDARD BHOJPURI (GORAKHPURI, SARAWARIA, BASTI), WESTERN STANDARD BHOJPURI (PURBI, BENARSI), SOUTHERN STANDARD BHOJPURI (KHARWARI), THARU, MADHESI, DOMRA, MUSAHARI. May be more than one language. Extent of dialect variation in India and Nepal not yet determined. The cover term 'Bihari' (Behari) is used for Bhojpuri, Maithili, and Magahi. Kaithi script. 50% to 75% literate. Agriculturalists. Hindu. Bible portions 1911-1982. Work in progress.

BHOTTARA (BHOTTADA) [BHR] Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa. Unclassified. Survey needed.

BHOYARI (BHOMIYARI, BHOYAROO, BHUIYAR, BHURIA, BOHOYERI) [BHY] 5,388. Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Dialects: KUMBHARI, MARARI, OJHI, POWARI. May not be in Rajasthani group. May be a cover term for various languages and dialects. Survey needed.

BHUIYA (BHUINHAR, BHUINYA, BHUIYALI, BHUMIA, BHUNGIYAS, BHUYAN ORIYA) [BHC] 4,434 (1961 census). Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. Survey needed.

BHUMIJ (SADAR BHUMIJ, BHUMIJ MUNDA, MUNDA) [BHM] 66,003 (1994 IMA). Primarily in Mayurbhanj District, Orissa and Singhbhum District, Bihar. Also in West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Dialects: KISAN-BHUMIJ, KURMI, PARSE-KHUMIJ, RAHIYA. 78% to 88% lexical similarity with Mundari. Madhupur Bhumij lexicon is closer to Bhumij than to Mundari, but the difference is marginal. There is Bhumij literature from a Bhumij society. Speakers prefer Bhumij to Mundari, although preliminary testing indicates that inherent intelligibility is good. Survey needed.

BHUNJIA (BUNJIA, BHUMJIYA, BHUNJIYA) [BHU] 5,235. Raipur, Hoshangabad, Sambalpur, Kalshandi districts of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. Called a more divergent dialect of Halbi. Survey needed.

BIETE (BETE, BIATE) [BIU] 17,930 (1994 IMA). Meghalaya, Mizoram, Assam, Cachar Hills. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Western, Northern. Closest to Hrangkhol. NT 1985-1991. Bible portions 1949-1991.

BIJORI (BINJHIA, BIRIJIA, BRIJIA, BURJA) [BIX] 2,391 (1961 census). Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Unclassified. Survey needed.

BILASPURI (BILASPURI PAHARI, PACCHMI, KAHLURI, KEHLURI, KEHLOORI PAHARI) [KFS] 295,387 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. 90% lexical similarity with Kangri of Palampur, 86% with Mandeali, 84% with Chameali. Spoken by all ages for home, community, agricultural and religious topics. 'Kahluri' is based on the old name for the princely state. Hindi is used for instruction in school and politics. Middle aged and older women have limited understanding of Hindi. Some speak Panjabi as second language. Urdu is spoken by midle aged and older educated people as second language. Radio programs. Typology: SOV. Mountain slope, valley. Agriculturalists: rice, maize, millet. Altitude: 300 to 1,350. Survey needed.

BINJHWARI (BINJHAL, BINJHAWAR, BINJHAWARI, BINJHWAR) [BGG] 48,804. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone. Survey needed.

BIRHOR (BIHOR, BIRHAR, BIRHORE) [BIY] 590 (1961 census) to 1,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Hazaribagh, Singbhum, and Ranchi districts of Bihar. Also Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Reported to be rapidly assimilating to Sadani. Survey needed.

BODO (BORO, BODI, BARA, BORONI, MECHI, MECHE, MECH, MECI) [BRX] 428,000 to 600,000 in India (1991); 938 in Nepal (1961 census); 1,000,000 in all countries (1989 USCWM). Assam, West Bengal. 2,000 villages with Bodo majorities. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo. Dialects: CHOTE, MECH. Related to Dimasa, Tripuri, Lalung. Vigorous Bodo culture and language use. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion. Bible 1981. NT 1938-1991. Bible portions 1906-1961.

BODO PARJA (BODO PARAJA, PARJI, PARJA, POROJA, JODIA PARJA, SODIA PARJA) [BDV] 50,000 (1995). Orissa, Koraput District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. Speakers use Adivasi Oriya as second language. Scrub forest. Mountain valley. Peasant agriculturalists, laborers. Altitude: 200 to 1,000 meters. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

BONDO (BHONDA, BONDO-PORAJA, GUTOBI, REMO, BONDA, NANQA POROJA) [BFW] 2,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Orissa, Koraput, Bondo Hills. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Gutob-Remo. Few are monolingual. Survey needed.

BRAJ BHASHA (BRAJ, BRAJ BHAKHA, BRIJ BHASHA, ANTARBEDI, ANTARVEDI, BIJBHASHA, BRI, BRIJU, BRUJ) [BFS] 42,158 (1994 IMA). Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Agra region; Rajasthan, Delhi. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Dialects: BRAJ BHASHA, ANTARBEDI, BHUKSA, SIKARWARI, JADOBAFI, DANGI. Bhuksa is sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji. NT 1824. Bible portions 1822.

BROKSKAT (BROKPA, BROKPA OF DAH-HANU, DOKSKAT, KYANGO) [BKK] 3,000 (1981 census). Along the Indus River in Ladakh and Kargil districts, northern Kashmir, villages around Garkhon, including Darchiks, Chulichan, Gurgurdo, Batalik, and Dah, and formerly in Hanu. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina. A very divergent variety of Shina. Minaro is an alternate ethnic name. 'Brokpa' is the name given by the Ladakhi for the people. 'Brokskat' is the language. Buddhism, traditional religion, some Muslim. Survey needed.

BUNAN (GHARA, GAHRI, LAHULI OF BUNAN) [BFU] 2,000 in all countries (1972 Nida). Himachal Pradesh, lower Bhaga valley. Also in western Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. 39% lexical similarity with Sunam, 26% to 39% with varieties of Chamba Lahuli, 37% with Tinan Lahuli, 26% to 34% with varieties of central Tibetan, 34% with Jangshung and Shumcho, 31% with Puh, 30% with Chitkuli and Nesang, 24% with Lhasa Tibetan, 23% with Kanauri. Also related to Tukpa and Kanashi. Bible portions 1911-1923. Survey needed.

BUNDELI (BUNDEL KHANDI) [BNS] 612,939 (1004 IMA) to 8,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Uttar Pradesh (Jalaun, Jhansi, Hamirpur, Banda districts), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Chhindwara, Hoshangabad, Sagar, Sehore, Panna, Satna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Guna, Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Lalitpur, Narsinghpur, Seoni, Datia districts), Maharashtra (Bhandara, Nagpur districts), Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Bundeli. Dialects: BUNDELI, PAWARI (POWARI), LODHANTI (RATHORA), KHATOLA, BANAPHARI, KUNDRI, NIBHATTA, BHADAURI (TOWARGARHI), LODHI, KOSHTI, KUMBHARI, NAGPURI HINDI, CHHINDWARA BUNDELI. Chhindwara has 65% to 85% lexical similarity with Standard Bundeli, and 41% with Nagpuri Hindi. Intelligibility testing of Standard varieties gave 83%, 92%, and 98%. Other dialects listed by Grierson are Standard Braj of Mathura, Aligarh, western Agra; Standard Braj of Bulandshahr; Standard Braj of eastern Agra, southern Morena, southern Bharatpur; Braj merging into Kanauji in Etah, Mainpuri, Budaun, and Bareilly; Braj merging into the Bhadauri subdialect in northern Morena; Braj merging into Jaipuri (Rajasthani) in northern Bharatpur and Sawai Uradhopur; Bhuksa in southern Nainital. Work in progress.

CHAKMA (TAKAM, CHAKAMA) [CCP] 300,000 in India (1987 ABWE); 260,000 in Bangladesh (1991 UBS); 560,000 in all countries. Assam, Tripura, West Bengal, Mizoram, Manipur. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Buddhist. NT 1926-1991. Bible portions 1924-1955.

CHAMARI (CHAMAR, CHAMBHAR BOLI, CHAMBHARI) [CDG] 5,324 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Survey needed.

CHAMBEALI (CHAMAYA, CHAMBEALI, CHAMBIALI, CHAMBIYALI, CHAMIYALI PAHARI, CHAMYA, CAMEALI) [CDH] 129,654 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Chamba Tehsil, and Jammu and Kashmir. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Dialects: BANSBALI, BANSYARI, GADI CHAMEALI. 90% lexical similarity with Palumpur Kangri, 86% with Bhattiyali, 84% with Bilaspuri, 83% with Mandeali, 79% with Gaddi, 78% with Churahi. Spoken by all ages. Hindi, Panjabi, or Urdu are used as second languages. Typology: SOV. Mountain slope, valley. Agriculturalists: rice, maize millet, fruit. Altitude: 900 to 3,000 meters. Bible portions 1883-1979. Survey needed.

CHANGTHANG (BYANSKAT, RONG, RUPSHU, STOTPA) [CNA] Tibetan border area, ChangThang region east and southeast of Leh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi. May be intelligible with Ladakhi. Some multilingualism in Urdu, Kashmiri, Hindi, or English. People are called 'Champas'. Nomadic. They barter for grain from the Zangskari. Noted for music and dance. Difficult access. Plateau. Pastoralists: sheep (cashmere wool), goats; traders: wool, salt. Altitude: 4,000 to 5,000 meters. Buddhist. Survey needed.

CHAUDANGSI (TSAUDANGSI) [CDN] 1,500 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Also in Nepal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Almora. Related to Rangkas, Darmiya, Byangsi. May only be in India. Survey needed.

CHAURA (CHOWRA, TUTET) [CHO] Nicobar Islands, Chaura Island. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa. Survey needed.

CHENCHU (CHENCHUCOOLAM, CHENCHWAR, CHENSWAR, CHONCHARU) [CDE] 17,609. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa. Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Survey needed.

CHERO [CRR] 28,372. Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. Unclassified. Possibly Indo-Aryan, Bihari group. Survey needed.

CHHATTISGARHI (CHHATTISGARHI, LARIA, KHALTAHI) [HNE] 10,985,000 including 10,910,000 Chattisgarhi (1994 IMA), 75,156 Laria (1994 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, and possibly in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura. Surgujia is in the Surguja and Raigarh districts of Madhya Pradesh; Sadri Korwa spoken by Korwa people of Jashpur district; Baigani in Balaghat, Raipur, Bilaspur, and Sambalpur districts of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa; Binjhwari in Raipur, Raigarh, and Patna districts of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar; Kalanga and Bhulia in Patna district of Bihar; Chattisgarhi Proper in Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur and other districts of Madhya Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone. Dialects: SURGUJIA, SADRI KORWA, BAIGANI, BINJHWARI, KALANGA, BHULIA, CHATTISGARHI PROPER, KAVARDI, KHAIRAGARHI. Devanagari script. Used in newspapers, radio, TV. Speakers use Hindi or Oriya as second languages. Bible portions 1904-1952. Work in progress.

CHIK-BARIK (CHIK BARAIK, PANCHPARGANIA, BEDIA, PAN, PAN SAWASI, TANTI) [CKB] 260,939 (1994 IMA). Bihar, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Possibly a dialect of Maithili. See Bedia and Awadhi. May be the same as Bedia. Survey needed.

CHIN, BAWM (BAWM, BAWNG, BAWN, BOM) [BGR] 9,000 in all countries (1990 UBS); 5,773 in Bangladesh (1981 census). Assam. Also in Myanmar, Bangladesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central, Unclassified. Bible 1989. NT 1977. Bible portions 1961.

CHIN, FALAM (HALAM CHIN, HALLAM, FALLAM, TIPURA) [HBH] 25,367 in India (1994 IMA); 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS); 125,370 or more in all countries. Assam, Tripura, Mizoram, West Bengal. Also in Bangladesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Western, Southern. Dialects: CHOREI, CHARI CHONG, HALAM, KAIPANG, KALAI, KHELMA, MURSUM, RUPINI, SHEKASIP. Other dialect or clan names are: Ranglong, Choral, Ranjkho, Molsom, Kaipeng, Sankachep, Bong, Bongcher, Langkai, Moosephang, Rupini, Koloi. They are collectively called 'Baro Halam'. Rupini and Koloi are said to be quite different from the others. Typology: SOV. Bible 1991. NT 1951-1973. Bible portions 1933-1964.

CHIN, HAKA (HAKA, BAUNGSHE) [CNH] 101,000 in all countries; 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS); 977 in Bangladesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central, Haka. Dialects: LAI, KLANGKLANG (THLANTLANG), ZOKHUA, SHONSHE. Shonshe may be a separate language. Bible 1978. NT 1940, in press (1995). Bible portions 1920-1959.

CHIN, KHUMI (KHUMI, KHAMI, KAMI, KUMI, KHWEYMI, KHUNI, ARENG, AWA) [CKM] 78,000 or more in all countries; 76,700 in Myanmar; 1,188 in Bangladesh (1981 census). Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khami. Dialects: KHIMI, MATU (MATUPI), YINDI (YINDU), KHAMI. Called Khami Chin in India. Tropical forest. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1959-1991. Bible portions 1935-1950.

CHIN, MARA (LAKHER, ZAO, MARAM, MIRA, MARA) [MRH] 21,080 in India (1994 IMA); 20,000 in Myanmar (1994 IMA); 41,000 in all countries. Lushai hills, Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Lakher. Dialects: TLONGSAI, HLAWTHAI. Close to Shendu. Reported to be affiliated with Lai (Haka Chin). Typology: SOV. Bible 1956. NT 1928-1939. Bible portions 1912-1954.

CHIN, PAITE (PAITE, PAITHE, PARTE, HAITHE) [PCK] 42,715 in India (1994 IMA); 8,900 in Myanmar (1983 estimate); 51,600 in all countries. Assam, Manipur, Mizoram. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Related to Tedim Chin, Zomi. Bible 1971. NT 1951, in press (1995). Bible portions 1940-1960.

CHIN, TEDIM (TEDIM, TIDDIM) [CTD] 155,000 in India (1990 BAP); 189,100 in Myanmar (1990 BAP); 344,100 in all countries. Chin Hills, Upper Chindwin, Chin State, Tiddim area. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Dialects: SOKTE, KAMHAU (KAMHOW, KAMHAO). Other Chin languages or dialects of this area are Saizang, Teizang, Zo. Trade language of Tiddim political subdivision. Typology: SOV. Bible 1983, in press (1995). NT 1932. Bible portions 1915-1964.

CHIN, THADO (THADOU, THADO-UBIPHEI, THADO-PAO, KUKI, KUKI-THADO, THAADOU KUKI) [TCZ] 125,100 in India; 26,200 in Myanmar (1983); 200,000 in all countries (1993 UBS). Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Dialects: BAITE, CHANGSEN, JANGSHEN, KAOKEEP, KHONGZAI, KIPGEN, LANGIUNG, SAIRANG, THANGNGEN, HAWKIP, SHITHLOU, SINGSON (SHINGSOL). Some of those listed as dialects are separate languages. Typology: SOV. Bible 1971-1994. NT 1942-1983. Bible portions 1924-1978.

CHIRU (CHHORI) [CDF] 3,059 (1961 census). Assam, Manipur, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Western. Related to Aimol, Purum, Langrong, Koireng. Survey needed.

CHODRI (CHAUDRI, CHODHARI, CHAUDHARI, CHOUDHARY, CHOUDHARA) [CDI] 226,534 (1994 IMA). Mainly in Broach and Dangs districts, Gujarat. Some in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Ethnically Bhil. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

CHULIKATA (IDU, MIDHI, MIDU, IDA) [CLK] 7,063. Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Closest to Digaro and Miju. Survey needed.

CHURAHI (CHURAHI PAHARI, CHAURAHI, CHURAI PAHARI) [CDJ] 110,552 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba district, Chaurah and Saluni tehsils, Bhalai Sub-tehsil. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. 78% lexical similarity with Chambeali (closest), 70% with Palampur Kangri and Bhattiyali, 67% to 69% with Gaddi, 65% with Mandeali and Bilaspuri, 64% with Pangi. Spoken by all ages, Some speakers use Hindi, Panjabi, or Urdu as second languages. Typology: SOV; postpositions; genitives after noun heads; adjectives, numerals before noun heads; uestion word initial; verb suffixes mark person, number, gender of subject. Mountain slope, valley. Agriculturalists: rice, maize millet, wheat, barley. Altitude: 1,50 to 3,000 meters. Survey needed.

DAL [DLL] 9,844. Orissa. Unclassified. Survey needed.

DARLONG [DLN] 5,000 in India (1994 UBS); 14,000 in all countries (1993 UBS). Tripura. Also in Bangladesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central, Unclassified. 45% literacy. NT in press (1996).

DARMIYA (DARIMIYA) [DRD] 1,750 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Mahakali Zone, far western in Nepal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Almora. Related to Rangkas, Chaudangsi, Byangsi. May only be in India. Survey needed.

DECCAN (DESI, DEKINI) [DCC] 10,709,800 (1990). Central Maharashtra, Deccan Plateau. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified. Dialects: KALVADI (DHARWAR), BIJAPURI. Distinct from Deccan (Dakhini, Mirgan) dialect of Urdu. Arid. Plateau. Muslim. Work in progress.

DEGARU (DHEKARU) [DGR] Bihar, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified. Survey needed.

DEORI (CHUTIYA, DEURI, DRORI) [DER] 18,570 (1994 IMA). Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo. Survey needed.

DHANKI (DHANKA, DANGI, DANGRI, DANGS BHIL, TADAVI, TADVI BHIL, KAKACHHU-KI BOLI) [DHN] 131,269 (1994 IMA). Gujarat, Dangs District; Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi. The people are called 'Dhanka'. Trade language. Survey needed.

DHANWAR (DHANVAR, DANUWAR) [DHA] 21,137 (1961 census). Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone. A distinct language from Danuwar Rai in Nepal. Survey needed.

DHODIA (DHORI, DHORE, DHOWARI, DORIA) [DHO] 123,321 (1994 IMA). Gujarat, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Not the same as Dori in Pakistan. Survey needed.

DIGARO (DIGARU, TAAON, TARAON, TAYING, MISHMI) [MHU] 31,678 (1994 IMA). Assam, Arunachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Closely related languages: Chulikata, Miju. Survey needed.

DIMASA [DIS] 100,700 (1994 IMA). North Cachar district and Cachar Hills, Assam, Nagaland, Haflong District. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo. Dialects: DIMASA, HARIAMBA. Low literacy rate. 3 scripts. Related to Kachari, but separate. Bible portions 1905-1908. Work in progress.

DOGRI-KANGRI (DOGRI, DHOGARYALI, DOGARI, DOGRI JAMMU, DOGRI PAHARI, DONGARI, HINDI DOGRI, TOKKARU, DOGRI-KANGRA) [DOJ] 2,095,280, including 2,005,000 Dogri (1994 IMA), 90,279 Kangri (1994 IMA). The home area is in the outer hills and strip of plain at their feet in Jammu and Kashmir between the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. Central states from north to south; West Bengal, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh (Kangra and Hamirpur districts). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Dialects: BHATBALI, EAST DOGRI, KANDIALI, KANGRI (KANGRA), NORTH DOGRI, DOGRI. Palampur Kangri has 90% lexical similarity with Bilaspuri and Chambeali, 89% with Mandeali, 83% with Bhattiyali, 80% with MacLeod Ganj Gaddi. Spoken by all ages. Urdu (middle aged and older), Hindi (school, shops. cities), and Panjabi (shops) are spoken as additional languages for certain purposes. Radio programs. 18% to 19% literate. Typology: SOV. Mountain slope, valley. Agriculturalists: rice, maize, millet, fruit. Altitude: 300 to 1,350 meters. Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Christian. NT 1826, out of print. Bible portions 1883-1971.

DOMARI [RMT] 500,000 in all countries (1980 Kenrick). Also in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Russia, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Libya, Afghanistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom. Dialects: DOMAKI, WOGRI-BOLI. A Gypsy language. Muslim. Survey needed.

DUBLA (DUBALA, DUBLI, RATHOD, TALAVIA) [DUB] 202,000 (1991 IMA). Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. 10% literate. Hindu, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

DURUWA (DHURWA, DHRUVA, DURVA, PARJI, PARJHI, PARAJA, PARAJHI, THAKARA, TAGARA, TUGARA) [PCI] 90,000 speakers out of 100,000 in the ethnic group (1986); two-thirds in Bastar, one-third in Koraput. Southeast Jagdalpur, Madhya Pradesh (Bastar), Orissa (Koraput). Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba. Dialects: TIRIYA, NETHANAR, DHARBA, KUKANAR. Name of the people is 'Dhurwa', the language 'Parji'. 90% of the ethnic group speaks Parji as mother tongue. There are monolinguals, including children. Halbi is the second language. Part of the ethnic group speaks Halbi as first language (around Jagdalpur, Bastar district); 1% speak Oriya; less than 2% use Bhatri (northern Bastar District). Hindi is the state language, but it is not well known except by the educated. All dialects are inherently intelligible, with 90% to 96% lexical similarity. Nethanar dialect is central. Dialects have 70% to 82% lexical similarity with Halbi. Parji is spoken by the Madiya for communicating with the Dhurwa people. Both Devanagari and Oriya scripts are needed for literature. 15% to 25% literate. Forest. Plains. Lumbermen. Work in progress.

ENGLISH [ENG] Second language speakers: 11,021,610 (1961 census); 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Language for official use. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1991. Bible portions 1530-1987.

GADABA (GADBA, GUTOB, GUTOP, GUDWA, GODWA, GADWA, BODO GADABA, BOI GADABA) [GBJ] 32,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). At least 7,460 mother tongue speakers in Lamtaput Block, Koraput, and 1,080 in Khairaput Block, Koraput (1995). Andhra Pradesh (Visakhapatnam District), Orissa (Koraput District). Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Gutob-Remo. Dialects: MUNDA ORISSA GADABA, MUNDA ANDHRA PRADESH GADABA. Lexical similarity among 7 varieties of Orissa was 69% to 89%; between 2 in Andhra Pradesh 73%, others 30% to 37%. Some intelligibility testing showed inadequate comprehension. Some migrant communities may be shifting to Adivasi Oriya. Low bilingualism in Oriya. Different from Dravidian Gadaba. 6.53% literate. Rolling hills. Work in progress.

GADABA (OLLAR GADABA, OLLARI, SAN GADABA, GADBA) [GDB] 36,715 (1994 IMA), 4,000 to 7,000 in Pottangi Block, Koraput District (1995). Orissa, Koraput district. Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba. Dialects: DRAVIDIAN ORISSA GADABA, DRAVIDIAN ANDHRA PRADESH GADABA. 4 varieties investigated in Orissa had 69% to 80% lexical similarity, and with one in Andhra Pradesh 42% to 47%. Different from Gadaba in Munda family, also spoken in Koraput. Literacy rate 6.53%. Rolling hills. Survey needed.

GADDI (BHARMAURI BHADI, PAHARI BHARMAURI, PANCHI BRAHMAURI RAJPUT, GADDYALI, GADIALI, GADI) [GBK] 114,307 (1994 IMA). Himachal Pradesh (Chamba District, Brahmaur Tehsil and Holi Sub-Tehsils, and Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir. Higher elevations in summer, lower in winter. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Dialect: BHARMAURI. 74% to 80% lexical similarity with Palamur Kangri, 79% with Chambeali, 67% to 73% with Mandeali. Hindi is used for instruction in school, in shops, and cities. Typology: SOV. Mountain slope. Nomadic shepherds. Altitude: 1,340 to 5,882 meters. Survey needed.

GADE LOHAR (GADULIYA LOHAR, LOHPITTA RAJPUT LOHAR, BAGRI LOHAR, BHUBALIYA LOHAR, LOHARI) [GDA] Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Pelhi, Haryana, Punjab. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Some are nomadic blacksmiths. Survey needed.

GALONG (GALLONG, GALLO, GALO, ADI-GALO, ADI-GALLONG) [GBH] 47,641 (1994 IMA). Assam, Tibet border area; Arunachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Close to Adi. Work in progress.

GAMIT (GAMATI, GAMTI, GAMTA, GAVIT, GAMITH) [GBL] 222,021 (1994 IMA). Gujarat, Broach, Surat. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Most speakers have high school or college education. NT 1982. Bible portions 1975.

GANGTE (GANTE) [GNB] 59,000 in India (1991 IMA). Assam, central Manipur, Megalaya. Also in Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Related to Thado Chin. Bible 1991. NT 1959. Bible portions 1952-1955.

GARHWALI (GADHAVALI, GADHAWALA, GADWAHI, GASHWALI, GODAULI, GORWALI, GURVALI, PAHARI GARHWALI, GIRWALI) [GBM] 2,081,756 (1994 IMA). Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali. Dialects: SRINAGARIA, TEHRI, BADHANI, DESSAULYA, LOHBYA, MAJH-KUMAIYA, BHATTIANI, NAGPURIYA, RATHI, SALANI. 50% to 75% literate. Mountain slope. NT 1827-1994. Bible portions 1876-1966.

GARO (GARROW, MANDE) [GRT] 547,433 in India (1994 IMA); 102,000 in Bangladesh (1993); 650,0 in all countries. West Assam, Garo Hills; Meghalaya, Nagaland; Tripura; West Bengal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Garo. Dialects: ABENGYA, ACHICK (ACHIK), AMBENG, ATONG, AWE, CHISAK, DACCA, GANCHING, KAMRUP, MATCHI, MEGAM, RUGA. Bible 1924-1994. NT 1894-1987. Bible portions 1887-1904.

GATA' (GATAQ, GETAQ, GETA', GTA', DIDEI, DIDAYI, DIRE) [GAQ] 2,000 or fewer (1966 Stampe). Orissa, Koraput District. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta', Geta'. Dialects: PLAINS GETA', HILL GETA'. Ruhlen treats Plains Geta' and Hill Geta' as separate languages. Survey needed.

GAWARI (GAMARI, GAUUARI, GOARI) [GBO] 21,095 (1971 census). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Survey needed.

GIRASIA, ADIWASI (ADIWASI GIRASIA, GARASIA) [GAS] 100,000 (1988 Williams). Northern Gujarat, Banaskantha and Sabarkantha districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialects have 89% to 96% lexical similarity with each other; 75% to 93% with dialects of Rajput Girasia; 79% to 92% with dialects of Patelia; 79% to 93% with Wagdi; 76% to 87% with Marwari dialects. Not intelligible with Rajput Girasia. Speakers are Bhils. They sometimes call their language 'Adiwasi Gujarati'. 15% to 25% literate. Hindu, traditional religion. Work in progress.

GIRASIA, RAJPUT (RAJPUT GARASIA, GARASIA, GRASIA, DUNGRI GRASIA, DHUNGRI GIRASIA, DUNGARI GIRASIA, DHUNGRI BHILI) [GRA] 60,000 (1994 IMA). Gujarat, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialects in Gujarat and Rajasthan have 94% to 99% lexical similarity; 75% to 93% with Adiwasi Girasia dialects; 76% to 84% with Pateliya dialects; 79% to 86% with Wagdi; 67% to 84% with Marwari dialects. Not intelligible with Adiwasi Garasia. Speakers are of the warrior caste. 15% to 25% literate. Hindu, traditional religion. Work in progress.

GONDI, NORTHERN (GONDI, GAUDI, GONDIVA, GONDWADI, GOONDILE, GOUDWAL, GHOND, GODI, GONDU, GOUDI) [GON] 736,000 Betul (1991 UBS). 2,506,373 all Gondi (1994 IMA). Madhya Pradesh State, Betul, Chindwara, Seoni, Mandla, and Balaghat districts; Maharashtra State, Amravati, Wardha, Nagpur, Bhandara, and Yavatmal districts. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Dialects: BETUL, CHINDWARA, MANDLA, SEONI, AMRAVATI, BHANDARA, NAGPUR, YAVATMAL. Lexical similarity among dialects 58% to 90%; inherent intelligibility 94% to 97%. Speakers tested in some other dialects understood Amravati 94% to 97%; Betul 83% to 96%, and Seoni 82% to 97%. 58% to 78% intelligibility of Southern Gondi. A separate language from Muria, Maria of Garhichiroli, Abujmaria, Dandami Maria, and Koya. Speakers of all ages. Some bilingualism in Hindi in Madhya Pradesh, and Marathi in Maharashtra, but proficiency is not very high. The people are called 'Gond'. 25% to 50% literate. Traditional religion, Hindu. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1872-1987.

GONDI, SOUTHERN (TELUGU GONDI) [GGO] 600,000 to 700,000 (1993). Andhra Pradesh State, Adilabad District; Maharashtra State, southern Yavatmal, southern Chandrapur and southeastern Garhichiroli districts. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Dialects: SIRONCHA, NIRMAL (ADILABAD), BHAMRAGARH, UTNOOR, AHERI, RAJURA, ETAPALLY GONDI. 64% to 90% lexical similarity among dialects. Sironcha is the dialect understood best by the others, with 90% to 98% intelligibility. 49% to 58% intelligibility of Northern Gondi. Speakers are called 'Gond'. 25% to 50% literate. Tropical forests, deforested agricultural lands. Plains, hills. Swidden agriculturalists, hunters, fishermen. Traditional religion, Hindu. Bible portions 1962. Work in progress.

GOWLAN [GOJ] Maharashtra, Amravati District, and in some cases in the same communities as Korku tribal people. Also in Hoshangabad District. Some reported in northern Karnataka. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified. Surrounded by Korku. Bilingualism in Hindi is low in at least the Chikli area. Dialects in Maharashtra and Karnataka reported to be different. May be closer to Hindi (Central zone) than to Marathi (Southern zone). Positive language attitudes. Belong to Gowli caste. Pastoralists: cattle. Survey needed.

GOWLI (NAND) [GOK] Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, Amravati District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Dialects: NAND, RANYA, LINGAAYAT, KHAMLA. Surrounded by Korku. Speakers belong to Gowli caste. There are 12 1/2 subgroups; Nand Gowli the highest, Musalman (the 'half tribe') the lowest. Ranya has 84% to 92% lexical similarity with Nand. Nand subdialects have 93% or higher intelligibility of the Khamla dialect. Nand Gowli is the primary language used in the home. Hindi and Marathi are used as second languages. Speakers' dialect in Madhya Pradesh appears closer to Marathi (Southern zone) than to Hindi (Central zone). 5% to 15% literate. Work in progress.

GROMA (TROMOWA) [GRO] Sikkim. Also in China. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Southern. Dialects: UPPER GROMA, LOWER GROMA. Survey needed.

GUJARATI (GUJRATHI, GUJERATI) [GJR] 43,312,000 in India (1994 IMA); 140,000 in United Kingdom (1979 Wagner and Dayton); 6,203 in Fiji; 9,600 in Zimbabwe (1973); 12,000 in Zambia (1985); 147,000 in Uganda (1986); 5,000 in Malawi (1993); 50,000 in Kenya (1995); 800 in Singapore (1985); 44,000,000 in all countries. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh. Also in Bangladesh, South Africa, Pakistan, Reunion. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. Dialects: STANDARD GUJARATI (SAURASHTRA STANDARD, NAGARI, BOMBAY GUJARATI, PATNULI), GAMADIA (GRAMYA, SURATI, ANAWLA, BRATHELA, EASTERN BROACH GUJARATI, CHAROTARI, PATIDARI, VADODARI, AHMEDABAD GAMADIA, PATANI), PARSI, KATHIYAWADI (JHALAWADI, SORATHI, HOLADI, GOHILWADI, BHAWNAGARI), KHARWA, KAKARI, TARIMUKI (GHISADI). Gujarati script. 30% literate (1974). State language of Gujarat. National language. Hindu. Bible 1823-1994. NT 1820-1985. Bible portions 1809-1965.

GUJARI (GUJURI, GUJER, GUJAR, GUJJARI, GURJAR, GOJRI, GOGRI, KASHMIR GUJURI, RAJASTHANI GUJURI, GOJARI) [GJU] 538,691 in India (1994 IMA); 300,000 or more in Pakistan (1992); 2,000 or fewer in Afghanistan (1994); 840,000 or more in all countries. Himachal, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu, Kashmir, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Dialect: AJIRI OF HAZARA. 5% to 15% literate. Pastoralists, nomadic. Work in progress.

GURUNG (GURUNG KURA) [GVR] 82 in India (1961 census); 90,000 in Nepal (1985). West Bengal, Darjeeling. Also possibly in Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Gurung. Related to Thakali. NT 1982.

HAJONG (HAIJONG) [HAJ] 18,070 in India (1994 IMA). Meghalaya, Assam, West Bengal. Also Bangladesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese.

HALBI (BASTARI, HALBA, HALVAS, HALABI, HALVI, MAHARI, MEHARI) [HLB] 701,000 (1994 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, open plains in Bastar District, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Dialects: ADKURI, BASTARI, CHANDARI, GACHIKOLO, MEHARI, MURI (MURIA), SUNDI. Reported to be a creole language. Grierson called it a dialect of Marathi for convenience, but noted similarities to Bhatri, a dialect of Oriya. Bhunjia, Nahari, Kawari are considered more divergent dialects. Men who have been to school use Hindi as second language for trading and common topics. Some use Bhatri as second language. Halbi is the lingua franca of the district. Government literacy program. Typology: SOV, postpositions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; 2 or 3 affixes per word; word order distinguishes given and new information; noun affixes indicate case; verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; passives; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVC, CVV; non-tonal. Scrub forest, semi-tropical. Plains. Pastoralists (sedentary), peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 600 meters. Hindu. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress.

HARAUTI (HADAUTI, HADOTI, HADOTHI, PIPLODA) [HOJ] 545,000 (1994 IMA). Rajasthan, Kota area, and Madhya Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Dialects: SIPARI, HARAUTI. NT 1822, out of print.

HARYANVI (BANGARU, BANGER, BANGRI, BANGRU, HARYANI, HARIYANI, HARIANI, DESARI, CHAMARWA) [BGC] 13,000,000 or 85% of Haryan population of 16,000,000 (1992 SIL), including 102,348 Haryanvi proper (1994 IMA); 154,340 Mewati (1994 IMA). Haryana, Punjab, Karnataka, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Dialects: BANGARU PROPER, DESWALI, BAGDI, MEWATI. 'Bangru' now used for speakers in Jind area. 'Khadar' is used by speakers in Jind to refer to the speech of Rohtak and Sonipat. 'Bagdi' is the variety used around Fatehabad and Sirsa, and south of Bhiwani (distinct from the Wagdi language in southern Rajasthan). Intelligibility among dialects is good, but not intelligible with Hindi, the closest language. Speakers of all ages. Hindi is used as second language; some bilingual ability in all social groups for education and contact with non-Haryanvi speakers. 55% literate in Hindi. Dictionary. Hindu, Muslim. Work in progress.

HINDI (KHARI BOLI, KHADI BOLI) [HND] 180,000,000 in India (1991 UBS); 346,513,000 or nearly 50% including second language users in India (1994 IMA); 346,000 in Bangladesh (1993); 26,253 in USA (1970 census); 685,170 in Mauritius; 890,292 in South Africa; 232,760 in Yemen; 147,000 in Uganda; 5,000 in Singapore; 2,900 in Nepal; 11,200 in New Zealand (1987); 24,500 in Germany (1984 Time); 182,000,000 in all countries or more. 418,000,000 including second language users (1995 WA). Throughout northern India: Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, northern Bihar, Himachal Pradesh. Also in Kenya, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Hindi, Hindustani, Urdu could be considered co-dialects, but have important sociolinguistic differences. Hindi uses the Devanagari writing system, and formal vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has four varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, Standard Hindi); Urdu; Dakhini; Rekhta. State language of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh. Languages and dialects in the Western Hindi group are Hindustani, Bangaru, Braj Bhasha, Kanauji, Bundeli; see separate entries. National language. Typology: SOV. Hindu. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1818-1987. NT 1811-1992. Bible portions 1806-1962.

HMAR (HAMAR, MHAR, HMARI) [HMR] 47,638 (1994 IMA). Assam, Manipur, Mizoram. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. 90% literate. Close to Zomi. Bible 1968-1987. NT 1946-1977. Bible portions 1920-1953.

HO (LANKA KOL, BIHAR HO) [HOC] 1,026,000 in India (1994 IMA); 444,000 in Singhbhum, Devanagari script area; 203,000 in Orissa, Oriya script area (1990 UBS). Mainly in Singhbhum District of Bihar, and Mayurbhanj and Koenjhar districts of Orissa. Also in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Dialects: LOHARA, CHAIBASA-THAKURMUNDA. Most dialects have 85% lexical similarity with each other, except for three on the southern and eastern edges of the Ho area. Most speakers understand the Chaibasa and Thakurmunda dialects well, at 90% to 92% on narrative. Language use is vigorous in home and community in most areas. Oriya, Santali, and Hindi are used in limited domains. Positive attitudes toward Ho. The Devanagari script is used in Bihar and the Oriya script in Orissa. Grammar, dictionary. 'Kherwari' (Khanwar, Kharar, Kharoali, Kharwari) is a group name for Ho, Mundari, and Santali, which are closely related languages, and some other smaller languages or dialects. Distinct from Ho (Hani) of Myanmar, China, Viet Nam, Laos. 25% to 50% literate. Forest. Agriculturalists, hunters. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1915-1987.

HOLIYA (HOLAR, HOLARI, HOLE, HOLIAN, HOLU, GOLARI-KANNADA) [HOY] 3,093 (1961 census). Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Survey needed.

HRANGKHOL (RANGKHOL) [HRA] 17,030 in India (1994 IMA). Manipur, Assam, Tripura. Also in Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Western, Northern. Dialect: HADEM. Typology: SOV. NT in press (1996).

IKRANI [IKR] Maharashtra State, Dhule District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone,. Non-standard variety of Marathi. Survey needed.

INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [INS] 1,500,000 or more users including over 1,000,000 deaf adults and about 500,000 deaf children (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Extends into some parts of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Deaf sign language. Dialects: DELHI SIGN LANGUAGE, CALCUTTA SIGN LANGUAGE, BANGALORE-MADRAS SIGN LANGUAGE, BOMBAY SIGN LANGUAGE. Less than 5% of deaf people attend deaf schools. Over 75% of signs from all regions are related. Dialects are not related to deaf schools. Delhi dialect is the most influential. Not related to French, Spanish, or American sign languages, or their group. Some influence from British Sign Language in the fingerspelling system and a few other signs, but most are unrelated to European sign systems. Developed indigenously in India. The Indian manual English system is hardly intelligible to American Signed English. Deaf schools mainly do not use ISL, but vocational programs often do.

INDO-PORTUGUESE [IDB] 700 monolingual speakers in Korlai (1977 Theban); plus active use among Catholic citizens in Daman (1982 Jackson); possibly 30 (1992 P. Baker) to 2,250 in Sri Lanka (1971 Ian Smith); 250 active families in Sri Lanka (1984 Ian Smith); 30 to 3,000 in all countries. Korlai near Bombay, Daman north of Bombay, Vypeen Island, and Cochin area. Creole, Portuguese based. Some communities in India have become extinct. Typology: SOV. NT 1826-1852. Bible portions 1819-1851. Survey needed.

IRULA (ERAVALLAN, ERUKALA, YERUKALA, YARUKULA, YERKULA, YERUKLA, ERUKALA, IRAVA, IRULAR, IRULAR MOZHI, IRULIGA, IRULIGAR, KORAVA, KAD CHENSU) [IRU] 110,110 (1994 IMA), including 40,000 in Chingleput, 4,000 in Nilgiri foothills (1985 IEM), 4,600 in Salem (1961 census), 1,000 Northern Irula (1993 SIL), 17,832 in Kerala (1981 census). Some people called 'Irula' speak Tamil, some 'Yerukula' speak Korava or Telugu, as mother tongue. Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar, Salem, Chengai Anna; Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Maharshtra. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Dialects: MELE NADU, VETTE KADA, NORTHERN IRULA ("KASABA"), BOOKAPURAM, IRULIGA, PARIKALA, SANKARA-YERUKALA. Mele Nadu seems to be prestigious and understood by other dialect speakers. Lexical similarity between Mele Nadu and Northern Irula is 62% to 73%, Mele Nadu and Vette Kada 57% to 66%, Northern Irula and Vette Kada 51% to 57%. 44% to 50% lexical similarity with Tamil, and not inherently intelligible with it. Irula is used in the home, village, in market and politics with other Irula people, and for praying. Nearly all speak some Tamil, 44% Kannada, 32% Badaga. Low literacy rate. Called Kad Chensu in Andhra Pradesh. A caste variety. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV, postpositions, non-tonal. Sub-tropical forest. Mountain slope, plains. Peasant agriculturalists, coffee and tea laborers. Altitude: 1,000 to 6,500 feet. Hindu, traditional religion. Work in progress.

JAGANNATHI (JAGA AAD, JAGANATHI, JAGANNATHA BHASHA, SURYA JAGANNATHI) [JAG] 1,307 (1961 census). Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. May be Oriya or a dialect of Oriya. Survey needed.

JANGGALI (JANGALI, JHANGAL, JHANGAR, DZANGGALI, RAWAT) [JNL] 2,000 to 3,000 in India (1991); 9,140 in Nepal (1961 census) or only a few hundred in 1991; 11,000 to 12,000 in all countries or fewer. North of Askot Maila, Pithorgarh District, Uttar Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Janggali. Survey needed.

JANGSHUNG (JANGRAMI, ZANGRAM, ZHANG-ZHUNG, THEBOR, THEBÖR SKADD, THEBARSKAD, CENTRAL KINNAURI) [JNA] 2,400, 4% of the population of Kinnaur District (1981 census). Jangi, Lippa, and Asrang villages in Morang Tehsil. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. 70% lexical similarity with Shumcho, 65% with Sunam, 51% with Chitkuli, 49% with Lower Kinnauri. Mountain slope, valleys. Pastoralists (sedentary), peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 5,000 to 6,770 meters. Traditional religion, Hindu, Lamaistic Buddhist. Survey needed.

JARAWA [ANQ] 250 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Andaman Islands, interior and south central Rutland Island, central interior and south interior South Andaman Island. Andamanese, South Andamanese. Distinct from Önge and Sentinel. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

JATAPU [JTP] 36,450 speakers (1971 census), out of an ethnic group of more than 80,000 (1985 C. Von Fuerer-Haimendorf). Hills of Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu; Ganjam and Koraput districts of Orissa. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi. A scheduled tribe in India. Most of the ethnic group has adopted Telugu as mother tongue. Survey needed.

JAUNSARI (JAUNSAURI, JANSAURI, PAHARI) [JNS] 92,186 (1994 IMA). Uttar Pradesh, Jaunsar; Himachal Pradesh, Jansar-Bawar Division, Dehra Dun. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. May be intelligible with Mahasui Pahari. Grierson said it was also close to western Hindi, and had some similarity to Garhwali to the east. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1895-1904. Survey needed.

JHARIA (JHALIYA) [JHA] 2,055 (1961 census). Orissa, Koraput. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. Survey needed.

JINGPHO (CHINGPO, KACHIN, SINGPHO, CHINGPAW, JINGHPAW, MARIP) [CGP] 7,200 in India (1983); 625,900 in Myanmar (1993); 20,000 in China (1990); 652,000 in all countries. Assam, Arunachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kachinic. Dialects: HKAKU, KAURI (GAURI), DZILI (JILI). 'Kachin' refers to a cultural rather than a linguistic group. An official nationality in China. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, some Buddhist, Christian. Bible 1927. NT 1912. Bible portions 1895-1912. Work in progress.

JUANG (PUTTOOAS, PATUA, PATRA-SAARA) [JUN] 24,940 (1994 IMA). Orissa, Keonjhar District. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang, Juang. Not closely related to other languages. Survey needed.

JURAY [JUY] Orissa. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray. Closest to Sora. Survey needed.

KACHARI (CACHARI) [QKC] 56,413 (1994 IMA). North Cachar District and the Cachar Hills, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo. Mountain slope. Work in progress.

KACHCHI (CUCHI, CUTCH, KUTCHCHI, KUTCHIE, KACHI, KATCH, KACHCHHI, KAUTCHY, KATCHI) [KFR] 768,000 in India (1994 IMA); 10,000 in Kenya (1995); 778,000 or more in all countries. Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Kutch area; Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa. Also in Tanzania and Malawi. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. Dialect: JADEJI. Bible portions 1834. Work in progress.

KADAR (KADA) [KEJ] 800 (1981 Shapiro and Schiffman). Ernakulam, Palghat, and Trichur districts, Kerala; Andhra Pradesh; Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Close to Malayalam, but a separate language (Thundyil 1975.246). A scheduled tribe in India. Forest. Hills. Hunter-gatherers. Survey needed.

KAIKADI (KOKADI, KAIKAI, KAIKADIA) [KEP] 11,846 (1971 census). Maharashtra, Karnataka. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Nomadic. Survey needed.

KAMAR [KEQ] 10,106 (1971 census). Raipur and Rewa districts of Madhya Pradesh. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Survey needed.

KANASHI (KANASI) [QAS] 1,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Himachal Pradesh, Kullu District, Kullu Tehsil, glen of the Bios Valley, around the village of Malana (Malani). Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. Not known how different it is from dialects spoken in Lahul and Spiti to the north and east. Surrounded by speakers of Indo-Aryan languages. Survey needed.

KANAUJI (BHAKHA, BRAJ KANAUJI, BRAJ) [BJJ] 6,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Uttar Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Dialects: KANAUJI PROPER, TIRHARI, TRANSITIONAL KANAUJI. Transitional Kanauji dialect is between Kanauji and Awadhi. NT 1821.

KANIKKARAN (KANIKKAR, KANNIKAN, KANNIKARAN, KANNIKHARAN) [KEV] 10,000. Calicut, Ernakulam, Quilon, and Trivandrum districts of Kerala; Tirunelveli District of Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Malaryan may be the same. Hills. Survey needed.

KANJARI (KAGARI, KANGAR BHAT, KANGRI, KANJRI) [KFT] 55,386 (1971 census). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Dialect: KUCHBANDHI. Sometimes called a 'Gypsy' language. It may be in the Panjabi group. Survey needed.

KANNADA (KANARESE, CANARESE, BANGLORI, MADRASSI) [KJV] 33,663,000 (1994 IMA); 44,000,000 including second language users (1995 WA). Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Dialects: BIJAPUR, JEINU KURUBA, AINE KURUBA. About 20 dialects; Badaga may be one. Kannada script; similar to Telugu script. 60% literate. State language of Karnataka. National language. Typology: SOV. Hindu, Muslim, Christian. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1831, in press (1995). NT 1823-1995. Bible portions 1812-1988.

KANNADA, SOUTHERN (SOUTHERN NONSTANDARD KANNADA) [SKJ] 10,000 or more (1987). Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore and Dharmapuri districts, in pockets in Salem and North Arcot districts, and adjacent sections of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Dialects are inherently intelligible. Inadequate bilingualism in Tamil and Standard Kannada. A non-standard variety of Kannada, spoken by Kurumba people. Ponai is a clan name.

KARMALI (KOHLE) [KFL] 144,000 (1991 IMA). Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Survey needed.

KASHMIRI (KESHUR, KASCHEMIRI, CASHMIRI, CASHMEEREE, KACMIRI) [KSH] 4,161,000 in India (1994 IMA); 105,000 in Pakistan (1993); 115,000 in United Kingdom (1991); 4,381,000 in all countries. Jammu and Kashmir (52.29% of the population), Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Kashmir Valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri. Dialects: BAKAWALI, BUNJWALI, STANDARD KASHMIRI (KASHTAWARI), KISHTWARI, MIRASKI, POGULI, RAMBANI, RIASI, SHAH-MANSURI, SIRAJI OF DODA, SIRAJI-KASHMIRI, ZAYOLI, ZIRAK-BOLI. Literacy: men 36.29%, women 15.88%; rural 21.63%, urban 45.56% (1981 census). Another source says 5% literate in Kashmiri, 5% in Urdu. Literature can be traced to the 1400's, and poetry is important. Persian-based script. Not used in primary education. Urdu and English are used as second languages. National language. Typology: SVO. Mountain slope, valleys. Agriculturalists: rice, wheat, maize; craftsmen (weaving, carpets, carving, furniture, papier mache). Altitude: 6,000 feet. Muslim, Christian. Bible 1899, out of print. NT 1813-1884. Bible portions 1813-1954. Survey needed.

KATKARI (KATARI, KATAKARI, KATHODI, KATVADI) [KFU] 4,951 (1961 census). Gujarat, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. Survey needed.

KAWARI (KAVAR, KAMARI, KAWAR) [KFV] 33,769. Madhya Pradesh, Raipur and surrounding districts, Maharashtra, Orissa. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Called a more divergent dialect of Halbi. Apparently distinct from Kamar, a Dravidian language of Madhya Pradesh. Survey needed.

KEER (KIR) [KKE] 2,893. Madhya Pradesh; Raisen, Sehore. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified. Possibly Rajasthani group. Survey needed.

KHAMTI (KHAM-TAI, HKAMTI, KHAMPTI, KHAMTI SHAN, KHANTIS, TAI KAM TI) [KHT] 70,000 in all countries (1990 A. Diller ANU). Assam; Lakimpur, Arunachal Pradesh, Siang. Also in northwestern Myanmar and possibly China. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Dialects: ASSAM KHAMTI, NORTH BURMA KHAMTI, SINKALING HKAMTI. Related languages in Assam: Phakaes, Aiton, Khamjang, Turung.

KHAMYANG [KSU] Assam, Rowai Mukh village. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Similar to Phake of Assam and Shan of Myanmar. Several thousand Assamese speakers may still use the name for their ethnic group. Nearly extinct.

KHANDESI (KHANDESHI, KHANDISH, DHED GUJARI) [KHN] 2,246,105 including 742,111 Ahirani (1994 IMA), 1,503,994 Khandesi (1994 IMA). Maharashtra, Gujarat. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi. Dialects: AHIRANI (AHIRI), KUNBI (KUNBAU), RANGARI, KHANDESI, KOTALI BHIL. Ahirani may be a separate language. See also Dhanki. Survey needed.

KHARIA (HARIA, KHARVI, KHATRIA, KHERIA, KHADIA, KHARIYA) [KHR] 278,500 (1994 IMA). Primarily Ranchi District of Bihar, also Raigarh District of Madhya Pradesh, Sundargarh District of Orissa, Assam, Tripura, West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang, Kharia. Dialects: DHELKI KHARIA, DUDH KHARIA, MIRDHA-KHARIA. Bible portions 1951. Survey needed.

KHARIA THAR [KSY] Bihar, Manbhum. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Survey needed.

KHASI (KAHASI, KHASIYAS, KHUCHIA, KASSI, KHASA, KHASHI) [KHI] 824,000 in India (1994 IMA); 85,088 in Bangladesh (1961 census); 909,000 in all countries. Assam, Khasi-Jaintia hills, Meghalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian. Dialects: BHOI-KHASI, JAINTIA, LYNG-NGAM, NONGTUNG, KHASI, WAR. Amwi is a separate language (B. Comrie 1989). Typology: SVO. Bible 1891. NT 1831-1991. Bible portions 1816-1891.

KHIRWAR (KHIRWARA) [KWX] 34,251. Madhya Pradesh. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Survey needed.

KINNAURI, CHITKULI (CHITKULI, CHITKHULI, TSÍHULI, TSITKHULI, KINNAURI, KANAURI, THEBARSKAD) [CIK] 1,200 or 2% of the population of Kinnaur District (1981 census). Chitkul and Rakchham villages along the Baspa River in the Sangla Valley, Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. 46% lexical similarity with Lower Kinnauri, 51% with Jangshung, 43% with Shumcho, 38% with Sunam. Mountain slope, valleys. Pastoralists (sedentary), peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 5,000 to 6,770 meters. Traditional religion, Hindu, Lamaistic Buddhist. Survey needed.

KINNAURI, LOWER (KINNAURAYANUSKAD, KANOREUNU SKADD, KANORUG SKADD, KINNAURI, KINORI, KINNER, KANAURI, KANAWARI, KANAWI, KUNAWARI, KUNAWUR, TIBAS SKAD) [KFK] 45,000 in Kinnaur District in India, 76% of the population of the District (1981 census). 69,252 in all Kinnauri (1994 IMA). Kinnaur and Lahul-Spiti districts, north and east of Simla near the Tibet border, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh, including towns of Sangla and Riba, possibly Nichar and Morang. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. Dialects: HARIJAN KINNAURI, MALHESTI (MILCHANANG, MINCHHANG, MINCHHANANG, MILCHANG). Related languages: Kanashi, Chitkuli, Tukpa, Jangshung. Hindi is the second language of speakers. In 1981 there were 14 high schools, 19 middle schools, 134 primary schools; 37% literacy rate (51.5% for men, 20.8% for women). Harijan is spoken especially around Kalpa, and is used by the Scheduled Caste people. Trade language. Mountain slope, valley. Peasant agriculturalists, pastoralists (sedentary). Altitude: 5,000 to 6,770 meters. Hindu, Lamaist Buddhist, traditional religion. Bible portions 1909-1917. Survey needed.

KINNAURI, UPPER (NYAMSKAD, MNYAMSKAD, MYAMKAT, NYAMKAT, BUD-KAT, BOD-SKAD, SANGYAS, SANGS-RGYAS, BHOTIA OF UPPER KANAWAR) [NES] 4,800 including 450 Nesang (1981 census). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Morang Tehsil, upper Kinnauri Sutlej River basin where it turns into the Spiti River, Nesang village in Morang Tehsil, Puh village in Puh Tehsil. It may also be spoken in Kuno and Charang villages. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. Dialects: NESANG, PUH, UPPER KINNAURI. Nesang has 71% lexical similarity with Puh village, 63% with Mane village, 59% with Darcha village, 54% with Lhasa Tibetan. Upper Kinnauri may constitute more than one language. It is probably not intelligible with Lower, Central, or Chitkuli Kinnauri varieties. Mountain slope, valleys. Pastoralists (sedentary), peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 5,000 to 6,770 meters. Traditional religion, Hindu, Lamaistic Buddhist. Survey needed.

KISHANGANJIA (KISHANGANGIA, SHREEPURI, SIRIPURIA) [KFW] 56,921 (1971 census). Bihar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Survey needed.

KISHTWARI (KISTWALI, KASHTWARI, KATHIAWARI) [KGA] 19,831 (1994 IMA). Jammu and Kashmir. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri. Survey needed.

KOCH (KOC, KOCCH, KOCE, KOCHBOLI, KONCH) [KDQ] 21,869 in India (1994 IMA); 35,000 in all countries (1973 MARC). Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya. Also in Bangladesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Garo. Dialects: BANAI, HARIGAYA, SATPARIYA, TINTEKIYA, WANANG. Dialect or separate language: Atong. Different from Koch of Bengali-Assamese group in West Bengal. Survey needed.

KOCH [KXS] West Bengal, Cooch Behar district. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Distinct from Tibeto-Burman Koch in Assam, Tripura, and Bangladesh. Survey needed.

KODA (KAORA, KORALI, KORATI, KORE, MUDIKORA, KORA) [KFN] 175,000 in Khaira (1991 IMA). Bihar, east Madhya Pradesh (Dhangon), mainly in Sambalpur District of Orissa, and West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Dialects: KHAIRA, MIRDHA-KORA (MIRDHA-KODA), BANKARA, BIRBHUM, DHANGON. Survey needed.

KODAGU (COORGE, KADAGI, KHURGI, KOTAGU, KURJA, KURUG, KODAVA THAK) [KFA] 121,408 (1994 IMA). Karnataka; Coorg, around Mercara, bordering on Malayalam to south. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. May be more than one language. Bible portions. Work in progress.

KOIRENG (KWOIRENG, KOIRNG, QUOIRENG) [NKD] 2,000 (1991). Manipur, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Western. Assigned to be under three different Naga groups politically.

KOK BOROK (TRIPURI, TIPURA, USIPI MRUNG, TRIPURA, KAKBARAK, KOKBARAK) [TRP] 658,000 in India (1994 IMA); 78,000 in Bangladesh (1993 Johnstone); 736,000 in all countries. Assam, eastern Tripura. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo. Dialects: JAMATIA, NOATIA, RIANG (TIPRA), HALAM, DEBBARMA. 13 dialects. Debbarma is spoken by the royal family, and is the medium of communication with the other dialects. It is understood by all, but not vice versa. Bible in press (1995). NT 1976. Bible portions 1959-1983.

KOL (DAHIT, KOLABOLI, KOLAR, KOLIAN, KUAL, KULI, KOLE, KOLARI) [KFO] 100,000 (1991 IMA). Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, West Bengal. Unclassified. May be a Munda language. Survey needed.

KOLAI [KKX] Few speakers. Andhra Pradesh, on Orissa border. May also be in Orissa. Unclassified. Speakers known by Adiwasi Oriya. Distinct from Kolai dialect of Shina in India and Pakistan. Survey needed.

KOLAMI, NORTHWESTERN (KOLAMBOLI, KULME, KOLAM, KOLMI, KOLAMY) [KFB] 50,000 (1989 F. Blair); 109,634 all Kolami (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra (Yavatmal, Wardha, and Nanded districts). Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki. Dialects: MADKA-KINWAT, PULGAON, WANI, MAREGAON. People are called Kolavar or Kolam. Nearly all adults are somewhat bilingual in Marathi, Telugu, or Gondi. Proficiency is very limited in Marathi; actually a nonstandard Marathi, also used by mother tongue Marathi speakers in the region. Kolami is used within the caste; the state language for outside communication. Northwestern and Southeastern Kolami are not inherently intelligible (61% to 68% lexical similarity). Kolami is probably not intelligible with Parji or Ollari. 4.21% literacy rate. Hills, plains. Agriculturalists, forest laborers. Work in progress.

KOLAMI, SOUTHEASTERN [NIT] 10,000 (1989 F. Blair). Adilabad District of Andhra Pradesh; Chandrapur, and Nanded districts of Maharashtra. Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki. Dialects: METLA-KINWAT, UTNUR, ASIFABAD, NAIKI. Not intelligible with Northwestern Kolami (60% to 74% lexical similarity). 85% to 88% lexical similarity between Naiki and other Southeastern Kolami dialects; 83% between Metla-Kinwat and Utnur; 86% between Asifabad and Utnur. Rao (1950) reports another dialect in Chinnoor and Sirpur taluks of Adilabad District. Naiki is distinct from Naikri (Zvelebil 1970.13). People in Maharashtra are not functionally bilingual in Telugu or Marathi. Low literacy rate.

KOM (KOM REM) [KMM] 13,181 (1994 IMA). East and central Manipur. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Kohlreng. Dialect: KOLHRENG. Kolhreng may be a separate language. Bible in press (1996). NT 1977. Bible portions 1954-1960.

KONDA-DORA (PORJA) [KFC] 30,468 (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh (Konda-Dora), Orissa (Kubi), Assam. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda. Dialects: KONDA, KUBI. Language is called Konda-Dora, people are Porja. 83% lexical similarity between Konda and Kubi, 28% to 36% with Telugu. Konda and Kubi are adequately intelligible with each other. Bilingualism is very limited in Telugu. Many speakers along roads through Araku are competent in Adiwasi Oriya, others are more limited. Work in progress.

KONKANI (KONKAN STANDARD, BANKOTI, KUNABI, NORTH KONKAN, CENTRAL KONKAN, CONCORINUM, CUGANI, KONKANESE) [KNK] 2,056,841 in all countries (1994 IMA). North and central coastal strip of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Kerala. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. Dialects: PARABHI (KAYASTHI, DAMANI), KOLI, KIRISTAV, DHANAGARI, BHANDARI, THAKARI, KARHADI, SANGAMESVARI (BAKOTI, BANKOTI), GHATI (MAOLI), MAHARI (DHED, HOLIA, PARVARI). The dialects listed are closely related. More distinct dialects or closely related languages: Katkari (Kathodi, Katvadi), Varli, Vadval (Phudagi), Phudagi, Samvedi, Mangelas. Others speak non-standard Konkani besides ethnic Konkani. NT 1970, in press (1995). Bible portions 1970.

KONKANI, GOANESE (GOMATAKI, GOAN) [GOM] 2,000,000 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 3,900 in Kenya (1987). Southern coastal strip of Maharashtra, primarily in the districts of Ratnagari and Goa; also Karnataka and Kerala. Also in United Arab Emirates. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. Dialects: STANDARD KONKANI (GOANESE), BARDESKARI (GOMANTAKI), SARASVAT BRAHMIN, KUDALI (MALVANI), DALDI (NAWAITS), CHITAPAVANI (KONKANASTHS), MANGALORE. Daldi and Chitapavani are transitional dialects between Goanese and Standard Konkani. NT 1818-1976. Bible portions 1821-1966. Work in progress.

KORAGA, KORRA (KORAGAR, KORAGARA, KORANGI, KORRA) [KFD] 1,500. Kerala, Cannanore. Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga. Related to Tulu and Bellari. Not intelligible with Mudu Koraga, Tulu, or Kannada. Structural differences in phonology with Mudu Koraga. Survey needed.

KORAGA, MUDU (MU:DU) [VMD] Kerala. Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga. Not intelligible with Korra Koraga, Tulu, or Kannada. Structural differences in phonology with Korra Koraga. Survey needed.

KORAKU [KSZ] Madhya Pradesh, Surguja district. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Unclassified. Separate dialect or language from Korku, possibly related to Korwa. Survey needed.

KORKU (BONDEYA, BOPCHI, KORKI, KURKU, KURI, RAMEKHERA, KURKU-RUMA) [KFQ] 455,436 (1994 IMA). Southern Madhya Pradesh, southern Betul District, north of and around Betul city, Hoshangabad District, East Nimar District; northern Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Korku. Dialects: BOURIYA, BONDOY, RUMA, MAWASI (MUWASI, MUASI). Separate from Koraku. Dialects in northern Maharashtra and south central Madhya Pradesh constitute one language; 82% to 97% intelligibility among them. Bouriya is most widely understood. Lexical similarity of dialects with Laki Bouriya is 76% to 82%. Bilingualism in Hindi and Marathi is low. 1% to 5% literate in Korku. Hills, plains. Bible portions 1900-1981. Work in progress.

KORLAI CREOLE PORTUGUESE [VKP] Near Bombay. Creole, Portuguese based. Recently discovered. Survey needed.

KORWA (ERNGA, SINGLI) [KFP] 62,983 (1994 IMA). Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Dialect: MAJHI-KORWA. Rapid assimilation to Sadani. Survey needed.

KOTA (KOTTA) [KFE] 2,000 (1992). Madras; Nilgiri Hills, Kotagiri village and 6 others. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota. Dialect: KO BASHAI. Endogamous within the ethnic group. Mountains. Work in progress.

KOYA (KOI, KOI GONDI, KAVOR, KOA, KOITAR, KOYATO, KAYA, KOYI, RAJ KOYA) [KFF] 299,000 (1991 IMA), including 24,320 Dorli (1972 census). Andhra Pradesh, south of the Godavari River and in adjoining districts north of the river; Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa; 300 km. east to west, 200 km. north to south. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi. Dialects: MALAKANAGIRI KOYA, PODIA KOYA (GOTTE KOYA), CHINTOOR KOYA (DORLA KOITUR), JAGANATHAPURAM KOYA (GOMMU KOYA, GODAVARI KOYA), DORLI (KORLA, DORA, DOR KOI, DORA KOI, DORLA KOITUR, DORLA KOYA). Distinct from Kui and Kuvi. Telugu is their second language but bilingual proficiency is low. Literature will be needed in Telugu, Oriya, and Devanagari scripts. Chintoor is the linguistic center. The Malakanagiri and Podia varieties are more divergent. A separate language from Gondi. Swidden agriculturalists, peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Hindu. Bible portions 1882-1889. Work in progress.

KUDIYA [KFG] 100. Cannanore District of Kerala; Coorg and South Kannara districts of Karnataka; Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Survey needed.

KUI (KANDH, KHONDI, KHOND, KHONDO, KANDA, KODU, KODULU, KUINGA, KUY) [KXU] 683,276 (1994 IMA). Orissa, Udayagiri area; Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi. Dialects: KHONDI, GUMSAI. Different from Kuvi and Koya (Koi). NT 1954-1975. Bible portions 1893-1965.

KUKNA (KANARA, KOKNA, KOKNI) [KEX] 249,369 (1994 IMA); 84,000 in Gujarat script area, 84,000 in Devanagari script area (1990 UBS). Karnataka, Kanara, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Karnataka. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. 10% to 30% literate in Kukna. NT 1977. Bible portions 1970. Work in progress.

KUMARBHAG PAHARIA (MALTO, MALTI, MALTU, MALER, MAL, MAD, PAHARIA, PAHARIYA) [KMJ] 12,000 to 14,000 plus several thousand in West Bengal (1994). Central part of former Santhal Pargana District, central eastern Bihar, in Sundar Pahari Block of Godda District, and all but southernmost block of Pakaur District. Reported in at least Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal. Dravidian, Northern. Part of the Malto ethnic group. 80% lexical similarity with Mal Paharia, but inherent intelligibility between them is inadequate. Low bilingualism in Hindi and Bengali. Related to Kurux. Forest. Hills, plains. Subsistence agriculturalists: rice, maize, wheat, suggarcane, lentils, vegetables; firewood gatherers; fishermen; hunters. Altitude: 1,000 to 2,000 feet.

KUMAUNI (KAMAONI, KUMAU, KUMAWANI, KUMGONI, KUMMAN, KUNAYAONI) [KFY] 2,013,000 in India (1994 IMA). Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Kumaon; Maharashtra, Nagaland. Also in Nepal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Kumauni. Dialects: ASKOTI, BHABARI OF RAMPUR, CHAUGARKHIYA, DANPURIYA, GANGOLA, JOHARI, KHASPARJIYA, KUMAIYA PACHHAI, PASHCHIMI, PHALDAKOTIYA, KUMAONI, RAU-CHAUBHAISI, SIRALI, SORIYALI. Bible portions 1825-1876.

KUPIA (VALMIKI) [KEY] 4,000 (1983 SIL). Andhra Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. People called Valmiki. NT 1983.

KURICHIYA [KFH] 12,131. Cannanore District of Kerala; Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Unclassified. Consider themselves higher caste than Brahmin. Hindu. Survey needed.

KURUMBA (KORAMBAR, KURAMWARI, KURUMAR, KURUMBAR, KURUBA, KURUMBAN, KURUMVARI) [KFI] 700,000 (1987). Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Dialects: NAIK-KURUBA, PAL KURUMBA. May be more than one language. 25% to 50% literate. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Traditional religion, Hindu. Work in progress.

KURUMBA, ALU (ALU KURUMBA NONSTANDARD KANNADA) [QKA] Tamil Nadu, eastern side of Nilgiri Hills. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Inadequate bilingualism in Tamil, Standard Kannada, and Southern Nonstandard Kannada. 15% to 25% literate.

KURUMBA, BETTA (BETTA KURUMBA NONSTANDARD TAMIL) [QKB] 2,000 to 5,000 (1987). Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District and Karnataka, Mysore District, north side of Nilgiri Hills, just east of Kerala border, and Wynad district, Kerala. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. A non-standard variety of Tamil or Kannada. Intelligibility testing with Tamil and Kannada needed. May or may not be the same as Betta Kuruba in Coorg District. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed.

KURUMBA, JENNU (JENNU KURUMBA NONSTANDARD KANNADA, JEN KURUMBA, TEN KURUMBA) [QKJ] North side of Nilgiri Hills on the border between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, just east of the Kerala border, Mysore and Kodagu districts of Karnataka, Wynad District of Kerala. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Less than 60% lexical similarity with Betta Kurumba dialects. Further intelligibility testing with other nonstandard Kannada varieties needed. May or may not be the same as Jeinu Kuruba, a variety of Kannada. Survey needed.

KURUX (URAON, KURUKH, KUNRUKH, KADUKALI, KURKA, ORAON, URANG) [KVN] 1,747,000 in India (1994 IMA); 2,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Tripura, West Bengal, Orissa. Also in Bangladesh. Dravidian, Northern. Related to Malto. Distinct from Nepali Kurux. NT 1950. Bible portions 1895-1989.

KUVI (KUWI, KUVINGA, KUVI KOND, KOND, KHONDI, JATAPU) [KXV] 300,000 (1990 UBS). Orissa, south of the Kui, Andhra Pradesh. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi. Distinct from Kui and Koi (Koya). NT 1987. Bible portions 1916-1962.

LADAKHI (LADAPHI, LADHAKHI, LADAK, LADWAGS) [LBJ] 97,000 (1994 IMA) including 29,800 to 33,300 Shamma (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977.328). Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh District. Leh is in Leh and surrounding areas. Zanskari is in Zanskar Tehsil to the south of Leh in Ladakh District. Changtang is in the Changtang region east and southeast of Leh to the Tibetan border. Shamma is west of Leh along the Indus Valley and to the south of Khaltse. Nubra is in Nubra Tehsil north of Leh. 250 villages and hamlets. Also possibly in Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi. Dialects: LEH (CENTRAL LADAKHI), ZANGSKARI LADAKHI (ZASKARI, ZANGSKARI), CHANGTANG LADAKHI (BYANGSKAT, BYANSKAT, CHANGS-SKAT, RONG, RUPSHU, STOTPA, UPPER LADAKHI), SHAMMA (SHAM, SHAMSKAT, LOWER LADAKHI), NUBRA LADAKHI. Men are 36% literate, women 12% in Hindi, Urdu, Tibetan, or English (1991). Tibetan script is used. It is difficult to use, but desired by the people. Perhaps 30% to 40% intelligibility with Tibetan. Leh is used as the medium of communication. Leh speakers understand Zanskar and Changtang at more than 90% on recorded text tests. Many people in urban areas have some bilingualism in Urdu, Hindi, or English, but rural speakers are mainly monolingual in Ladakhi. Speakers of all ages. Typology: Non-tonal. Mountain valleys. Agriculturalists: wheat, barley; pastoralists: yaks, goats, sheep (cashmere wool); cottage industries: weaving, jewelry making, religious artifact production. Altitude: 8,250 to 16,500 feet. Buddhist, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1904-1919.

LAHULI, CHAMBA (MANCHATI, MANCHAD, PATTANI, PATNI, CHAMBA) [LAE] 3,021 (1982 Hale). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, upper Chenab Valley (Pattan). Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. 63% to 55% lexical similarity with Tinan Lahuli, 39% to 26% with Bunan, 37% with Shumcho, 35% with Jangshung, 33% with Sunam, 31% with Chitkuli and Kanauri, 25% with Puh and Kinnaur District varieties of Tibetan, 22% with Nesang, 18% with Lhasa Tibetan, 14% to 15% with the Spiti and Stod varieties of Tibetan. Hindi is the state language. Bible portions 1907-1914. Survey needed.

LAHULI, TINAN (LAHAULI, LAHOULI, RANGLOI, GONDLA, TINAN) [LBF] 24,534 in India (1994 IMA); 450 to 1,600 in China (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 25,000 in all countries. Himachal Pradesh, Lahul and Spiti Subdivision, lower Chandra Valley (Tinan or Rangloi Valley). Gondla is the main village. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. 63% to 56% lexical similarity with Chamba Lahuli, 32% to 37% with Bunan, 21% with the Spiti and Stod varieties of central Tibetan, 62% with Tandi village, 34% with Shumcho, 32% with Jangshung, 31% with Kanauri and Sunam, 13% with Lhasa Tibetan. 'Lahuli' as applied to the inhabitants of Lahul and Spiti refers primarily to the language of a place. It is not a tight linguistic designation. Mountain slope, valleys. Altitude: 3,700 meters to 7,000 meters. Bible portions 1908-1915. Survey needed.

LALUNG [LAX] 21,575 (1994 IMA). Assam, Meghalaya. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo. Survey needed.

LAMANI (LAMBADI, BANJARA, BANJARI, BANGALA, BANJORI, BANJURI, GOHAR-HERKERI, GOOLA, GURMARTI, KORA, LABHANI MUKA, LAMBARA, LAVANI, LEMADI, LUMADALE, SUGALI, TANDA, VANJARI, WANJI, GORMATI, SINGALI) [LMN] 1,961,000 (1994 IMA), plus 769,120 Banjari. Andhra Pradesh, Madhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Dialects: MAHARASHTRA LAMANI, KARNATAK LAMANI (MYSORE LAMANI), ANDHRA PRADESH LAMANI (TELUGU LAMANI). Gormati is self name. Each of the three dialects needs a different script: Maharashtra uses Devanagari script, Karnatak uses Kannada script, Andhra Pradesh uses Telugu script. Typology: SOV. Hindu, Christian. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1963-1977.

LAMKANG ("LAMGANG", "HIROI-LAMGANG", LAMKAANG) [LMK] 7,780 (1988 Kh. Renghong LNBA). Southeast Manipur State, Nagaland, Thamlakhuren. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Lamgang. Closest to Anal Naga. "Lamgang" and "Hiroi-Lamgang" are not correct names. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1993.

LEPCHA (LAPCHE, RONG, RONGKE, RONGPA, NUNPA) [LEP] 36,436 in India (1994 IMA); 1,272 in Nepal (1961 census); 24,200 in Bhutan (1987); 65,000 in all countries (1990 UBS). Sikkim, West Bengal, Kalimpong. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Lepcha. Dialects: ILAMMU, TAMSANGMU, RENGJONGMU. Has been classified both in Himalayan and Naga groups. Classification still uncertain. Lepcha is the name of both people and language. Has own script. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Altitude: up to 4,000 feet. Buddhist. NT 1989. Bible portions 1845-1989.

LHOBA, YIDU (LUOBA, LHO-PA) [LON] 200,000 in India (1990 J-O Svantesson); 7,000 in China (1994); 207,000 in all countries. There may be 200,000 Lhoba in China. Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng District. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Luoba is an official nationality in China. Not a written language. Different from Lopa in Nepal. May be the same as Adi. Agriculturalists, hunters. Lamaism.

LHOMI (LHOKET, SHING SAAPA) [LHM] 1,000 in India; 4,000 in Nepal; 1,000 in China; 6,000 in all countries. Darjeeling. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Central. 5% to 25% literate (men). Traditional religion, lamaist. NT 1995. Bible portions 1976.

LIMBU (LIMBO, LUMBU) [LIF] 26,538 in India (1994 IMA); 254,088 in Nepal (1991 census); 280,626 in all countries. West Bengal, Darjeeling district, Sikkim. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Eastern Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern, Eastern. Related to Lohorong, Yakha. 3 scripts are used: Roman, Devanagari, Limbu. There may be 5 or 6 dialects; 1 or 2 of which may not be inherently intelligible. Work in progress.

LODHI (LODHA, LODI, LOHI, LOZI) [LBM] 71,841 (1994 IMA). Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Bundeli. Survey needed.

LUSHAI (DULIEN, LUSAI, LUKHAI, LUSAGO, SAILAU, HUALNGO, WHELNGO, LE) [LSH] 503,732 in India (1994 IMA); 12,500 in Myanmar; 1,041 in Bangladesh (1981 census); 517,200 in all countries. Mizoram, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. Dialects: FANNAI, MIZO, NGENTE, PANG (PAANG). Related to Hmar, Pankhu, Zahao (Falam Chin). Bible 1959-1995. NT 1916-1986. Bible portions 1898-1956.

MAGAHI (MAGADHI, MAGAYA, MAGHAYA, MAGHORI, MAGI, MAGODHI, BIHARI) [MQM] 10,821,000 (1994 IMA). Southern districts of Bihar, eastern Patna Division, northern Chotanagpur Division, and Malda District of West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Dialects: SOUTHERN MAGAHI, NORTHERN MAGAHI, CENTRAL MAGAHI. Also used as a religious language. nism. NT 1826, out of print. Bible portions 1890-1903. Work in progress.

MAGAR, EASTERN (MAGARI, MANGGAR, MANGARI, MAGARKURA) [MGP] 1,136 in India (1961 census); 288,383 in Nepal (1994) 290,000 in all countries. Sikkim. Also in Bhutan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Eastern Himalayan, Kiranti, Western, Magar. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: rice, corn, wheat; hunters. NT 1991. Bible portions 1977-1984.

MAHALI (MAHILI, MAHLI, MAHLE) [MJX] 66,000 (1991 IMA). Assam, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Possible dialect of Santali. Survey needed.

MAITHILI (MAITLI, MAITILI, METHLI, MITHIL, TIRAHUTIA, BIHARI) [MKP] 22,000,000 in India including Dahati (1981); 2,260,000 in Nepal (1993); 24,260,000 in all countries. Khotta has 821,129 (1994 IMA), Kisan 191,000 (1993 BSI). Bihar, Delhi, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Dialects: STANDARD MAITHILI, SOUTHERN STANDARD MAITHILI, EASTERN MAITHILI (KHOTTA, KORTHA), CHIKACHIKI, WESTERN MAITHILI, JOLAHA, CENTRAL COLLOQUIAL MAITHILI (SOTIPURA), KISAN, ANGIKA. Spoken by Brahmans and other high caste or educated Hindus. There is a Maithili Academy. Dictionary. 25% to 50% literate. Hindu. Bible portions 1983-1992. Work in progress.

MAITHILI, DEHATI (DEHATI, DAHATI, DESHIYA, DESHIA) [MTR] 30,000 (1994 IMA). Bihar, Orissa, and some districts of south Nepal bordering Bihar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Reported to be significantly different from Standard Maithili. Hindu; some groups are Muslim. Bible portions. Work in progress.

MAJHI [MJH] 14,923 (1994 IMA). Panjab, Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts. Also in Pakistan, Lahore District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi. Grierson says this is the purest form of Panjabi. Distinct from Majhi in Bihar, India, and Nepal. Survey needed.

MAJHI (MANJHI) [MJZ] (5,895 in Nepal; 1961 census). Bihar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Distinct from Majhi in Panjabi group or Bote-Majhi of Nepal. Work in progress.

MAJHWAR (MAJHVAR, MANJHI, MANJHIA) [MMJ] 27,958. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim. Unclassified. Possibly a dialect of Asuri. Survey needed.

MAL PAHARIA (MALTO, MALTI, MALTU, MALER, MALPAHARIA, MARPAHARIA, MAL PAHARIYA, MAL, MALER, MAR, MAW, MAWDO, MAWER, MAWER NONDI, MAD, MADER, DEHRI, PAHARIA, PARSI) [MKB] 51,000 to 71,000 plus possibly 40,000 in West Bengal (1994). Southern part of former Santhal Pargana District, central eastern Bihar, Ramgarh Hills. Mainly in Dumka District, but many villages are in Pakaur, southern Godda, and Deoghar districts, and a few as far north as Depart village north of Borio in Sahibganj District. Reported in at least Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal, and possibly Bangladesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Dialects have 85% or higher lexical similarity with each other, but 59% with Mal Paharia Barmasiya and 55% with Khorta Babudoha. Not inherently intelligible with Kumarbhag Paharia, Sauria Paharia, Bengali, or Hindi. Part of the Malto ethnic group. Speak a variety similar to Kharia Thar of Manbhum (Bihar). Some have shifted to Bengali or Khorta. Literacy rate 12.8% male, 2,3% female, average 7.6% (1981). Forest. Hills, plains. Firewood gatherers; subsistence agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 2,000 feet. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions.

MALANKURAVAN (MALE KURAVAN) [MJO] 5,000. Kerala. Dravidian, Unclassified. Dialect: MALAYADIARS. Survey needed.

MALAPANDARAM (MALAPANTARAM, MALEPANTARAM, HILL PANTARAM) [MJP] 500. Kottayam, Ernakulam, and Quilon districts of Kerala. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Survey needed.

MALARYAN (MALEYARAYAN, MALE ARAYANS, MALAYARAYAN, ARAYANS, KARINGAL, VAZHIYAMMAR) [MJQ] 5,000. Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Trichur districts of Kerala; Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Unclassified. Possibly the same as Kanikkaran. Survey needed.

MALAVEDAN (MALAVETAN, TOWETAN, VEDANS) [MJR] 2,000 (SIL). Ernakulam, Kottayam, Quilon, Trivandrum districts of Kerala; Tirunelveli District of Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Unclassified. Dialects: VETAN, VETTUVAN. Survey needed.

MALAYALAM (ALEALUM, MALAYALANI, MALAYALI, MALEAN, MALIYAD, MALLEALLE, MOPLA) [MJS] 33,667,000 in India (1994 IMA); 300,000 in United Arab Emirates (1986); 37,000 in Malaysia; 10,000 in Singapore (1987); 313 in Fiji; 34,014,000 in all countries. Kerala, Laccadive Islands, and neighboring states. Also in United Kingdom, Bahrain, Qatar. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Dialects: MALABAR, NAGARI-MALAYALAM, MALAYALAM, SOUTH KERALA, CENTRAL KERALA, NORTH KERALA, KAYAVAR, NAMBOODIRI, MOPLAH, PULAYA, NASRANI, NAYAR. Malayalam script. State language of Kerala. Caste and communal dialects: Namboodiri, Nayar, Moplah, Pulaya, Nasrani. The Cochin Jews in Kerala speak Malayalam. National language. Saivite Hindu, Christian. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1841, in press (1996). NT 1829-1980. Bible portions 1811-1968.

MALDIVIAN (MALIKH, MAHL, MALKI, DIVEHI, DIVEHLI, DIVEHI BAS) [SNM] 5,035 in India (1971 census); 213,215 in Maldives (1991); 220,000 in all countries. Minicoy Island in the Laccadive Islands in India. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian. No transitional dialects to Sinhalese, which is a separate language. The writing system is called 'Tana'. 75% to 100% literate. National language. Fishermen. Sunni Muslim, traditional religion. Survey needed.

MALI [MKA] 969 (1961 census). Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. Survey needed.

MALVI (MALWADA, MALLOW, UJJAINI, MALWI, MALAVI) [MUP] 1,050,000 (1994 IMA). Northwest Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Dialects: BACHADI, BHOYARI, DHOLEWARI, HOSHANGABAD, JAMRAL, KATIYAI, MALVI PROPER, PATVI, RANGARI, RANGRI, SONDWARI. Considered the standard dialect of Southeastern Rajasthani. NT 1826.

MANDA [MHA] Orissa, Kalahandi District. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo. Discovered in 1964. Survey needed.

MANDEALI (MANDI, PAHARI MANDIYALI, MANDIALI) [MJL] 776,372 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh (Mandi District). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. 89% lexical similarity with Palampur Kangri, 83% with Chambeali. Spoken by all ages. Speakers use Hindi (instruction in school, shops, in cities), Panjabi (shops), or Urdu (middle aged or older). Radio broadcasts. Typology: SOV. Mountain slope, valley. Agriculturalists: rice, maize, millet, fruit. Altitude: 300 to 3,000 meters. Survey needed.

MANGELAS [MVL] Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to, Konkani. It shares many features with Gujarati. Survey needed.

MANNA-DORA [MJU] 8,476. East Godavari, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. The Central Institute of Indian Languages says it is in the South Central Dravidian group. Survey needed.

MANNAN (MANNE, MANNYOD) [MJV] 4,982 (1961 census). Kerala, Andhra Pradesh. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Survey needed.

MARATHI (MAHARASHTRA, MAHARATHI, MALHATEE, MARTHI, MURUTHU) [MRT] 64,783,000 (1994 IMA). Maharashtra and adjacent states. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone. 34% literacy rate. Devanagari script. The Habshi are descended from East African slaves brought to western India, and are Muslim. 42 dialects. The dialect situation throughout the greater Marathi speaking area is complex. Dialects bordering other major language areas share many features with those languages. See separate entries for dialects or closely related languages: Konkani, Goanese, Deccan, Varhadi, Nagpuri, Ikrani, Gowlan. State language of Maharashtra. The Bene Israel are a Marathi-speaking Jewish group of Bombay. National language. Typology: SOV. Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Christian, Jain, Jewish (Bene Israel). Braille Bible portions. Bible 1821-1989. NT 1811-1982. Bible portions 1807-1957.

MARIA (MADI, MADIYA, MADIA, MODH, MODI) [MRR] 127,947 (1994 IMA). Maharashtra State; Garhichiroli (Chanda) District; Madhya Pradesh. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Dialects: BHAMANI MARIA (BHAMANI), ADEWADA, ETAPALLY MARIA. 53% to 83% lexical similarity among dialects. Etapally Maria is apparently understood by all. A separate language from Muria, Dandami Maria, Northern Gondi, Southern Gondi, and Koya. 76% to 77% intelligibility of other Gondi varieties. Speakers have negative attitudes toward them. May be intelligible with Abujmaria. 25% to 50% literate. Work in progress.

MARIA, DANDAMI (BISON HORN MARIA, MARIA GOND, MADIYA, DHURU, DANDAMI MADIYA) [DAQ] 150,000 (1992 UBS). Madhya Pradesh State, central and southern Bastar District. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Dialects: GEEDAM, SUKMA (SUKA). Geedam and Bailadila have 95% to 98% intelligibility with each other, 81% of Sukma, but 18% to 21% of Maria, 18% to 45% of Muria. Speakers in Sukma understood Geedam at 81% or lower; those in Bailadila understood Sukma at 92%. A separate language from Northern Gondi, Southern Gondi, Abujmaria, and Koya. May be more than one language. Speakers are of all ages, and are called 'Maria'. Degraded forests, tropical forest. Plains, hills. Swidden agriculturalists, peasant agriculturalists. Work in progress.

MARWARI (RAJASTHANI, MERWARI, MARVARI, MEWARI) [MKD] 12,104,000 Marwari, Rajasthani, and Mewari (1994 IMA). Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, thoughout India. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari. Dialects: STANDARD MARWARI, EASTERN MARWARI, SOUTHERN MARWARI (MARWARI-GUJERATI, MEWARI), WESTERN MARWARI, NORTHERN MARWARI (BIKANERI), JAIPURI. The standard form of Rajasthani. 23 dialects. Different from Marwari of Pakistan, and from Mewati, dialect of Haryanvi. Devanagari script. 80% to 85% lexical similarity among some Gujarat and Rajasthan Marwari Bhil dialects; 75% to 80% with Wagdi; 75% to 83% with some Patelia dialects; 67% to 87% with Adiwasi Girasia dialects; 67% to 84% with Rajput Girasia dialects. 50% to 75% literate. Hindu, traditional religion. NT 1820-1821, out of print. Bible portions 1815-1867.

MATIA [MMC] Andhra Pradesh, near Adiwasi Oriya. Unclassified. Speakers known by Adiwasi Oriya people. Survey needed.

MAWCHI (MAUCHI, MAVCHI, MAWACHI, MOWCHI, MAWCHI BHIL) [MKE] 72,100 (1994 IMA). Southwest Gujarat, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialects: GAMTI, MAWCHI, PADVI. 25% to 50% literate. NT 1989. Bible portions 1976-1978.

MEITHEI (KATHE, KATHI, MANIPURI, PONNA, MEITHE, MITEI, MEITEIRON) [MNR] 1,252,000, including 1,181,000 Meithei in India (1994 IMA), 71,414 Bishnupuriya (1994 IMA); 92,800 in Bangladesh; 6,000 in Myanmar (1931); 1,351,000 in all countries. Assam, Manipur, Kankan; Nagaland, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Mikir-Meithei. Dialects: MEITEI, LOI, PANGAL, BISHNUPURIYA (BISHNUPRIYA, BISNA PURIYA). Mainly rural. 7 clans (Ningthonia, Luwang, Angom, Moirang, Khabanaganba, Chonglei). 24% literate. They had an earlier script called 'Meithei Mayek'. Trade language. Valley. Agriculturalists (rice and vegetables) and fishermen 60%, government 20%,technical 10%, business 10%, weaving, wood products. Hindu, traditional religion (Sana Mahi), Muslim, Christian. Bible 1984. NT 1827, in press (1995). Bible portions 1820-1956.

MIJU (KAMAN, MISHMI, MIJI) [MXJ] Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Related to Chulikata and Digaro. Survey needed.

MIKIR (MANCHATI, MIKIRI, KARBI) [MJW] 454,326, including 324,326 Mikir (1994 IMA), 130,000 Amri (1994 IMA). Assam, Mikir and Rengma Hills; Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Mikir-Meithei. Dialects: AMRI (AMRI KARBI), ARLENG, BHUI, RHENGKITANG. 17% literate in 1971. Agriculturalists: wet rice. Bible 1952. NT 1931, in press (1996). Bible portions 1911-1918.

MINA [MYI] 900,000 (1991 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Survey needed.

MIRDHA [MJY] 5,822 (1961 census). Orissa. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang, Kharia. Survey needed.

MIRGAN (PANIKA, PANKA) [QMK] 12,000, including 10,000 in Orissa, 2,000 in Madhya Pradesh (1992). Madhya Pradesh, Bastar District and Orissa, Koraput District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Speakers use Oriya or Adivasi Oriya as second language in Orissa; Hindi or Halbi in Madhya Pradesh. Scrub forest, semi-tropical. Plains. Pastoralists (sedentary), peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 600 meters. Hindu, Khabit. Work in progress.

MOINBA (MONBA, MOMPA, MONPA, MOMBA, MENPA, MEMBA) [MOB] 43,649 in India (1994 IMA); 30,000 in China (1990); 73,650 in all countries. East of Bhutan, northeast India, Arunachal Pradesh. Also Tibet, China. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Eastern Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern, Unclassified. Officially recognized nationality in China. May be related to Limbu or Tsangla.

MRU (MRO, MURUNG, NIOPRENG, MRUNG) [MRO] 14,584 in India (1941); 17,811 in Bangladesh (1981 census); 34,100 in Myanmar; 66,500 in all countries. West Bengal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Mru. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion with some Buddhist elements. Bible portions 1934.

MUKHA-DORA (REDDI-DORA, CONTA-REDDI, REDDI, RIDDI) [MMK] 9,965. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. Unclassified. Possibly Dravidian. May be a dialect of Telugu. Survey needed.

MULIA [MUC] Few in Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh, near Adiwasi Oriya. Unclassified. Speakers known by Adiwasi Oriya people. May be the same as Muria. Survey needed.

MUNDARI (MANDARI, MUNARI, MUNDA, HORO, MONDARI, COLH) [MUW] 1,467,515 in India (1994 IMA), including 973,000 Mundari, 494,515 Munda; 5,700 in Nepal (1993); 1,473,000 or more in all countries. Assam, mainly in southern and western parts of Ranchi District in Bihar. Also in Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tripura, West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Also in Bangladesh. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Dialects: HASADA', LATAR, NAGURI, KERA'. Closely related to Ho and Santali, but a separate language. 50% to 75% literate. Bible 1910-1932. NT 1895, in press (1996). Bible portions 1876-1965.

MURIA, EASTERN [EMU] Madhya Pradesh, Northeastern Bastar District, northwestern Koraput District. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Dialects: RAIGARH, LANJODA. 95% intelligibility between dialects; 73% to 83% of Western Muria; 19% to 34% of Northern Gondi; 35% of Dandami Maria. Speakers are of all ages, and are called 'Muria'. Degraded forest, tropical forest. Plains, hills. Swidden agriculturalists, peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Hindu.

MURIA, FAR WESTERN [FMU] Maharashtra State, northern Garhichiroli District, Kurkhed Taluk. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. 79% to 88% intelligibility of other Muria languages; 74% of Dandami Maria, 0% to 34% of Northern Gondi, 6% to 50% of Southern Gondi, 2% to 70% of Maria. Speakers are of all ages, and are called 'Muria' or 'Gond'. Degraded forest, tropical forest. Swidden agriculturalists, peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Hindu.

MURIA, WESTERN (JHORIA, MUDIA, MURIA GONDI) [MUT] 12,898 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh, northern and western Bastar District. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Dialects: SONAPAL, BANCHAPAI, DHANORA. 80% to 96% intelligibility among dialects. 69% to 73% intelligibility with Eastern Muria,; 51% to 78% with Far Western Muria. Not inherently intelligible with Dandami Maria, Northern Gondi, Southern Gondi, or Maria. Speakers are of all ages, and are called 'Muria'. Degraded forest, tropical forest. Plains, hills. Swidden agriculturalists, peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Hindu. Work in progress.

MUTHUVAN (MUDAVAN, MUDUVAR, MUDUGAR, MUTUVAR, MUDUVAN) [MUV] 7,000. Andhra Pradesh; Calicut, Cannanore, Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Trichur districts of Kerala. Dravidian, Unclassified. A scheduled tribe in India. Survey needed.

NAGA PIDGIN (NAGAMESE, NAGA-ASSAMESE, NAGA CREOLE ASSAMESE, KACHARI BENGALI, BODO) [NAG] Used by most of the 500,000 speakers of 29 Naga languages as second language (1989 J. Holm). Nagaland, especially Kohima District, Dimapur Subdivision, and in bordering areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Creole, Assamese based. Mother tongue for the Kachari in and around Dimapur, a small community, and among children of interethnic marriages. An official medium of instruction in schools, with classroom textbooks (1992). Grammar A variety farthest from Assamese is spoken by the Yimchenger Naga, and varieties closest to Assamese by the Angami Naga, and around Dimapur and Kohima. Trade language. Mountains. Survey needed.

NAGARCHAL (NAGAR, NAGARCHI) [NBG] 7,090 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Survey needed.

NAGA, ANGAMI (GNAMEI, NGAMI, ANGAMIS, TSOGHAMI, TSUGUMI, MONR, TSANGLO) [NJM] 103,483 (1994 IMA). Western Nagaland, Kohima, Manipur, Maharashtra. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Dialects: KOHIMA, DZUNA, KEHENA, KHONOMA, CHAKROMA (WESTERN ANGAMI), MIMA, NALI, MOZOME, TENGIMA, TENYIDIE (TENYIDYE). Kohima dialect is now standard Angami. Naga Chokri and Naga Kezhama are eastern Angami groups with their own dialects. Trade language for about 30,000 Naga of other groups. Bible 1970. NT 1927-1995. Bible portions 1890-1959.

NAGA, AO (AORR, PAIMI, CHOLIMI, NOWGONG, HATIGORIA, URI, AO) [NJO] 134,041 (1994 IMA). Northeastern Nagaland, central, Mokokchung, Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialects: MONGSEN KHARI, CHANGKI, CHONGLI (CHUNGLI), DORDAR (YACHAM), LONGLA. Bible 1964. NT 1929-1995. Bible portions 1883.

NAGA, CHANG (CHANG, MOJUNG, MACHONGRR, MOCHUMI, MOCHUNGRR, CHANGYANGUH) [NBC] 29,400 (1994 IMA). Assam, east central Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. NT 1982. Bible portions 1947-1964.

NAGA, CHOKRI (EASTERN ANGAMI, CHAKRIMA NAGA, CHAKRU, CHOKRI, CHAKHESANG) [NRI] 20,000 (1991). Nagaland, Cheswezumi is the main village. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. An eastern Angami tribe with its own language. Chokri, Khezha, and Sangtam-Pochuri make up the Chakhesang Naga community (see separate entries). Work in progress.

NAGA, CHOTHE (CHOTHE) [NCT] 2,852 (1988 Y. Hunem CNBA). Southeast Manipur, Chandel District. Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Closest to Tarao Naga.

NAGA, KABUI (KABUI, KAPWI, KOBOI, KUBAI) [NKF] 48,268 (1994). Manipur, Imphal city, Satar Hills, Nagaland, Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Close to Rongmei Naga, but distinct. Winemakers.

NAGA, KHEZHA (KEZAMI, KHEZHAMA, KHEZHA) [NKH] 21,794 (1994 IMA). Eastern Nagaland, Kohima District, Khezhakhonoma. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. An eastern Angami tribe with its own language. The speakers of Khezha belong to the Chakhesang Naga community. Survey needed.

NAGA, KHIAMNGAN (KHIAMNGAN, KHIAMNIUNGAN, KHIENMUNGAN, KHEMUNGAN, KEMMUNGAM, KALYOKENGNYU,, MAKWARE, NOKAW, PARA, PONYO, AOSHEDD, WELAM) [NKY] 23,423 in India (1994 IMA). Nagaland, east central part of Tuensang District. Also Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. In Myanmar the alternate names are Makware, Nokaw, Para, Ponyo, and Welam. Typology: SOV. NT 1981.

NAGA, KHOIBU MARING (KHOIBU, KHOIBU MARING) [NKB] 20,000 (1987 A. Hongsha). Manipur State, southeast, Laiching. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. NT 1988.

NAGA, KHOIRAO (KHOIRAO, KOLYA, MAYANGKHANG, MIYANG-KHANG, NGARI, THANGGAL, THANGAL, TUKAIMI) [NKI] 20,000 (1992 K. Tombing). North Manipur; most are east of Barak Valley groups. 250 square miles. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Work in progress.

NAGA, KONYAK (KANYAK, KONYAK) [NBE] 99,681 (1994 IMA). Assam, northeast Nagaland, Mon District. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialects: ANGPHANG, HOPAO, CHANGNYU, CHEN, CHINGKAO, CHINGLANG, CHOHA, GELEKIDORIA, JAKPHANG, KONGON, LONGCHING, LONGKHAI, LONGMEIN, LONGWA, MOHUNG, TABLENG, MON, MULUNG, NGANGCHING, SANG, SHANLANG, SHUNYUO, SHENGHA, SIMA, SOWA, SHAMNYUYANGA, TABU, TAMKHUNGNYUO, TANG, TOBUNYUO, TOLAMLEINYUA, TOTOK. Tableng is standard dialect spoken in Wanching and Wakching. Bible 1992. NT 1973. Bible portions 1944-1980.

NAGA, LIANGMAI (LIYANG, LIANGMAI, LYENGMAI, LIANGMEI, LYANGMAY) [NJN] 20,000 (1994 IMA). Nagaland, upper Barak Valley. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Now merged ethnically with the Zeme and Rongmei Naga to form the Zeliang community. Bible in press (1995). NT 1983. Bible portions 1978-1988.

NAGA, LOTHA (CHIZIMA, CHOIMI, HLOTA, LHOTA, MIKLAI, TSINDIR, LUTHA, LOTHA, TSONTSII) [NJH] 76,132 (1994 IMA). Nagaland, west central. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Dialects: LIVE, TSONTSU, NDRENG, KYONG, KYO, KYON, KYOU. Bible 1967. NT 1944-1992. Bible portions 1932-1966.

NAGA, MAO (MAO, SPOWAMA, SOPVOMA, MAIKEL, MEMI, SOPFOMO) [NBI] 77,045 (1994 IMA). Northwest Manipur, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Dialect: PAOMATA. Related to Angami. Bible 1995. NT 1960-1992. Bible portions 1945-1947.

NAGA, MARAM (MARAM) [NMA] 15,000 (1993 UBS). Assam, north Manipur, Barak Valley, 5 locations. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Work in progress.

NAGA, MARING (MARING) [NNG] 15,279 (1994 IMA). Manipur State, southeast, Laiching. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. NT in press (1995). Work in progress.

NAGA, MELURI (MELURI, MELUORY, ANYO) [NLM] Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Called 'Eastern Rengma', but that group speaks a different language. Survey needed.

NAGA, MONSANG (MOSHANG, MONSHANG, MUSHANG, MAWSHANG) [NMH] 2,550 (1988 Th. Kotha MNBCA). Manipur State, Chandel District. Northern Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Officially recognized tribe since 1956.

NAGA, MOYON (MOYON, MAYON NAGA, MAYOL) [NMO] 2,970 (1988 W. Roel MYNBA). Nagaland, near Myanmar border, Manipur State, Chandel District. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. A separate tribe officially recognized since 1956. Christian. Work in progress.

NAGA, MZIEME (MZIEME) [NME] 27,560 (1994 IMA). Southwestern Nagaland, northeast of Zeme. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Bible 1992. NT 1981. Bible portions 1953.

NAGA, NOCTE (NOCTE, BORDURIA, JAIPURIA, PANIDURIA, MOHONGIA, NAMSANGIA) [NJB] 31,147 (1994 IMA). Northern Nagaland, Namsang, Jaipur in Lakhimpur district and neighboring parts of Tirap Division, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Work in progress.

NAGA, NTENYI (NTENYI, NTHENYI) [NNL] 6,600 (1980 UBS). West central Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Located in northern section of Rengma, but distinct language. Kotsenyu is chief village of Ntenyi. NT 1979. Bible portions 1944-1959.

NAGA, PHOM (PHOM, PHON, TAMLU NAGA, CHINGMENGU) [NPH] 32,078 (1994 IMA). Nagaland, northeastern. Also Assiringia village. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialect: YONGYASHA. Closely related to Konyak. NT 1978, in press (1996). Bible portions 1961.

NAGA, POCHURI (POCHURI, POCHURY) [NPO] 9,000 (1995 UBS). Southeast Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. NT 1994.

NAGA, POUMEI (POUMEI, PAUMEI) [PMX] 48,900 (1994 IMA). Manipur. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Close to Mao. NT 1992.

NAGA, PUIMEI (PUIMEI) [NPU] 2,500 in Manipur (1991). Manipur and Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Were assigned to be under the Rongmei. Christian, traditional religion.

NAGA, RENGMA (RENGMA, MOZHUMI, MOIYUI, MON, UNZA, NZONG, NZONYU, INJANG) [NRE] 33,000, including 15,000 in Southern Rengma (1995 UBS), 18,000 in Northen Rengma (1995 UBS). West central Nagaland, Assam, Manipur. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Dialects: KETENENEYU, AZONYU (NZONYU, SOUTHERN RENGMA). Tseminyu is the main center for the principal dialect. It is reported that Southern Rengma and Northern Rengma are inherently unintelligible to each other's speakers. Bible in press (1996). NT 1976. Bible portions 1928.

NAGA, RONGMEI (MARUONGMAI, NRUANGHMEI, RONGMEI, RONGMAI) [NBU] 56,180 (1994 IMA). Northwest Manipur, Cachar, Nagaland, Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Dialect: SONGBU. Songbu is the principal division of Rongmei. Merged with Zeme and Liangmei Naga to form the Zeliang community. Bible 1989. NT 1979. Bible portions 1959-1961.

NAGA, SANGTAM (SANGTAM, ISACHANURE, LOPHOMI) [NSA] 25,000 (1989 UBS). Southeast Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialects: KIZARE, PIRR (NORTHERN SANGTAM), PHELONGRE, THUKUMI (CENTRAL SANGTAM), PHOTSIMI, PURR (SOUTHERN SANGTAM). Kizare spoken north of Meluri. It is not known how much it differs from other Sangtam. Kizare: woodwork. Bible 1995. NT 1963. Bible portions 1944-1950.

NAGA, SEMA (SEMA, SIMI) [NSM] 125,275 (1994 IMA). Central and southern Nagaland, Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Dialects: DAYANG, LAZEMI, ZHIMOMI, ZUMOMI. Dayang used for western Sema by Dayang River. Bible 1985. NT 1944-1960. Bible portions 1928-1961.

NAGA, TANGKHUL (TANGKHUL, TAGKHUL, THANGKHULM, CHAMPHUNG, LUHUPPA, LUPPA, SOMRA) [NMF] 104,652 (1994 IMA). Manipur, Ukhrul, Nagaland. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialects: UKHRUL, KHUNGGOI, KHANGOI, KUPOME, PHADANG. Ukhrul dialect is principal dialect. Bible 1976. NT 1927-1995. Bible portions 1904-1967.

NAGA, TARAO (TARAO) [TRO] 570 (1988 K. Mohon TRNBA). Southeast Manipur. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Closest to Chothe Naga.

NAGA, TASE (TASEY, TANGSA, RANGPAN, CHAM CHANG) [NST] 15,755 in India (1994 IMA); 16,000 in all countries (1992 UBS). Nagaland, northern. Also in Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialects: LONGPHI, YOGLI, HAVE, KHEMSING, LUNGCHANG, LUNGRI, MOKLUM, PONTHAI, RONGRANG, RONRANG, TAIPI, TIKHAK, SANKE (SHANGGE), SANGCHE. Some dialects are widely divergent. Tase is the name of the language; Tangsa of the people. 20% literate. Typology: SOV. NT 1992. Bible portions 1979-1982.

NAGA, WANCHO (WANCHO, BANPARA NAGA, JOBOKA) [NNP] 42,500 (1994 IMA). Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialects: CHANGNOI, BOR MUTHUN (BOR MUTONIA), HORU MUTHUN, KULUNG MUTHUN (MITHAN). Close to Konyak. Work in progress.

NAGA, YIMCHUNGRU (YIMCHUNGRU, YIMCHUNGER, YIMCHUNGRE, TOZHUMA, YACHUMI) [YIM] 34,900 (1994 IMA). Nagaland, northern between Namchik and Patkoi, Tuensang district. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak. Dialects: TIKHIR, WAI, CHIRR, MINIR, PHERRONGRE, YIMCHUNGRU. The last three dialects listed are southern. NT 1981-1989. Bible portions 1959-1989.

NAGA, ZEME (KACHCHA, KACHA, KUTCHA, MEZAMA, SANGRIMA, SENGIMA, ARUNG, EMPUI, JEME, ZEMI) [NZM] 27,000 (1994 IMA). Manipur, Nagaland, Assam, large upper Barak Valley. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Naga. Dialects: PAREN, NJAUNA. Called 'Zeliang' together with Liangmei and Rongmei. NT 1978-1992. Bible portions 1928-1992.

NAHARI [NHH] Raipur, Bilaspur, Sambalpur districts of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. A more divergent dialect of Halbi. Survey needed.

NEPALI (NEPALESE, GORKHALI, GURKHALI, KHASKURA, PARBATIYA, EASTERN PAHARI) [NEP] 6,000,000 in India (1984 Far Eastern Economic Review); 300,000 in Bhutan (1973 Dorji); 9,900,800 in Nepal (1993); 16,200,000 in all countries. West Bengal, Darjeeling area, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari. Dialects: GORKHALI, PALPA, NEPALI. People are called 'Paharia'. 25% to 75% literate. Hindu. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1914-1978. NT 1821-1984. Bible portions 1850-1961.

NEWARI [NEW] (500,000 in Nepal). Some in Bettiah, Bihar. Primarily in Nepal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Eastern Himalayan, Newari. NT 1986. Bible portions 1964-1977.

NICOBARESE, CAR (PU, CAR) [CAQ] 28,220 (1994 IMA). North Nicobar Islands, Car Island. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Car. Bible 1969. NT 1940. Bible portions 1913-1954.

NICOBARESE, CENTRAL (NICOBAR) [NCB] 5,000 (1981); 22,100 in all six Nicobarese languages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Nicobar Islands, Katchall, Camorta, Nancowry, and Trinkat islands. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Nancowry. Dialects: CAMORTA (KAMORTA), KATCHAL (KACHEL, TEHNU), NANCOWRY (NANCOURY), TRINKUT (TRINKAT). Car, Chaura, Shom Peng, Southern Nicobarese, and Teressa are separate but closely related languages. Bible portions 1884-1890. Survey needed.

NICOBARESE, SOUTHERN (NICOBARA) [NIK] Nicobar Islands, Little Nicobar and outer Great Nicobar islands. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Great Nicobar. Dialects: CONDUL, GREAT NICOBAR, LITTLE NICOBAR, MILO. Survey needed.

NIHALI (NIHAL, NAHALI, NAHAL, KALTO, NAHALE) [NHL] 5,000 (1987). Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Buldana, Akola, East Nimar, Amravati districts; mainly around Temi (Tembi) village in Nimar District, Jalgaon Subdistrict; 12 hamlets around Toranmal. Language Isolate. Nihal in Chikaldara taluk and Akola District have 25% lexical similarity with Korku (Munda). Nahal near Toranmal have 51% to 73% lexical similarity with several Bhil languages (Indo-European). Nahale north of Amalwadi in Jalgaon District speak a language similar to Ahirani (Khandesi; Indo-European). Bilingualism testing with Korku (Munda), Hindi, and Marathi is needed, and intelligibility testing with nearby Bhili languages. Nihali and Nahali may be different languages. Survey needed.

NIMADI (NEMADI, NIMARI) [NOE] 1,295,000 (1994 IMA). Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Dialect: BHUANI. Survey needed.

NISI (DAFLA, DAPHLA, NISSI, NISHI, NISHANG, NYISING, BANGNI, LEL) [DAP] 248,332 (1994 IMA). Assam, Darrang, Arunachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Dialect: AKA LEL. Related to Apatani, Adi, Tagen, Yano, Lhopa, possibly Lepcha. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1957-1982.

NUKA-DORA [NUK] Near Adiwasi Oriya, Andhra Pradesh. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda. Speakers live scattered throughout the Adiwasi Oriya area. Speakers and language are called Nuka-Dora. Distinct from Mukha-Dora. Survey needed.

OJHI (OJABOLI, OJHA, OJHE, OZA, OZHA) [OJH] 1,065 (1961 census). Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chindwara district. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone. May be intelligible with Bagheli. Survey needed.

OKO-JUWOI (OKU-JUWOI, JUWOI, JUNOI) [OKJ] Andaman Islands, west central and southwest interior Middle Andaman Island. Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central. Extinct.

OLLARI (HALLARI, ALLAR, OLLARO, HOLLAR GADBAS, KONDKOR) [OLL] 797 (1931). Orissa, Koraput. Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba. Survey needed.

ÖNGE (ONG) [OON] 106 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Andaman Islands, Little Andaman Island and three small islands to the northeast. Andamanese, South Andamanese. A distinct language from Sentinelese. Reserved toward outsiders. Speakers are mainly monolingual. Hunter-gatherers, fishermen. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

ORIYA (URIYA, UTKALI, ODRI, ODRUM, OLIYA, ORISSA, VADIYA, YUDHIA) [ORY] 30,158,000 in India (1994 IMA); 13,299 in Bangladesh (1961 census); 31,000,000 in all countries. Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Andhra Pradesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. Dialects: MUGHALBANDI (ORIYA PROPER, STANDARD ORIYA), SOUTHERN ORIYA, BHATRI, NORTHWESTERN ORIYA, WESTERN ORIYA (SAMBALPURI), NORTH BALASORE ORIYA, MIDNAPORE ORIYA, HALBI, KORAPUT ORIYA (DESIA ORIYA). Some of the larger dialects have many subdialects. Sambalpuri around Sambalpur and Sundargh needs intelligibility testing with Standard Oriya. Oriya script. State language of Orissa. 25% to 50% literate. National language. Hindu. Bible 1815-1995. NT 1809-1978. Bible portions 1811-1956.

ORIYA, ADIVASI (TRIBAL ORIYA, DESIYA, DESIA, DESHIA, KOTIYA, KOTIA ORIYA, ADIWASI ORIYA) [ORT] 200,000 or more mother tongue speakers, 200,000 second language users (1987 U. Gustafsson). Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam District, Araku Valley; Orissa. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya. Dialect: VALMIKI ADIVASI ORIYA. The language is called 'Adivasi Oriya' (Tribal Oriya); the people are called Kotia. 'Adivasi Oriya' is used in Andhra Pradesh; 'Desia' in Koraput District. Telugu script used in Andhra Pradesh; 100,000 Tribal Oriya speakers in Orissa use Oriya script. Trade language. Bible portions 1977-1982. Work in progress.

PAHARI, KULLU (KULUI, KULLUI, KAULI, KULU BOLI, KULU PAHARI, PAHARI, PAHARI KULLU, PHARI KULU, KULVI, KULLUI, KULWALI) [KFX] 103,857 in Kullu (1994 IMA); 2,069,531 all Pahari (1994 IMA). Himachal Pradesh, Punjab. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Dialects: INNER SIRAGI (INNER SERAJI, SIRAGI, SIRAJI, SARAJI), KUKUI, SAINJI. Dialects are inherently intelligible. Limited bilingualism in Hindi. Radio programs in Kului. Inner Siraji is apparently different from Siraji-Kashmiri. Bible portions 1932-1980. Work in progress.

PAHARI, MAHASU (MAHASUI) [BFZ] 500,000 (1992 estimate); 3,976 in Baghati (1961 census), 23,700 in Sirmauri (1994 IMA); 2.069,531 all Pahari (1994 IMA). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Dialects: LOWER MAHASU PAHARI (KIUNTHALI, SIRMAURI, BAGHATI, HANDURI, BAGHLIANI), UPPER MAHASU PAHARI (SHIMLA SIRAJI, SODOCHI, RAMPURI, ROHRURI). The Kiunthali subdialect appears to be understood by speakers of the other varieties, and their attitude toward it is favorable. The Rampuri subdialect is also called 'Kochi'; the Rohrui subdialect also called 'Soracholi'. Intelligibility among dialects is above 85%. Speakers are of all ages, and are called 'Pahari'. Hindi is used as second language with non-Pahari speakers, but proficiency is limited. Those with more than 5 years of schooling are more proficient. Literacy in Hindi less than 40%. Radio broadcasts in Kiunthali. Typology: SOV, postpositions, genitives after noun heads, non-tonal. Levels of bilingualism in Hindi are 0:0%, 1:40%, 2:30%, 3:15%, 4:10%, 5:5%. Mountain slope, valleys. Peasant agriculturalists. Hindu (majority), Muslim (small), Christian (small). Survey needed.

PALI [PLL] Also Myanmar, Sri Lanka. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Used only as the literary language of the Buddhist scriptures. Buddhist. NT 1835. Bible portions 1827-1911. Extinct.

PALIYAN (PALAYA, SERAMAR, PALAYAN) [PCF] 591 (1941). Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Survey needed.

PANGI (PAHARI, PANGWALI, PANGWALI PAHARI) [PGG] 16,000 (1994 IMA). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul-Spiti District, Udaipur down the Chenab (Chandra-Bhaga) River to the Chamba border at Purthi, and possibly from Tandi to the Sanch Pass, and another dialect over the pass; Chamba District, Pangi Tehsil. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. 55% lexical similarity with Hindi, 77% with Kullui Pahari. Reported to be nearly the same as Bhadrawahi. 64% inherent intelligibility of Mandeali, 52% of Kangri, 44% of Chambeali. Hindi is the language of education and government; it is used as second language by men who have travelled, anyone with 5th grade education or higher, some women who have an educated person in the home. In 1981 9% of the men had a 5th grade education, 1% of the women; 3% of the men had an 8th grade education, .3% of the women. Second language Hindi speakers can handle marketing in Hindi, and some men can discuss common topics. Those with a college education have learned English, and speak it outside Pangi and in educated circles. Speakers are called 'Pangwala' or 'Pangi'. Accessible by foot or by jeep from Lahul-Spiti. The ground is covered with snow 5 to 6 months of the year. In 1987 Pangi had 40 primary schools, 4 middle schools, 4 high schools. No electricity. Alpine forest. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: wheat, barley, maize, ragi, millet, potatoes, pulses; animal husbandry: cattle, yaks, sheep, goats. Altitude: 5,000 to 12,000 feet. Hindu.

PANIKA [PNK] 30,687 (1941). Madhya Pradesh, Shahdol district. Unclassified. Survey needed.

PANIYA (PANIA, PANIYAN, PANYAH) [PCG] 6,325 (1971 census). Kerala, Tamil Nadu, west of Nilgiris Hills. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Speakers use Malayalam as second language. Agricultural workers, woodcutters. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

PANJABI, EASTERN (PUNJABI, GURMUKHI, GURUMUKHI) [PNJ] 25,690,000 in India (1994 IMA); 43,000 in Malaysia (1993); 10,000 in Kenya (1995); 9,677 in Bangladesh (1961 census); 1,167 in Fiji; 25,700,000 in all countries. Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Jammu, Kashmir. Also in United Arab Emirates, Singapore, United Kingdom. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi. Dialect: PANJABI PROPER. Western Panjabi is distinct from Eastern Panjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu). Gurumukhi is associated with Sikhs. Gurmukhi script used; a variant of Devanagari script. Subdialects of Panjabi Proper: Majhi, Doab, Bhatyiana, Powadhi, Malwa, Bathi. See separate entries for Majhi, Dogri-Kangra. National language. Sikh. Braille code available. Bible 1959-1984. NT 1815, in press (1996). Bible portions 1818-1954.

PANJABI, MIRPUR [PMU] (20,000 to 30,000 in United Kingdom; 1981). Mirpur area, Kashmir, near Pakistan border. Also United Kingdom, possibly in Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Distinct from Western Panjabi, although closely related. Survey needed.

PANJABI, WESTERN (WESTERN PUNJABI, LAHNDA, LAHANDA, LAHNDI) [PNB] 52,000 in India (1991 IMA); 30,000,000 to 45,000,000 in Pakistan (1981 census). Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Haryana. Also in Pakistan, Great Britain, United Arab Emirates and other Gulf countries, other European countries, Africa, Canada, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Panjabi is a major language. There is a continuum of varieties between Eastern and Western Panjabi, and with Western Hindi and Urdu. 'Lahnda' is a name given earlier for Western Panjabi; an attempt to cover the dialect continuum between Hindko, Pahari-Potwari, and Western Panjabi in the north and Sindhi in the south. Several dozen dialects. Perso-Arabic script is used, but not often written in Pakistan. Movies. Muslim; Christian. NT 1819-1952. Bible portions 1885-1922.

PAO (PABRA) [PPA] 23,496 (1961 census). Madhya Pradesh, Satna district. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. May not be Tibeto-Burman. Survey needed.

PARDHAN (PRADHAN, PRADHANI) [PCH] 453 (1961 census). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Probably more than 1 language. Survey needed.

PARDHI (PARADHI, BAHELIA, CHITA PARDHI, LANGO PARDHI, PAIDIA, PARADI, PARIA, PHANS PARDHI, TAKANKAR, TAKIA) [PCL] 17,426 (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, scattered over wide area. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialects: NEELISHIKARI, PITTALA BHASHA, TAKARI. Probably more than 1 language (Lango). Survey needed.

PARENGA (PARENGI, PARENG, PARENGA PARJA, PARENJI, POROJA, GORUM, GORUM SAMA) [PCJ] 4,281 (1992 Albert). Orissa, Koraput District, and Andhra Pradesh. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Gorum. People are rapidly shifting to Adivasi Oriya. Erroneously called Gadaba. Survey needed.

PATELIA (PATELIYA, PATELIYA BHIL) [PTL] 23,213 (1941). Gujarat, Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. 93% lexical similarity between Gujarat dialects; 79% to 92% with Adiwasi Girasia dialects; 84% with Wagdi; 76% to 84% with Rajput Girasia dialects; 75% to 83% with Marwari dialects. Hindu, traditional religion. Work in progress.

PAURI (PAWRI, PAWARI, PAURA) [PWR] 286,909 (1994 IMA). Maharashtra, northern Dhule District, northern Akrani tahsil along the northeast borders of Dhule District into northwest Jalgaon District. Many more in Madhya Pradesh to Indoore and Bhopal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialect: RATHWI (RATHVI, RATWA). The language is called 'Pauri', the people 'Paura'. 'Bhil' is an ethnic designation (caste or tribe). Not intelligible with Vasavi or Bhilori. 73% to 79% lexical similarity between Bareli and Rathwi dialects. Low literacy rate. Bilingual proficiency in Marathi is limited. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.

PENGO (PENGU) [PEG] 1,254 (1961 census). Orissa, Koraput district. Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo. Work in progress.

PHAKE (PHAKIAL, PHAKEY, FAAKE) [PHK] Several thousand (A. Diller ANU 1990). Assam, villages along the Dihing River. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Similar to Shan of Myanmar. Survey needed.

PHUDAGI [PHD] Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to, Konkani. 'Phudagi' is also an alternate name for Vadval. Survey needed.

PNAR (SYNTENG) [PBV] 84,000 (1991 IMA). Assam, Khasi and Jaintia Hills. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian. Dialects: JAINTIA, NONGTUNG. Survey needed.

PUH (BHOTIA OF UPPER KANAWAR) [PUH] 4,735, 8% of the population of Kinnaur District (1981 census). Most of Puh Tehsil except Sunam and the lowest part along the Satluj Valley. From Puh village it goes along the Spiti River north to the border with Spiti. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Unclassified. 71% lexical similarity with Nesang, 49% with Lhasa Tibetan, 27% with Sunam, 24% with Jangshung, 22% with Shumcho, 21% with Tinan Lahuli, 20% with Chitkuli. Reported to be close to the Tibetan dialect in Spiti. Survey needed.

PURIK (PURIGSKAD, BURIG, PURIG, PURKI, PURIK BHOTIA, BURIG, BURIGSKAT) [BXR] 132,000 (1991 IMA); 135,000 to 148,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). North Kashmir, Kargil District; Suru Valley is the main population center. It is the dominant group in Suru, a sizeable minority is in Dras Valley, and a minority is in the western Himalayas. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Western. Dominant language in Kargil District. Closely related to Balti. People are called 'Purig-pa'. 'Purig' means 'of Tibetan origin'. People prefer to be culturally and linguistically identified with Tibet, although religiously with Islam. Persian-Arabic script of Urdu is used for literate Purik unless they have been to the university. Level of education and bilingual proficiency in Urdu is low. Women tend to speak only Purik. Uneducated men speak little Urdu. Almost totally Shi'a Muslim. NT 1950. Bible portions 1938-1940.

RABHA (RAVA) [RAH] 200,000 (1990 UBS). West Assam, Garo Hills, Nagaland, West Bengal, Meghalaya. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Garo. Dialects: MAITARIA, RANGDANIA. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1909-1986.

RAJBANGSI (RAJBANSI, TAJPURI) [RJB] (94,000 in Nepal; 1993). West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, Darjeeling districts. Also in Bangladesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese. Dialect: BAHE.

RALTE [RAL] 170 in India (1971 census); 17,000 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Assam. Also Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Related to Tiddim, Paite, Thado, Zo. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

RANGKAS [RGK] 600 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Also Nepal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Almora. Related to Darmiya, Chaudangsi, Byangsi. May only be in India. Survey needed.

RAWANG (NUNG RAWANG, GANUNG-RAWANG, HKANUNG, NUNG, KRANGKU, TARON, KIUTZE, CH'OPA, CHIUTSE) [RAW] 100,000 or more in all countries (1980 Seindang Sakram). Also in Myanmar, Tibet and Yunnan, China. The Kunlang dialect is in India. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Dialect: KUNLANG. 75 to 100 dialects, some of which are inherently unintelligible. Five major divisions: Longmi, Mutwang, Serwang, Tangsarr, Kwinpang (Nung); each has 20 to 30 subdialects. Kunglang is in India; communication with Myanmar dialects was cut off in the 1950's. Dialects near the Tibet border are more difficult to understand. Most dialects understand Mutwang, the central, written dialect. The Chinese name is 'Kiutze' or 'Qiuze'. The Lisu name is 'Ch'opa'. Typology: SOV. Bible 1986. NT 1974-1981. Bible portions 1952-1963.

RELI (RELLI) [REI] 18,176 (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, near Adiwasi Oriya, Orissa. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Speakers known by Adiwasi Oriya people. Survey needed.

RIANG (REANG, KAU BRU) [RIA] 132,608 in India (1994 IMA); 1,011 in Bangladesh; 133,600 in all countries. Assam, central Tripura, Mizoram. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo. Different from Riang of Myanmar, a Mon-Khmer language. NT 1990. Bible portions 1959-1982.

SADRI (SADANI, SADANA, SADATI, SADARI, SADHAN, SADNA, SADRIK, SANTRI, SIDDRI, SRADRI, SADHARI, SADAN, NAGPURIA, NAGPURI, CHOTA NAGPURI, DIKKU KAJI, GANWARI) [SCK] 1,861,965 including 1,315,710 Sadani (1994 IMA), 546,255 Nagpuria (1994 IMA); 200,000 in Bangladesh (1993); 2,062,000. Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andaman Islands, Nagaland. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Hindi, Oriya, and Bengali are used as official languages. 15% to 25% literate. Dictionary. Language of wider communication Among tribal groups. Devanagari. Agriculturalists, laborors: tea estates. Hindu, traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1931-1986. Bible portions 1907-1919.

SAHARIA (SEHRI, SOR, SOSIA) [SRX] 174,320. Madhya Pradesh, Shivpuri, Morena, Guna districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified. Possibly Hindi group. Survey needed.

SAMVEDI [SMV] Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to Konkani. Shares many features with Gujarati. Survey needed.

SANSKRIT [SKT] 6,106 (1981 census); 194,433 second language speakers (1961 census). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan. Literary and liturgical language. National language. Braille code available. Bible 1822. NT 1808-1851. Bible portions 1811-1893.

SANTALI (HOR, HAR, SATAR, SANTHALI, SANDAL, SANGTAL, SANTAL, SENTALI, SAMTALI, SANTHIALI, SONTHAL) [SNT] 5,675,000 in India (1994 IMA); 100,000 in Bangladesh (1983 UBS); 40,000 in Nepal (1985); 5,800,000 in all countries. Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, West Bengal. Also in Bhutan. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Dialects: KARMALI (KHOLE), KAMARI-SANTALI, LOHARI-SANTALI, MAHALI (MAHLE), MANJHI, PAHARIA. Closely related to Ho and Mundari, but a separate language. 25% to 50% literate. Bible 1914, in press (1994). NT 1887-1962. Bible portions 1868-1989.

SARAIKI (MULTANI, MUTANI, SOUTHERN PANJABI, REASATI, SIRAIKI) [SKR] 15,692 in India (1971 census); 15,000,000 in Pakistan (1976 Shackle); 15,020,000 in all countries. Punjab, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Delhi, Gujarat. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Dialects: JAFRI, SIRAIKI HINDKI, THALI, JATKI. Bahawalpuri may be intelligible with Saraiki. NT 1819, out of print. Bible portions 1898. Work in progress.

SAURASHTRA (SAURASHTRI, SOURASHTRA, SOWRASHTRA, PATNULI) [SAZ] 295,501 (1994 IMA). The districts mentioned each have communities of at least 5,000 speakers. Madras, Deccan, Madurai, Thanjavur, Salem cities; districts of Madurai, Thanjavur, Dindugul Quaid-E-Milleth, Ramanathapuram, Chengai-Annai, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, North Arcot; Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh States. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. Dialects: SOUTHERN SAURASHTRA, NORTHERN SAURASHTRA. All varieties sampled had 77% to 96% lexical similarity. The 3 main populations in Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai cities had 84% to 96%, and between 67% and 97% inherent intelligibility. Southern dialects have 83% lexical similarity or higher with Thanjavur dialect. An Indo-European island surrounded by Dravidian languages. Most adults speak Tamil in public, and Saurashtra in private. Has had its own script for centuries. A modern version was developed in the late 1800's. Since the end of the 19th century books have been printed using Telugu, Tamil, Devanagari, and Saurashtra scripts. Currently an adapted Tamil script is most commonly employed, using superscript numbers and a colon to show sounds not used in Tamil. The non-weavers are generally better educated. System of exogamous clans. Dictionary. Traditionally silk weavers 40% to 70%, business, professions. Hindu (Brahmin). Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

SAURIA PAHARIA (MALTO, MALTI, MALTU, MALER, SAWRIYA MALTO) [MJT] 74,000 to 86,000 (1994). Northern part of former Santhal Pargana District, central eastern Bihar, Rajmahal hills proper, mainly in Sahibganj and Godda districts, Litipara Block of Pakaur District, and Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal. Dravidian, Northern. Dialects: SAHIBGANJ, GODDA, HIRANPUR, LITIPARA (CHATGAM). 80% lexical similarity with Kumarbhag Paharia, but inherent intelligibility between them is inadequate. Related to Kurux. Part of the Malto ethnic group. A Scheduled Tribe. 6.9% literate. Forest. Hills, plains. Swidden agriculturalists: rice, maize, wheat, sugarcane, lentils, vegetables; animal husbandry: dairy cattle, goats, pigs, chickens; fishermen; hunters; firewood gatherers. Altitude: 1,000 to 2,000 feet. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1881-1994. Work in progress.

SAVARA [SVR] Andhra Pradesh. Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Distinct from Sora (Savara). Survey needed.

SENTINEL (SENTINELESE) [STD] 50 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southeastern Andaman Islands, Sentinel Island. Andamanese, South Andamanese. Reserved toward outsiders. Similar to Önge, but a distinct language. Hunter-gatherers, fishermen. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

SHENDU (KHYEN, KHIENG, SHANDU, SANDU) [SHL] (1,000 in Bangladesh; 1980 UBS). Lushai Hills, Assam. Also Bangladesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho. Close to Asho, Khyang, Thayetmo, Minbu, Chinbon, Lemyo.

SHERDUKPEN [SDP] 1,144 (1982 Hale). Assam, Arunachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Unclassified. Survey needed.

SHERPA (SHARPA, SHARPA BHOTIA, XIAERBA, SERWA) [SCR] 18,595 in India (1994 IMA); 14,126 in Nepal (1972); 800 in China (1994); 34,000 or more in all countries. Darjeeling District, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Southern. 'Sharpa' means 'easterner', so the term used in different countries may not always refer to this language. Lamaist. Bible portions 1977.

SHINA (SINA, SHINAKI) [SCL] 20,416 in India (1994 IMA); 300,000 in Pakistan (1981); 320,000 in all countries. Dras Valley and Gurais area in Kishenganga Valley near the cease fire line in northern Kashmir. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina. Dialects: DRASI, GUREZI. Speakers are called Shin. Many in Dras Valley also speak Purik, but there are villages in Dras Valley that are pure Shina-speaking. People are open to education and jobs outside the area. Brokskat is quite divergent. Gurezi and Dras are Sunni and Shi'a Muslim. Bible portions 1929. Survey needed.

SHOBANG [SSB] Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Calcutta. Unclassified. May be a variant of Shom Peng. Survey needed.

SHOLAGA [SLE] Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. May be in the Kannada group. Survey needed.

SHOM PENG (SHOM PEN, SHOMPENG) [SII] 100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Nicobar Islands, interior Great Nicobar Island, 7 N, 93.42' E. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Shom Peng. A distinct language from other Nicobarese languages. Shobang may be a variety. Speakers are mainly monolingual. Survey needed.

SHUMCHO (SUMCHU, SUMTSU, SHUMCU, THEBOR, THEBÖR SKADD, THEBARSKAD, CENTRAL KINNAURI) [SCU] 3,000, 5% of the population of Kinnaur District (1981 census). Kanam, Labrang, Spilo, Shyaso, Taling, and Rushkaling villages of Puh Tehsil. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. 70% lexical similarity with Jangshung, 67% with Sunam, 45% with Lower Kinnauri, 43% with Chitkuli. Mountain slope, valleys. Pastoralists (sedentary), peasant agriculturalists11. Altitude: 5,000 to 6,770 meters. Traditional religion, Hindu, Lamaistic Buddhist. Survey needed.

SIKKIMESE (SIKKIM BHOTIA, DANJONGKA, DENJONKE, DENJONKA, SIKAMI) [SIP] 36,577 (1961 census). North half of Sikkim, higher mountains. Possibly also in Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Southern. Partially intelligible with Dzongkha of Bhutan. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Buddhist.

SIMTE [SMT] 20,000 (1993 UBS). Southwest Manipur. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Related to Thado and Zome. Bible 1992. Bible portions 1957.

SINDHI [SND] 2,678,000 in India (1986 MARC); 16,992,000 in Pakistan (1993); 5,000 in Singapore (1993); 19,675,000 in all countries. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh. Also in Afghanistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. Dialects: BHATIA, JADEJI, KACHCHHI, KAYASTHI, LARI, LASI, THARELI, THARI, VICCHOLI, VISHOLI. Arabic and Gurumukhi scripts used. National language. Hindu, Sikh, Muslim. Bible 1954. NT 1890-1992. Bible portions 1825-1971.

SONDWARI (SOUDHWARI) [SCM] 31,488 (1971 census). Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. May be intelligible with Malvi. Survey needed.

SORA (SAORA, SAONRAS, SHABARI, SABAR, SAURA, SAVARA, SAWARIA, SWARA, SABARA) [SRB] 273,911 (1994 IMA). Mainly in the Ganjam District of south Orissa, also in the Koraput and Phulbani districts of Orissa; also Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, the Plains Division of Assam. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray. Bible 1992. NT 1965. Bible portions 1939-1985.

SULUNG [SUV] Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Perhaps a few in India; possibly only in Tibet. Survey needed.

SUNAM (SUNGAM, SUNGNAM, THEBOR, THEBÖR SKADD, THEBARSHAD, CENTRAL KINNAURI) [SSK] 1,175, less than 2% of the population of Kinnaur District (1981 census). Sunam village in Puh Tehsil. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. 67% lexical similarity with Shumcho, 65% with Jangshung, 38% with Lower Kinnauri and Chitkuli Kinnauri. Mountain slope, valleys. Pastoralists (sedentary), peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 5,000 to 6,770 meters. Traditional religion, Hindu, Lamaistic Buddhist. Survey needed.

TAMANG, EASTERN [TAJ] 13,177 (1994 IMA); 300,000 in Nepal (1985). Darjeeling, Sikkim. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Gurung. Distinct from Western Tamang. Work in progress.

TAMARIA (TAIR, TAMARA, TEMORAL, TUMARIYA) [TDB] 5,045. Bihar; Ranchi, Singhbhum. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari. Survey needed.

TAMIL (TAMALSAN, TAMBUL, TAMILI, TAMAL, DAMULIAN) [TCV] 58,597,000 in India (1994 IMA); 3,000,000 in Sri Lanka (1993); 250,000 in South Africa; 274,218 in Malaysia (1970 census); 191,200 in Singapore (1980); 35,000 in Germany; 7,000 in Netherlands; 22,000 in Mauritius (1993); 6,663 in Fiji; 62,000,000 or more in all countries first language speakers; 69,000,000 including second language users (1995 WA). Tamil Nadu and neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, Qatar, Reunion, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Dialects: ADI DRAVIDA, AIYAR, AIYANGAR, ARAVA, BURGANDI, KASUVA, KONGAR, KORAVA, KORCHI, MADRASI, PARIKALA, PATTAPU BHASHA, TAMIL, SRI LANKA TAMIL, MALAYA TAMIL, BURMA TAMIL, SOUTH AFRICA TAMIL, TIGALU, HARIJAN, SANKETI, HEBBAR, MANDYAM BRAHMIN, SECUNDERABAD BRAHMIN. Tamil script. State language of Tamil Nadu. Kasuva is a jungle tribe dialect. Burgandi speakers are nomadic. Aiyar and Aiyangar are Brahmin dialects. National language. Typology: SOV. Hindu, Muslim. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1727-1995. NT 1715-1988. Bible portions 1714-1956.

TEHRI (GANGAPARIYA) [THB] Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali. Close to Garhwali. Bible portions 1914. Survey needed.

TELUGU (TELEGU, ANDHRA, GENTOO, TAILANGI, TELANGIRE, TELGI, TENGU, TERANGI, TOLANGAN) [TCW] 66,318,000 in India (1994 IMA); 30,000 in Malaysia (1993); 2,008 in Fiji; 300 in Singapore (1970); 73,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, United Arab Emirates. Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Dialects: BERAD, DASARI, DOMMARA, GOLARI, KAMATHI, KOMTAO, KONDA-REDDI, SALEWARI, TELANGANA, TELUGU, VADAGA, VADARI, SRIKAKULA, VISHAKAPATNAM, EAST GODAVERI,RAYALSEEMA, NELLORE, GUNTUR. Telugu script. State language of Andhra Pradesh. National language. Typology: SOV. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1854-1990. NT 1818, in press (1995). Bible portions 1812-1966.

TERESSA (TAIH-LONG) [TEF] Nicobar Islands, Teressa and Bompoka islands. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa. Dialect: BOMPOKA (BOMPAKA, PAUHUT). Survey needed.

THAKURI (THAKRI, THAKARI, THAKUA, THAKURA) [THK] 99,000 (1991 IMA). Maharashtra, Orissa. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. Survey needed.

THARU, BUKSA (BUKSA) [TKB] 20,000 in India (1981 census). Southwestern Nainital District, along a diagonal from Ramnagar to Keneshpur. 130 villages in Kichha and Kashipur Tehsils, and small numbers in Bijnor and Garhwal districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified. Dialects: MADNAPUR, THARI. 93% lexical similarity between dialects, 73% to 79% with Rana, 66% to 69% with Kathoriya, 65% to 67% with Sunha, 58% to 65% with Dang, 58% with Chitwan, 83% with Hindi. Speakers appear to have 95% intelligibility of Rana. A separate Tharu clan. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

THULUNG (THULUNGE RAI) [TDH] 3,313 in India (1961 census); 20,000 to 25,000 in all countries (1973 SIL). Also in Nepal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Eastern Himalayan, Kiranti, Western, Eastern. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Hindu.

TIBETAN (LHASA, BHOTIA, DALAI, POHBETIAN, TEBILIAN, TIBATE) [TIC] 124,280 in India (1994 IMA); 60,000 in Nepal (1973 SIL); 3,000 in Bhutan; 1,066,200 in China (1990); 352 in USA (1970 census); 200 or more in Switzerland; 1,254,000 or more in all countries. Tibet border, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Delhi, Sikkim. Also in Norway, Taiwan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Central. Dialects: KONGBO, SPITI, STOD. In Himalayan countries 'Bhotiya' means 'people of Tibetan origin' and is applied to those speaking various languages. Dialects or closely related languages: Aba (Batang), Dartsemdo (Tatsienlu), Dru, Garhwal, Gtsang, Hanniu, Jad (Dzad), Lhoskad (Hloka), Ngambo (Amdo), Nganshuenkuan (Anshuenkuan Nyarong), Panakha-Panags, Paurong, Kumaun, Spiti, Takpa (Dwags). Spiti and Stod have 74% lexical similarity. Lamaist. Bible 1948. NT 1885-1973. Bible portions 1862-1991.

TODA (TODI, TUDA) [TCX] 765 (1961 census). Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Kunda hills. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota. Bible portions 1897-1910. Survey needed.

TSANGLA (SANGLA) [TSJ] (80,000 in Bhutan, 7,000 in China). Bishing and several other villages in Arunachal Pradesh. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tsangla. They claim to have come from Bhutan. Many young people attend school. Rice. Buddhist. Survey needed.

TUKPA [TPQ] Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. Related to Lower Kinnauri, Chitkuli Kinnauri, and Kanashi. Survey needed.

TULU (TAL, THALU, TILU, TULUVA BHASA, TULLU, THULU) [TCY] 1,856,000 (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Meghalaya. Dravidian, Southern, Tulu. Dialects: TULU, BELLARI. Bellari may be a separate language. NT 1847-1892. Bible portions 1842-1912. Work in progress.

TURI [TRD] 2,000 to 4,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Raigarh in east Madhya Pradesh, Sambalpur and Oriya in Orissa and other scattered areas. Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Survey needed.

TURUNG [TRY] Assam. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. May be extinct. Nearly extinct.

ULLATAN (KATAN, KATTALAN, KOCHUVELAN) [ULL] 1,500 (SIL). Kerala. Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified. Survey needed.

URALI (OORAZHI, URALY, URLI) [URL] 3,000 (1979 Zvelebil). Tamil Nadu, Periyar District, Sathayamangalam area, east of Nilgiri District. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Reported to be a distinct speech variety, sharing features with Tamil, Irula, and Kannada (Mohan Lal 1991). Survey needed.

URDU (ISLAMI, UNDRI, URUDU) [URD] 45,773,000 in India (1994 IMA); 8,000,000 in Pakistan (1988); 3,562 in Fiji; 170,000 in South Africa; 30,000 in Oman; 20,000 in Bahrain; 19,950 in Qatar; 16,800 in Germany; 54,000,000 or more in all countries. Jammu and Kashmir and by Muslims in many parts of India. Also in Afghanistan, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Dialects: DAKHINI (DAKANI, DECCAN, DESIA, MIRGAN), PINJARI, REKHTA (REKHTI). Dakhini is freer of Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu. Both are written in Arabic script. Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry. State language and medium of instruction in government schools in Jammu and Kashmir. National language. Muslim. Braille Bible. Bible 1843-1958. NT 1758-1993. Bible portions 1747-1894.

VAAGRI BOOLI [VAA] Arcot District, Tamil Nadu. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Bible portions 1975. Survey needed.

VADVAL (PHUDAGI) [VAD] Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to, Konkani. Survey needed.

VAIPHEI (BHAIPEI, VAIPEI, VEIPHEI) [VAP] 20,460 (1994 IMA). Assam, south Manipur, Meghalaya. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Old Kuki, Unclassified. Reported to be a subgroup of Zomi. NT 1957-1989. Bible portions 1917-1989.

VARHADI-NAGPURI (MADHYA PRADESH MARATHI, BERARI, BERAR MARATHI, DHANAGARI, KUMBHARI) [VAH] Maharashtra. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified. Dialects: BRAHMANI, KUNBI, RAIPUR, JHADPI, GOVARI, KOSTI (RANGARI), KUNBAN (KOHLI), MAHARI (DHEDI). More distinct dialects or languages are Marheti, Natakani, Katia (Katiyai). Survey needed.

VARLI (WARLI) [VAV] 470,000 including 33,971 in Maharashtra (1981 census) and 126,108 in Gujarat (1971 census). Maharashtra, northern Thane District, especially Dahanu and Talasari taluks, and some in Nasik and Dhule districts; Gujarati, Valsad District, especially Dharampur taluk, and Dadra Nagar Haveli. Davari dialect in far north Thane District and southern Gujarat; Nihiri elsewhere. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani. Dialects: DAVARI, WESTERN NIHIRI, EASTERN NIHIRI. Each dialect group is endoganous. Some classify this as a dialect of Gujarati or Bhili. Bilingualism in Marathi and Gujarati is limited. Patrilocal. Forest. Hills. Agriculturalists: rice; cattle raising; fishermen. Altitude: 1604 meters. Work in progress.

VASAVI (VASAVE, VASAVA, VASAVA BHIL) [VAS] 300,000 or more (1985 F). Maharashtra, small villages and hamlets around the Tapti River, stretching into the Surat and Bharuch districts of Gujarat; north of the Tapti River in the southern areas of Akkalkuwa and Akrani tahsila on a narrow belt of land between the Satpudas the the Tapti banks; some in the Satpudas; south of the Tapti in the central and northern Nandurbar and Nawapur tahsils. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. Subgroup of Bhil ethnic group. Vasavi is the name of the language; Vasava the people. Speakers in different locations are known as Adawasi Bhil, Dhogri Bhil, Keski Bhil, Bhilori, Padwi Bhilori, Ambodia Bhil, Vasave Bhil. Not intelligible with Pauri or Bhilori. Bilingual proficiency in Marathi is limited. Low literacy rate. Work in progress.

VISHAVAN (MALARKUTI) [VIS] 150. Ernakulam, Kottayam, Trichur districts of Kerala. Dravidian, Unclassified. Survey needed.

WADDAR (VADARI, WERDERS) [WBQ] 58,517 (1994 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra. Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Survey needed.

WAGDI (WAGADI, VAGDI, VAGADI, VAGARI, VAGERI, VAGED, VAGI, WAGARI, WAGHARI, WAGRI, WAGHOLI, MINA BHIL, BHILI) [WBR] 1,544,000 (1994 IMA). Rajasthan, in southern Udaipur District, Dungarpur and Banswara; Gujarat, in Sabarkantha and Panch Mahals. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil. Dialects: KHERWARA, SAGWARA, ADIVASI. Intelligibility among dialects is above 95%. 84% lexical similarity with Patelia dialects; 75% to 80% with Marwari dialects; 79% to 93% with Adiwasi Girasia dialects; 79% to 87% with Rajput Girasia dialects. Devanagari script. Second language is Hindi; proficiency is adequate for market and other common topics; used with people not speakers of Wagdi. No feeling of inferiority attached to Wagdi. A regional language in Vagad Desh. Merchants and government workers use it as second language. Speakers are called 'Bhil'. 25% to 50% literate. Trade language. Typology: SOV, postpositions, genitivies after noun heads, non-tonal. Desert. Plains, hills. Peasant agriculturalists. Hindu, traditional religion. Work in progress.

YAKHA (YAKKHA, YAKKHABA) [YBH] (20,000 in Nepal; 1985). Among British Gurkhas in Sikkim. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Eastern Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern, Southwestern. Related to Lohorong, Limbu. Buddhist, Hindu. Survey needed.

YANADI (YADI, YANDIS, YENADI) [YBF] 205,381 (1991 IMA). Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa. Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Survey needed.

YERAVA (YORUBA) [YEA] 17,713 (1994 IMA). Karnataka, Coorg. Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Survey needed.

ZANGSKARI (ZANSKARI, ZASKARI) [ZAU] 8,000 to 10,000 (1984 Dayton and Wilson). Zaskar Mts., Kashmir, southernmost end of Kargil District. Between Himalayas and Indus River Valley. Next to Leh-Ladakhi area and Kargil-Purik area. Possibly Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Western. People are somewhat bilingual in Leh dialect of Ladakhi; inherent and learned comprehension needs investigation. Closer linguistically to ChangThang than to Ladakhi. Highest literacy rate in Tibetan script in Ladakh. Small primary schools throughout Zanskar, lower high schools in Karsha and Zangla, high school in Padum. 90% of students are male. Nearly all teachers are from outside the area. People trade grain with ChangThang to acquire wool and salt. Buddhist. Bible portions 1945-1951. Survey needed.

ZOME (ZORNI, ZOMI, ZOU, ZO) [ZOM] 16,395 in India (1994 IMA); 30,000 in Myanmar; 46,400 in all countries. Manipur, Assam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kuki-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. 'Zome' is the general name for all Chin, but also refers to this specific group. Bible 1992. NT 1967-1981. Bible portions 1981.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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