Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Ethiopia

52,569,000 (1995). People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Ye Etiyop'iya Hizbawi Dimokrasiyawi Ripublik. Literacy rate 37% to 50%. Also includes Sudanese Spoken Arabic used as second language by up to 100,000 refugees (1991). Information mainly from M. L. Bender 1970, 1975, 1983; SIL 1995. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion, secular. Blind population 90,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 7. The number of languages listed for Ethiopia is 86. Of those, 82 are living languages and 4 are extinct.

AARI (ARI, ARA, ARO, AARAI, "SHANKILLA", "SHANKILLINYA") [AIZ] 109,000 (1993 Johnstone). North central Omo region, southern tip of Ethiopian plateau, near the Hamer-Banna. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. Dialects: GOZZA, BAKO (BACO), BIYO (BIO), GALILA, LAYDO, SEYKI, SHANGAMA, SIDO, WUBAHAMER (UBAMER), ZEDDO. "Shankilla" is a derogatory name. Galila is a significantly divergent dialect. 95% speak Aari in the home and market. Some bilingualism in Amharic and Gofa (Wolaytta). Patrilineal. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Plateau. Agriculturalists, traders, cottage industries. Traditional religion; Christian. Work in progress.

AFAR (AFARAF, "DANAKIL", "DENKEL", <AFAR AF, ADAL) [AFR] 450,000 in Ethiopia (1994 UBS); 300,000 in Eritrea (1993), or .9% of the population; 300,000 in Djibouti (1996); 1,000,000 in all countries. Eastern lowlands, Afar Region. May also be in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. Dialects: NORTHERN AFAR, CENTRAL AFAR, AUSSA, BAADU (BA<ADU). The people are called "Danakil" in Arabic and by others, but that is considered to be offensive by the Afar; called 'Adal' in Amharic. Nomadic. Saho is related but distinct. Official literary language. 8% literate. People have suffered from recent famines. Grammar, dictionary. Typology: SOV. Desert. Coastal. Muslim, Christian. NT 1994. Bible portions 1975-1986.

AGAW, WESTERN [QIM] 350,000 or fewer speakers out of more than 1,000,000 in the ethnic group (1994 A. Nega). Northwest Amhara Region, north of Lake Tana. Communities of Qwara or Kayla are near Addis Ababa and in Eritrea. None in Sudan. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western. Dialects: QIMANT (KEMANT, KIMANT, KEMANAT, KAMANT, CHEMANT, QEMANT), DEMBIYA (DEMBYA, DAMBYA), HWARASA (QWARA, QWARINA, "KARA"), KAYLA, SEMYEN, ACHPAR, KWOLASA (KWOLACHA). A separate language from Awngi, Bilen, and Xamtanga. It is reported that all Qimant are bilingual in Amharic. Qwara is extinct, with all the ethnic group speaking Amharic. Kayla or Qwara people are called 'Falashi', the so-called 'Black Jews'. Ge'ez is used as liturgical language, but many use a few Hebrew words in prayer. No evidence of a distinct Jewish language. 'Kara' is incorrect spelling. Typology: SOV. Christian (Qimant), Jewish (Kayla). Bible portions 1885. Survey needed.

ALABA (ALLAABA, HALABA) [ALB] 83,000 (1991 SIL). Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala. Separated by a river from the Kambatta. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 81% lexical similarity with Kambaata, 64% with Sidamo, 56% with Libido, 54% with Hadiyya. There is interest in using Alaba for primary education. 5% literate. Typology: SOV. Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

AMHARIC (ABYSSINIAN, ETHIOPIAN, AMARINYA) [AMH] 15,000,000 in Ethiopia, (1988 Bender); 40,000 in Israel (1994); 20,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Possibly 23,000,000 including second language users. North central Ethiopia, Amhara Region, and in Addis Ababa. Also in Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal. Used in government, public media, national business, education to seventh grade in many areas, wide variety of literature (fiction, poetry, plays, magazines), radio, TV. People have suffered from recent famines. 25% to 50% literate. Dictionaries. Grammars. National language. Typology: SOV, prepositions, postpositions, genitives, articles, and relatives precede noun heads, question word initial, case affixes, verb suffixes show person, number, gender of subject and (optionally) object, passives including deponents, causatives, CV, CVC, V, CVCC. Christian, Jewish. Braille Bible portions. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1840-1988. NT 1829-1988. Bible portions 1824-1988.

ANFILLO (SOUTHERN MAO) [MYO] 500 speakers out of an ethnic group of 1,000 (1990 SIL). Anfillo Forest, west of Dembi Dolo. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central. 53% lexical similarity with Shakacho. All speakers are older; members of the ethnic group mainly speak Western Oromo. Typology: SOV.

ANUAK (ANYWAK, ANYUAK, ANYWA, YAMBO, JAMBO, ANYWA, YEMBO, YAMBO, BAR, BURJIN, MIROY, MOOJANGA, NURO) [ANU] 26,000 in Ethiopia (1991 UBS); 52,000 in Sudan (1991 UBS); 78,000 in all countries. Gambela Region in the southwest. Along the Baro, Alworo, and Gilo rivers and on the right bank of the Akobo River. Gambela town is the main center. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak. Dialects: ADOYO, CÏRO, LUL, OPËNO. Four main dialect areas, but only slight differences. Official literary language. Closer to Acholi and Luo of Uganda than to Shilluk. Typology: SVO, prepositions, tonal. Agriculturalists: maize, sorghum; animal husbandry; fishermen; hunters. Traditional religion. NT 1962-1965. Bible portions 1956-1993.

ARBORE (ARBORA, ERBORE, IRBORE) [ARV] 1,000 to 5,000 (1982 SIL). Extreme southwest, Omo Region, near Lake Stefanie. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. Komso is the lingua franca. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

ARGOBBA [AGJ] 1,600 near Ankober speak Argobba at home (1991 SIL); 21,600 in the ethnic group near Ankober and 14,500 in the ethnic group near Harar. 40,000 in the ethnic group (1990 census). Fragmented areas along the Rift Valley in settlements like Yimlawo, Gusa, Shonke, Berket, Keramba, Mellajillo, Metehara, Shewa Robit and surrounding rural villages. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal. Dialects: ANKOBER, SHONKE. 75% to 85% lexical similarity to Amharic. It is reported that the "purest" Argobba is spoken in Shonke and T'olaha. The ethnic group near Ankober mainly speaks Amharic; the group near Harar mainly speaks Oromo. The ethnic group is working to foster ethnic recognition. Traders, agriculturalists. Muslim. Survey needed.

AWNGI (AWIYA, AWI, AGAW, AGAU, AGEW, AGOW, AWAWAR, DAMOT, KWOLLANYOCH) [AWN] 490,000 in Ethiopia (1993 Johnstone). Amhara Region. Widely scattered parts of Agew Midir and Metekel, southwest of Lake Tana. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern. A separate language. 80% to 90% of speakers use Amharic as second language. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists.

BAISO (BAYSO, ALKALI) [BSW] 1,010 (1995 SIL). Alge village near Merab Abaya, half way between Soddo and Arba Minch (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); and Welege (420) Island on Lake Abaya, and the western shore of the lake. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. The people are bilingual in Wolaytta, but have resisted extinction for at least 1,000 years (Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer 1991). They are positive toward the idea of Baiso literature. Typology: SOV. Fishermen, agriculturalists, weavers, hippo hunters. Survey needed.

BAMBASSI (BAMBESHI, SIGGOYO, AMAM, FADIRO, NORTHERN MAO, DIDESSA) [MYF] 5,000 (1982 SIL). Beni Shangul Region, in and around Bambesi. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, East. Dialects: KERE, BAMBASSI. 31% lexical similarity with other Omotic languages, 17% with Hozo-Sezo (Bender 1983). Attitudes toward Oromo vary. Limited bilingualism in Oromo, Arabic, and almost none in Amharic. Typology: SOV. Muslim. Survey needed.

BASKETTO (BASKETO, BASKATTA, MESKETO) [BST] 82,800 (1974 govt. figure). North Omo Region, on a plateau west of Bulki. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, West. 61% lexical similarity with Oyda. The average Basketo is monolingual and could not understand anything important in any language except Basketo. Limited bilingualism in Wolaytta. Not adequately intelligible with Wolaytta. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Plateau. Christian. Work in progress.

BENCH (GIMIRA, GHIMARRA, GIMARRA, DIZU) [BCQ] 80,000 (1991 SIL). Kafa Region, in and around Mizan Teferi and Shewa Berch towns. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira. Dialects: BENCH (BENCHO, BENESHO), MER (MIERU), SHE (SCE, KABA). 10% read Amharic. Typology: SOV, 5 level tones, 1 glide. Forest, savannah. Agriculturalists: wheat, barley, maize, sorgum. Altitude: 1,700 to 2,000 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1990.

BERTA (BENI SHANGUL, BERTHA, BARTA, BURTA, WETAWIT, JEBELAWI) [WTI] 28,000 in Ethiopia (1972 J. Bendor-Samuel); 50,000 in all countries (1971 Bendor). Beni Shangul Region, the corner formed by the Blue Nile River and Sudan border north of Asosa. Also in Dalati, a village east of the Dabus River. Nilo-Saharan, Berta. Dialects: SHURU, BAKE, UNDU, MAYU, FADASHI, DABUSO. "Beni Shangul" is the Arabic name. Typology: SVO, case suffixes, passive, causative, tonal, prepositions. Agriculturalists. Muslim.

BIRALE ('ONGOTA, BIRELLE, IFA'ONGOTA, "SHANQILLA") [BXE] 20 speakers out of an ethnic group of 70 (1990 SIL). One village on the west bank of the Weyt'o River, southeast Omo Region. Afro-Asiatic, Unclassified. All the speakers are old. The others conduct their affairs in Tsamai. 18% lexical similarity with Tsamai, but from borrowing. Typology: SOV; postpositions; genitives follow noun heads; suffixes indicate noun case; verb affixes mark subject person, number, and gender; passive; causative. Agriculturalists, hunters. Nearly extinct.

BORO (BWORO, SHINASHA, SCINACIA) [BWO] 7,000 (1995) including 3,000 Gamila (1984 census), 4,000 Boro (1987 P. Unseth). Southwest Amhara Region, near the Blue Nile River. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North. Dialects: AMURU, WAMBERA, GAMILA, GUBA. 46% lexical similarity with Shakako. Also related to Kafa. Scattered dialect groups. People use Amharic or some Oromo as second languages. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

BURJI (BAMBALA, BEMBALA, DAASHI) [BJI] 80,000 in Ethiopia (1994 UBS); 7,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL); 87,000 in all countries. South of Lake Ciamo. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 41% lexical similarity with Sidamo (closest). Many speakers in Ethiopia are older. 1% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Typology: SOV, passives, middle voice, causatives, subject suffixes distinguish person, number, gender. Christian, Muslim. NT 1993.

BUSSA (DOBASE, D'OOPACE, D'OPAASUNTE, LOHU, MASHILE, MASHELLE, MASHOLLE, MOSIYE, MUSIYE, GOBEZE, GOWASE, GORAZE, ORASE) [DOX] 6,000 (1995 Gidole govt. officials). Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. 78% lexical similarity with Gawwada, 51% with Komso, 86% with Gollango, 80% with Harso, 61% with Tsamai. There is a dialect chain with Komso-Dirasha-Dobase, where bilingualism reinforces intelligibility of Komso and Dirasha. Typology: SOV. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. Survey needed.

CHARA (CIARA) [CRA] 13,051 (1984 census). Central Kafa Region, just north of the Omo River. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara. 54% lexical similarity with Wolaytta, which can be understood after some months. Some are bilingual in Wolaytta to the east or Kafa to the west. They use Chara in village and family life. Typology: SOV, noun case suffixes, postpositions. Agriculturalists: small grain. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

DAASANECH (DASENECH, DAASENECH, DATHANAIK, DATHANAIC, DATHANIK, GHELEBA, GELEBA, GELEB, GELEBINYA, GALLAB, GALUBA, GELAB, GELUBBA, DAMA, MARILLE, MERILE, MERILLE, MORILLE, RESHIAT, RUSSIA, "SHANGILLA") [DSH] 30,000 in all countries (1983 SIL); 2,500 in Kenya (1980 SIL). Lower Omo River, along Lake Turkana, extending into Kenya. Primarily in Ethiopia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. An ethnic group name is 'Reshiat' (Russia). Typology: SOV. Semi-arid, desert. Plains. Pastoralists, agriculturalists: sorghum. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

DIME (DIMA) [DIM] 2,128 (1984 census). Kafa Region, north of the Omo River, just before it turns south. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. 47% lexical similarity with Banna. Not bilingual in neighboring languages, except possibly Aari. Population has diminished because of disease and war. Below 5% literate. Typology: SOV.

DIRASHA (DHIRASHA, DIRAASHA, DIRAYTA, GARDULLA, GHIDOLE, GIDOLE) [GDL] 5,000 (1982 SIL). Omo Region, in the hills west of Lake Chamo, around Gidole town. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. 55% lexical similarity with Komso. Part of a dialect chain with Komso and Bussa. Many are bilingual in Oromo or Komso. Typology: SOV, verb suffix morphology shows causative, reflexive, subject person, number, gender.

DIZI (MAJI, DIZI-MAJI, SIZI, TWOYU) [MDX] 18,000 (1982 SIL). Kafa Region, near Maji town. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. Related to Sheko, Nayi. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV, tonal. Traditional religion, Christian.

DORZE [DOZ] 3,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Mostly in North Omo Region in and around Chencha, but a significant community is in Addis Ababa. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. 82% to 87% lexical similarity with Gamo, 77% to 81% with Gofa, 80% with Wolaytta, 73% to 75% with Kullo, 54% with Koorete, 48% with Male. Typology: SOV. Weavers. Survey needed.

ENGLISH [ENG] 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Language of higher education and many technical fields. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

ETHIOPIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [ETH] Deaf sign language. There are several sign languages used in different schools for the deaf. Little research. Used since 1971. There have been elementary schools for deaf children since 1956. There is a manual alphabet for spelling. Survey needed.

GAFAT [GFT] South Blue Nile area. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group. No longer spoken. The people now speak Amharic. Bible portions 1945. Extinct.

GAMO-GOFA-DAWRO [GMO] 781,000 including 464,000 Gamo (1993 Johnstone), 163,000 Dawro (1993 Johnstone), 154,000 Gofa (1993 Johnstone). Omo Region, in and around Arba Minch, and in the mountains west to Lake Abaya. Dache is a place name, not a language. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. Dialects: GAMO (GEMU), GOFA (GOFFA), DAWRO (DAURO, KULLO, CULLO, OMETAY). Gamo has 79% to 91% lexical similarity with Gofa, 79% to 89% with Wolaytta, 82% to 87% with Dorze, 73% to 80% with Dawro, 49% with Koorete, 44% with Male. Dawro has 76% with Gofa, 80% with Wolaytta, 73% to 75% with Dorze, 48% with Koorete, 43% with Male. Subdialects of Dawro are Konta (Conta) and Kucha (Kusha, Koysha). The government is developing joint educational materials for these 3 groups. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV; tonal; derived nouns formed by suffixation of verbs; passives; case suffixes; postpositions. Survey needed.

GANZA (GANZO, KOMA) [GZA] Western Oromo, near the Blue Nile. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West. Oromo-Wellega is the lingua franca of the area, but possibly not for Ganza. Related to Hozo-Sezo, but a separate language (Ruhlen 1987.322). Distinct from Gumuz. 14% lexical similarity with Omotic languages; 6% with Mao. Typology: SOV. Nearly extinct.

GAWWADA (GAUWADA, GAWATA, KAWWAD'A, KAWWADA) [GWD] 64,300 to 76,300 (1995), including 2,700 Dihina, 2,500 Gergere, 3,000 to 5,000 Gollango, 2,500 Gorose, 3,600 to 10,000 Harso. Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. Dialects: DIHINA (TIHINA, TIHINTE), GERGERE (K'ARK'ARTE), GOBEZE, GOLLANGO (KOLLANKO), GOROSE (GORROSE, KORROSE), HARSO (WORASE). Gawwada has 78% lexical similarity with Bussa, 73% with Tsamai, 77% with Harso, 92% with Gollango, 41% with Komso. Harso has 80% with Dobase, 56% with Tsamai. Leaders use Amharic, Oromo, or Komso as second languages. 1% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists.

GEDEO (GEDDEO, DERESA, DERASA, DARASA, DERASANYA, DARASSA) [DRS] 500,000 (1982 SIL). Central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 60% lexical similarity with Sidamo (closest), 57% with Alaba, 54% with Kambaata, 51% with Hadiyya. Official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV, causative, middle, passive verbs. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1986. Bible portions 1980.

GEEZ (ANCIENT ETHIOPIC, ETHIOPIC, GE'EZ, GIIZ) [GEE] Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Liturgical language. Historically a literary language. Not otherwise used. Typology: VSO. Christian. Bible 1918. NT 1549. Bible portions 1513. Extinct.

GOBATO (GEBETO) [GTO] 1,000 (1975 Bender). Didessa Valley. Nilo-Saharan, Berta. Bilingualism in Western Oromo and intelligibility with other Berta varieties need investigation. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

GUMUZ (GUMIS, GOMBO, "SHANKILLINYA", "SHANQILLA", MENDEYA, DEBATSA, DEBUGA, DEHENDA, BEGA) [GUK] 50,000 in Ethiopia (1985 P. Unseth); 40,000 in Sudan; 90,000 in both countries. Near Metemma on Sudan border south through Gondar and Gojjam, across Blue Nile in Wellaga into Didessa Valley to Leqemt-Gimbi Road. Also villages southwest of Addis Ababa, around Welqite (possibly 1,000). Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz. Dialects: DAKUNZA (DUKUNA, DUGUNZA, DUKUNZA, DUGUNZ, GUNZA, GANZA, DEGOJA), SAI, SESE (SAYSAY), DISOHA (DESUA). "Shankillinya" is a derogatory name. There are noticeable dialect differences but all are inherently intelligible. There are connections between villages for intermarriage and trade. Limited Oromo comprehension. Typology: SVO, 3 tones, verb affixes show person, number of subject, first plural inclusive and exclusive. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

GURAGE, EAST (SILTI) [GRE] 493,000 (1991 SIL). About 150 kms. south of Addis Ababa. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal. Dialects: ENNEQOR (INNEQOR), SILTI (SELTI), URBAREG, WALANE (WOLANE). Not intelligible with West or North Gurage. 40% or less intelligible with Chaha (Central West Gurage). Zay or Mesmes may be dialects. Silti is an official literary language. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Typology: SOV; prepositions and postpositions; genitives, adjectives, numerals, relatives before noun heads, articles after; passives; causatives; CV, CVC; non-tonal. Bible portions 1981. Work in progress.

GURAGE, NORTH (KISTANE, SODDO) [GRU] 104,000 (1991 SIL), including 100,000 Soddo (1990 Hezron). Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region, just southwest of Addis Ababa. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group. Dialects: SODDO (AYMALLAL, AYMELLEL, KESTANE, KISTANE), GOGOT (GOGGOT, DOBI, DOBBI). Not intelligible with East Gurage or West Gurage. Soddo and Gogot may not be inherently intelligible. People along the roads have contact with Amharic; some men are partially bilingual. People in the interior are not very bilingual (B. Denboba 1989). Typology: SOV. Christian.

GURAGE, WEST (CENTRAL WEST GURAGE, GURAGIE, GOURAGHIE, GURAGUE) [GUY] 890,000 (1991 SIL); 1,856,000 in all Gurage languages (1993 Johnstone). West Gurage Region. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group. Dialects: CHAHA (CHEHA), ENOR, EZHA (EZA, IZHA), GUMER (GWEMARRA), GURA, INEGEGN, INNEMOR, MESQAN (MASQAN, MESKAN). Not intelligible with East Gurage or North Gurage. 1% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. NT 1983. Bible portions 1979.

HADIYYA (ADIYA, ADIYE, HADIYA, HADYA, ADEA, HADIA, "GUDEILLA", "GUDELLA") [HDY] 1,000,000 (1991 SIL). Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region, between the Omo and Billate rivers, in and around Hosaina town. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Dialects: LEEMO, SORO. 82% lexical similarity with Libido, 56% with Kambaata, 54% with Alaba, 53% with Sidamo. An official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. "Gudella" is a derogatory name. Typology: SOV, passive, reflexive, causative, middle verbs. Christian. NT 1992. Bible portions 1935.

HAMER-BANNA (HAMAR-KOKE, HAMMERCOCHE, AMARCOCCHE, COCCHE, BESHADA, HAMER, HAMMER, HAMAR, AMER, AMAR, AMMAR, BANNA, BANA, KARA KERRE) [AMF] 25,000 (1993 UBS). South Omo Region, near the Omo River, and north of Lake Turkana, in the southwest corner, near the Kenya, Uganda, Sudan borders. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. Hamer and Banna are separate ethnic groups who speak virtually the same language. Typology: SOV. Pastoralists. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

HARARI (ADARE, ADERE, GESINAN, HARARRI, ADERINYA) [HAR] 25,673 (1984 census). This may not include communities outside the homeland area. Homeland Eastern, almost entirely within the walled city of Harar. Large communities in Addis Ababa, Nazareth and Dire Dawa. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal. Close to East Gurage. The language has prestige. 25% to 50% literate. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Muslim.

HOZO (BEGI-MAO) [HOZ] 3,000 (1995 SIL). Western Oromo Region, Begi area, 50 or more villages. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West. Western Oromo is the lingua franca of the area, but there are some negative attitudes toward it. Bilingual proficiency in Amharic and Arabic is low. Related to Bambassi, but a separate language (Bender 1975).

KACHAMA-GANJULE (GATS'AME, GET'EME) [KCX] 550 including 500 Kachama (1982 SIL), 50 Ganjule (1995 SIL). Kachama is on Gidicho Island in Lake Abaya. Ganjule originally on a small island in Lake Chamo. Ganjule have recently relocated to Shela-Mela on the west shore of Lake Chamo. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East. Dialects: GANJULE (GANJAWLE), GANTA, KACHAMA. 46% lexical similarity with Wolaytta. Some people are bilingual in Wolaytta. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

KACIPO-BALESI [KOE] 2,000 to 3,000 in Ethiopia (1982 SIL); 5,000 in Sudan; 7,000 to 8,000 in both countries. Southern Ethiopia-Sudan border, Boma Plateau in Sudan (Kacipo). Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi. Dialects: BALESI (BAALE, BALE), ZILMAMU (SILMAMO, ZELMAMU, ZULMAMU, TSILMANO), KACIPO (KACHEPO, SURI, WESTERN SURI). Pronoun differences between Balesi and Zilmamu. 40% to 54% lexical similarity with Murle, 35% with Mursi. Some speakers use Surma as second language. Below 5% literate. Typology: VSO.

KAFICHO (KAFA, KEFA, KEFFA, KAFFA, CAFFINO, MANJO) [KBR] 500,000 (1994 UBS). Kafa Region, in and around the town of Bonga. There may be some in Sudan. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South. Dialects: KAFA, BOSHA (GARO). An official literary language. Related to Shakacho. Bosha may be a separate language. Manjo is an argot based on Kafa (Bender 1983). Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1934-1986. Work in progress.

KAMBAATA (KAMBATTA, KAMBATA, KEMBATA, KEMATA, KAMBARA, DONGA) [KTB] 1,000,000 (1987). Southwest Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region. Durame is the main town. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Dialects: TAMBARO, TIMBARA (TIMBARO, TIMBAARO), QEBENA (QABENA, KEBENA, K'ABENA). 95% lexical similarity with Timbaro dialect, 81% with Allaaba, 62% with Sidamo, 57% with Libido, 56% with Hadiyya. Qebena may be a separate language. An official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV, passive, middle, causative verbs, subject suffixes distinguish person, number, gender. Christian, some Muslim. NT 1992. Bible portions 1979-1990.

KARO (KERRE, CHERRE, KERE) [KXH] 600 (1972 Bendor-Samuel). South Omo Region, upstream from the Daasanech, riverside settlements near the Hamer-Banna. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. 81% lexical similarity with Hamer-Banna. Different from Kara of Sudan which is Central Sudanic. They have a service relationship with the Banna. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists. Survey needed.

KOMO (MADIIN, KOMA, SOUTH KOMA, CENTRAL KOMA) [KOM] 1,500 in Ethiopia (1975 Bender); 10,000 in Sudan (1979 James); 11,500 in all countries. South and west of Kwama. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. Dialects: KOMA OF BEGI, KOMA OF DAGA. Different from Koma of Cameroon. 52% lexical similarity with Uduk (Twampa).

KOMSO (KONSO, CONSO, GATO, AF-KARETI, KARATE, KARETI) [KXC] 200,000 (1993 Johnstone). South of Lake Ciamo in the bend of the Sagan River. A few migrants in Kenya. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. 51% lexical similarity with Bussa, 41% with Gawwada, 31% with Tsamai. 1% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1996. Work in progress.

KOORETE (AMARRO, AMAARRO, BADITTU, NUNA, KOYRA) [KQY] 27,000 (1985 UBS). About 60 Harro families in Harro village on Gidicho Island. On Amaro mountains east of Lake Abaya. Sidama Region. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East. 54% lexical similarity with Dorze, 53% with Wolaytta, 52% with Gofa, 49% with Gamo, 48% with Kullo, 45% with Male. 'Koorete' is their name for themselves. 'Amaro' is the name of the mountain area where they live. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Work in progress.

KUNFAL (KUNFEL, KUMFEL) [XUF] Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern. The people are fairly bilingual in Amharic. Related to Awngi. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

KWAMA (TAKWAMA, GWAMA, GOMA, GOGWAMA, KOMA OF ASOSA, NORTH KOMA, NOKANOKA, AFAN MAO, AMAM, T'WA KWAMA) [KMQ] 15,000 (1982 SIL). Along Sudan border in southern Beni Shangul Region, from south of Asosa to Gidami, and in Gambela and Bonga. 19 villages, including one (Yabus) in Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. Kwama is the dominant language. Children learn Kwama first. Many use Oromo as second language. Arabic has some influence, and speakers have low to moderate proficiency in it. Amharic has little influence. Muslim.

KWEGU (KOEGU, KWEGI, BACHA, MENJA) [YID] 500 (1983 Bender). North of the Kara and south of the Mursi, in scattered villages along the Omo River bank among the Me'en, Bodi, and Dizi. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Kwegu. Dialects: YIDINICH (YIDINIT, YIDI), MUGUJI. 36% lexical similarity with Mursi. They are under the Bodi and Mursi, and looked down on by them. Mursi and Bodi men may marry Kwegu women. The Kwegu use the Bodi dialect of Me'en or Mursi as second language, depending on the area. Language use is diminishing among adults. The dialects listed may not be inherently intelligible with Kwegu; it may be a name for several hunter groups. Typology: SVO, postpositions. Hunter-gatherers: hippopotamus, wild fruit, honey; flood and rain cultivation: maize, durra.

LIBIDO (MARAQO, MARAKO) [LIQ] 100,000 possibly (1991 SIL). Hadiyya, Kambaata, Gurage Region, northeast of Hosaina. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya. 82% lexical similarity with Hadiyya, 57% with Kambaata, 56% with Allaaba, 53% with Sidamo. 1% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV, passive, reflexive, causative, middle voice verbs. Muslim.

MAJANG (MESENGO, MASONGO, MASANGO, MAJANJIRO, TAMA, OJANJUR, AJO, ATO MAJANG, ATO MAJANGER-ONK) [MPE] 28,000 (1993 UBS). Southwest. Mainly within a long, narrow belt between Bure (east of Gambela) and Guraferda to the south. Covers part of Gambela, Oromo and Kafa administrative regions. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, North, Majang. Minor dialect variation. The people are called 'Majang' or 'Majangir'. They have been scattered, but are now settling in villages. Below 5% literate. Typology: VSO; postpositions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question words final; suffixes indicate case; verb affixes mark person, number, subject, object; passives, causative prefix; reciprocal verb forms; many syllable patterns; tonal. Rain forest. Mountains. Swidden agriculturalists, beekeepers, hunters. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

MALE [MDY] 20,000 (1995 SIL). Omo Region, southeast of Jinka. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, South. 48% lexical similarity with Dorze, 46% with Gofa, 45% with Koorete, 44% with Gamo, 43% with Wolaytta and Kullo. Male is spoken in the home. Interest in Male literature. Different from Malo (see Zayse). Typology: SOV. Work in progress.

ME'EN (MEKAN, MIE'EN, MIEKEN, MEQAN, MEN) [MYM] 50,000 (1991 SIM). Central Kafa region, the Tishena in and around Bachuma, the Bodi in lowlands to the south, near the Omo River. Not in Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Me'en. Dialects: BODI (PODI), TISHENA (TESHINA, TESHENNA). Tishena and Bodi are inherently intelligible. 65% lexical similarity to Surma, 30% to Murle. Closely related to Mursi. The Me'en are settled, highland; Bodi are nomadic, lowland. Geographical names: Bachuma, Bachuman, Golda, Goldea, Goldiya, Guldiya. Below 5% literate. Typology: SVO; postpositions; genitives, adjective, articles, and relatives follow noun heads; question word final; prefixes and suffixes; verbs inflected; tonal. Tishena: agriculturalists, Bodi: pastoralists: cattle. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

MELO (MALO) [MFX] 80,000 (1995). North Omo Region, in and around Malo-Koza, northeast of the Basketo. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. Related to Gamo-Gofa-Dawro, but may not be inherently intelligible. 70% lexical similarity with the majority of Ometo language varieties. The Language Academy said it should be considered a separate speech variety. Survey needed.

MESMES [MYS] Gurage, Hadiyya, Kambatta Region. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal. Possible dialects: Ener, Endegegn, Peripheral West Gurage. Related to East Gurage. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

MURLE (MURELEI, MERULE, MOURLE, MURULE, BEIR, AJIBBA) [MUR] 6,000 in Ethiopia (1982 SIL); 66,000 in Sudan (1982); 66,000 in all countries. South of the Akobo River. Also in Sudan. Olam is in southwest Ethiopia and on the Sudan border. It is between Murle and Majang culturally and linguistically (Bender 1983). Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle. Dialect: OLAM (NGALAM, BANGALAM). Related to Didinga. Subgroups: Lotilla, Boma, Olam (Ngalam). Maacir may be a dialect or ethnic group. Typology: VSO, postpositions; genitives and relatives follow heads, suffixes indicate case, question words final, verbal affixes (prefixes and suffixes) distinguish subject person and number. Pastoralists, agriculturalists. Traditional religion. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1969-1985.

MURSI (MURZI, MURZU, MERDU, MERITU, DAMA) [MUZ] 5,000 (1989 SIL). Central Omo Region, lowlands southwest of Jinka. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri. Closely related to Suri of Sudan. Below 5% literate. Typology: SVO, postpositions, tonal, case suffixes, verb affixes show subject person and number, question words final. Pastoralists. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

NAYI (NA'O, NAO) [NOZ] 12,177 (1984 census). Decha Awraja, Kafa Region, and scattered in other parts of Kafa. The nearest town is Bonga. A few in Dulkuma village of the Shoa Bench Wereda, and Aybera, Kosa, and Jomdos villages of Sheko Wereda. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. Related to Dizi, Sheko. 58% lexical similarity with Dizi. Spoken by adults. Young people speak only Kaficho. Kaficho is the trade language. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists. Survey needed.

NUER (NAATH) [NUS] 40,000 in Ethiopia (1975 Bender); 740,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); 840,000 in all countries (1990 UBS). Along the Baro River, in Gambela Region. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer. Dialect: EASTERN NUER (JI, KANY, JIKANY, DOOR, ABIGAR). 'Naath' is their name for themselves. Severe disruption in residence patterns caused by fighting in Ethiopia and Sudan. Many are refugees or homeless (1991). Traditional religion. NT 1968. Bible portions 1935-1968.

NYANGATOM (INYANGATOM, DONYIRO, DONGIRO, IDONGIRO) [NNJ] 5,000 (1989 Dimmendaal). Extreme southwest corner of Ethiopia, Omo Region. Two settlement centers: Omo River and Kibish River. Transhumance into the region of Moru Angipi in Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Teso-Turkana, Turkana. Inherently intelligible with Toposa and Turkana, but ethnic identity attitudes are strong. Mutual non-agression pact with the Toposa. Occasionally hostile with the Turkana and Sudan Jiye. Semi-nomadic. Typology: VSO; highly inflectional; grammatical tone (tense, case); vowel harmony; voiceless vowels. Pastoralists: cattle herders; subsistence agriculturalists: sorghum, beans. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

OPUUO (OPO-SHITA, OPO, OPUO, CITA, CIITA, SHITA, SHIITA, ANSITA, KINA, KWINA, "LANGA") [LGN] 2,000 to 5,000 in all countries (1982 SIL). 5 villages along the Sudan border north of the Anuaks and Nuers. Also in Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. 24% lexical similarity with Koma. West-Central Oromo is the lingua franca of the area. "Langa" is a derogatory name used by the Anuak for them. Survey needed.

OROMO, BORANA-ARSI-GUJI (AFAN OROMO, SOUTHERN OROMO, "GALLA", "GALLINYA") [GAX] 3,809,000 in Ethiopia, including 1,331,000 Arsi, 380,000 Guji, 1,946,000 Salale; 152,000 in Kenya (1994); 3,763,000 in all countries. South Oromo Region. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: BORANA (BORAN, BORENA), ARSI (ARUSSI, ARUSI), GUJI (GUJJI, JEMJEM), KEREYU, SALALE (SELALE), GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA). Called 'Borana' in Kenya. The name "Galla" is derogatory. Harar is closely related, but distinct enough to need separate literature. Below 5% literate. Typology: SOV. Muslim, traditional religion. Bible 1995. NT 1875-1979. Bible portions 1870-1966.

OROMO, QOTU (EASTERN OROMO, HARAR, HARER, "QOTTU", "QUOTTU", "QWOTTU", "KWOTTU", ITTU) [HAE] 2,142,000 (1993 Johnstone). South central, Sidamo Province. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. People use Amharic as second language. Closely related to Borana Oromo, but divergent. Typology: SOV. Muslim. Work in progress.

OROMO, WEST-CENTRAL (GALLA, OROMOO) [GAZ] 8,000,000 in all countries (1991 SIL). Oromo Region, West and Central Ethiopia, and along the Rift Valley escarpment east of Dessie and Woldiya. Also in Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: WESTERN OROMO, CENTRAL OROMO. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Official literary language. Weekly newspaper. Daily radio and TV broadcasts by government and religious groups. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary, grammar. Trade language. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1899-1994. NT 1876-1979. Bible portions 1841-1981.

OYDA [OYD] 3,000 (1972 Bendor-Samuel). Northwest Omo Region, southwest of Sawla. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. 69% lexical similarity with Wolaytta, 61% with Basketto. People are reported to be bilingual in Wolaytta. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

RER BARE (REREBERE, ADONA) [RER] Wabi Shebelle River around Gode, eastern Ogaden, near Somali border. Also along the Ganale and Dawa rivers. Unclassified. They are called 'Rer Bare' in Somali, which means 'tribe Bare'. They speak Somali. It is uncertain if they spoke a different language earlier. Extinct.

SEZE (SEZO) [SZE] 3,000 (1995 SIL). Western Oromo Region, near Begi, north of the Hozo. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West. Oromo-Wellega is the lingua franca of the area, but there are some negative attitudes toward it. Bilingual proficiency in Amharic and Arabic is low. Related to Bambassi, but a separate language (Bender 1975).

SHABO (SHAKO, "MEKEYER", "MIKEYIR", "MIKAIR") [SBF] 400 to 1,000 (1986). Kafa Region, between Godere and Mashi, among the Majang and Shakacho. Nilo-Saharan, Unclassified. 30% lexical similarity with Majang, 12% with other West Cushitic (Omotic) languages. A distinct language, apparently a hybrid. Distinct from Sheko. They do not like the name "Mekeyer" used by outsiders. They live in family units, not villages. They are bilingual in Majang or Shakacho. Typology: SOV, postpositions, gender in all 3 persons. Hunter-gatherers, beekeepers. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

SHAKACHO (MOC'HA, MOCHA, SHEKKA) [MOY] 70,000 (1982 SIL). North Kafa Region, in and around Maasha. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South. Closely related to Kaficho. 'Shakacho' is their self name. 1% to 1% literate. Typology: SOV, tonal. Traditional religion, Christian.

SHEKO (SHEKKO, SHEKKA, TSCHAKO, SHAKO, SHAK) [SHE] 23,000 (1972 Bendor-Samuel). Kafa Region, Shako District. Gaizek'a is a monolingual community. Bajek'a, Selale, and Shimi are multilingual. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. Dialects: DORSHA, BULLA (DAAN, DAN, DAANYIR). Sheko is the primary language of the home, religion, and public use. Some bilingualism in Amharic and Gimira. 1% literate. Typology: SOV; postpositions, genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word initial; 1 prefix, 5 suffixes; word order distinguishes subjects, objects, indirect objects; affixes indicate case of noun phrases; verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; passives, causatives, comparatives; CV, CVC, CVV, CV:C, CVCC; 3 tones. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian.

SIDAMO (SIDÁMO 'AFÓ, SIDAMINYA) [SID] 1,500,000 (1992). South central Ethiopia, northeast of Lake Abaya and southeast of Lake Awasa (Sidamo Awraja). Awasa is the capital of the Sidama Region. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 64% lexical similarity with Allaaba, 62% with Kambaata, 53% with Hadiyya. Official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Grammar. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. NT 1990. Bible portions 1933.

SOMALI (STANDARD SOMALI, COMMON SOMALI) [SOM] 2,050,000 in Ethiopia (1993 Johnstone); 8,335,000 in all countries. Southeast Ethiopia, Somali Region. Also in Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Yemen, UAE. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Daarood, Ogaadeen, Dir, Gadabuursi, Hawiye, and Isxaaq are major clan families in Ethiopia. Official literary language. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists. Muslim, Christian. Bible 1979. NT 1972-1976. Bible portions 1915-1935.

SURI (SURMA, SHURI, CHURI, DHURI, SHURO, EASTERN SURI) [SUQ] 20,000 to 40,000 in Ethiopia (1995); 1,000 Tirma in Sudan (1983); 21,000 to 41,000 in both countries. Southwestern Kafa Region toward the Sudan border. Some are west of Mizan Teferi. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri. Dialects: TIRMA (TIRIMA, TEREMA, TERNA, DIRMA, CIRMA, TIRMAGA, TIRMAGI, TID), CHAI (CAI, CACI). Related to Mursi; 81% lexical similarity. 1% literate in Amharic. Names of people groups: Dama, Dhuak. Typology: SVO. Savannah, scrub forest. Mountain valley. Transhumant pastoralists, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 800 to 1,800 meters. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

TIGRINYA (TIGRIGNA) [TGN] 4,150,000 in Ethiopia (1993 Johnstone); 1,900,000 in Eritrea (1993 Johnstone); 10,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi); 6,060,000 in all countries. Tigray province. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Official literary language with mother tongue-authored literature. Ethiopic script is used. 5% to 25% literate. National language. Christian. Bible 1956. NT 1909-1991. Bible portions 1866.

TSAMAI (TS'AMAY, S'AMAI, TAMAHA, TSAMAKO, TSAMAKKO, BAGO S'AAMAKK-ULO, KUILE, KULE, CULE) [TSB] 7,000 (1971 Bendor-Samuel). Omo Region, lowlands west of Lake Chamo. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. 56% to 73% lexical similarity with Gawwada dialects, 61% with Bussa, 31% with Komso. The Tsamai say Gawwada is difficult to understand. Possibly related to Birale. The most aberrant Dullay variety. They use Komso for trade. Below 5% literate. Typology: SOV. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. Survey needed.

UDUK (TWAMPA, KWANIM PA, BURUN, KEBEIRKA, OTHAN, KORARA, KUMUS) [UDU] 20,000 in all countries (1995 W. James). Large refugee camp at Bonga, near Gambela town, Gambela Region. Some still in Sudan (1995). Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. Most have come from Sudan. Typology: SVO. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1963. Bible portions 1947-1966.

WEYTO (WAYTO, WEYT'O) [WOY] Lake Tana region. Unclassified. The former language was possibly Eastern Sudanic or an Awngi variety (Bender 1983), or Cushitic (Bender, Bowen, Cooper and Ferguson 1976:14). The people now speak Amharic. Hunters: hippopotamus. Extinct.

WOLAYTTA (WELLAMO, WELAMO, WOLLAMO, WALLAMO, WALAMO, UALAMO, UOLLAMO, WOLAITTA, WOLAITA, WOLAYTA, WOLATAITA, BORODDA, UBA, OMETO) [WBC] 2,000,000 (1991 UBS). Wolaytta Region, Lake Abaya area. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. Dialect: ZALA. 79% to 93% lexical similarity with Gamo, 84% with Gofa, 80% with Kullo and Dorze, 48% with Koorete, 43% with Male. Geographical names: Balta, Borodda, Ganta, Otschollo, Uba. Official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1981. Bible portions 1934-1943.

XAMTANGA (KHAMTANGA, SIMT'ANGA, AGAWINYA, XAMTA, XAMIR) [XAN] 80,000 or fewer (1995 SIL). North Amhara Region, Avergele District and Lasta and Waag zones, 100 kms. north of Weldiya. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern. Surrounded by Amharic and Tigrinya speakers. There are monolinguals, especially among women and older people. There is an association of Xamtanga speakers in Weldiya. About 45% lexical similarity with Qemant; inherent intelligibility is inadequate. A distinct language from Awngi, also sometimes called 'Agaw'. Amharic is used as second languages. The people are called Xamir. A few Xamir people do not speak Xamtanga, but most do, and have a strong desire to have Xamtanga literature. Area badly disrupted by war. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists: wheat, sorghum. Altitude: 2,000 to 3,000 meters. Christians.

YEMSA (YEM, YEMMA, "JANJERO", "JANJERINYA", "JANJOR", "YANGARO", "ZINJERO") [JNJ] 500,000 (1993 SIL). Oromo Region, recognized as separate distict, northeast of Jimma, southwestern Ethiopia, Fofa, and mixed with the Oromo in their villages; Sokoru, Saja, Deedoo, Sak'a, Jimma. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero. Dialects: FUGA OF JIMMA, TOBA. 24% lexical similarity with Mocha. 'Yemma' is the name for the ethnic group, 'Yemsa' for the language. "Janjero" is derogatory. Young people are bilingual in Amharic, older people in Oromo. Some negative attitudes toward Oromo. Yemsa is the primary language of the ethnic group. Speakers want literature in their language. Fuga of Jimma may be a separate language. Typology: SOV, tonal. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

ZAY (ZWAY, LAK'I, LAQI, GELILLA) [ZWA] 4,880 (1994 SIL). Shores of Lake Zway and eastern islands in Lake Zway. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal. No dialect variations. 61% lexical similarity with Harari, 70% with East Gurage (M.L. Bender 1971). Speakers use Oromo or Amharic as second language. 'Zway' refers to the lake and town, 'Zay' to the people and language. 'Lak'i' ('Laqi') is the Oromo name for the people. Agriculturalists, fishermen. Survey needed.

ZAYSE-ZERGULLA (ZAYSSE) [ZAY] 20,000 (1982 SIL). Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East. Dialects: ZERGULLA (ZERGULLINYA), ZAYSE. Close to the Gidicho dialect of Koorete. Language and culture are vigorous. Typology: SOV.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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