Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Congo

2,289,000 (1995). People's Republic of the Congo. République Populaire du Congo. Formerly Congo Brazzaville. Literacy rate 63% to 80%; 52% (1977 C. M. Brann). Information mainly from Jacquot 1971, SIL 1989. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Also includes Greek 400, Hausa 4,000, Portuguese 600, Sango 54,000. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Blind population 4,000 (1982 WCE). The number of languages listed for Congo is 60.

AKWA [AKW] Cuvette Region, Makoua District. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mbosi (C.30). Survey needed.

BABOLE (SOUTHERN BOMITABA) [BVX] 4,000 (1989 SIL). Southern half of the Epena District, northeastern Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20). Dialects: NORTHERN BABOLE (DZEKE), CENTRAL BABOLE (KINAMI), SOUTHERN BABOLE (BOUANILA). Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

BANGANDU (BAGANDO, BANGANDO) [BGF] 2,700 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Also in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest. Dialects: BAAGATO, NORTH BANGATO.

BANGI (BOBANGI, BUBANGI, LOBOBANGI, REBU, DZAMBA, BUNGI) [BNI] 70,000 in all countries (1989 UBS); 19 in CAR (1988 census). On Congo river, Cuvette Region, Mossaka District. Primarily in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40). NT 1909-1922, out of print. Bible portions 1892-1928. Work in progress.

BEEMBE (KIBEEMBE, BEMBE) [BEJ] Bouenza Region, east of Madingou. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10). Dialect: KEENGE (KIKEENGE). Dialect cluster. Distinct from Bembe of Zaïre. Survey needed.

BEKWEL (BAKWELE, BAKWIL, BEKWIL) [BKW] 8,000 to 16,000 in all countries (1990). Sangha Region, parallel to the border with Cameroon, from close to the Gabon border almost to Ouesso. Also in Gabon and Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Different from Baakpe (Bakwiri) of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

BOMITABA (MBOMITABA, MBOMOTABA, BAMITABA) [ZMX] 7,000 in Congo (1989 SIL); 224 scattered in CAR (1988 census). Likouala Region, Epena District, along Likouala-aux-Herbes River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20). Dialects: NORTHERN BOMITABA (MATOKI), CENTRAL BOMITABA (EPENA). Related to Bongili. Traditional religion, Christian.

BOMWALI (BOMALI, BOUMOALI, BUMALI, LINO, SANGASANGA) [BMW] (5,000 or fewer in Cameroon; 1991 SIL). Sangha Region, around Ouesso. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Survey needed.

BONGILI (BONGIRI, BUNGILI, BUNGIRI) [BUI] 4,000. Sangha Region, on and near Sangha River, southeast of Ouesso, as far as Pikounda area, and southwest of Ouesso, Liouesso area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20). Different from Bukongo of Central African Republic. NT 1947. Bible portions 1930-1931.

BONJO [BOK] Likouala Region, on and near Oubangui, Motaba, and Ibenga rivers, Dongou and Impfondo districts. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. Survey needed.

BWISI (IBWISI, MBWISI) [BWZ] Niari Region, Kibangou District, Banda area, on Gabon border. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.40). Different from Talinga-Bwisi of Zaïre and Uganda. Survey needed.

DOONDO (KIDOONDO, DONDO) [DOD] Bouenza Region; Nkayi, Madingou, Mfouati, and Boko-Songho districts. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10). Dialect: KAAMBA (KIKAAMBA). Dialect cluster. Survey needed.

FANG (PAMUE, PAHOUIN, PANGWE) [FNG] A few in Congo; 858,000 in all countries. Small area in extreme northwest. Also in Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, São Tomé. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Yaunde-Fang (A.70). Dialects: MAKE, NTUM, OGOWE. Close to Bulu. Bible 1951. NT 1927. Bible portions 1894-1938.

FRENCH [FRN] 28,000 in Congo (1993); 72,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Romance. Sole language of formal education. National language. Bible 1530-1986. NT 1474-1980. Bible portions 1483-1987.

GBAYA, NORTHWEST (BAYA) [GYA] 2,000 in Congo (1993 Johnstone); 334,000 or more in all countries. Sangha Region, a few scattered areas on Cameroon border. Also in Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya, Gbaya. Bible 1994. NT 1951-1982. Bible portions 1933-1975.

KAKO (YAKA, KAKA, NKOXO) [KKJ] 70,500 in all countries (1982 SIL); 10,400 in CAR (1996). Scattered areas in extreme north of Likouala Region, on Ibenga and Motaba rivers. Also in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.90). Work in progress.

KÉLÉ (AKELE, DIKELE, WESTERN KELE) [KEB] 15,000 to 24,000 (1990 CMA). Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.20). Bible portions 1855-1879. Survey needed.

KONGO (KIKONGO, CONGO, KIKOONGO) [KON] 3,217,000 in all countries (1991 UBS); 1,000,000 in Zaïre (1986 UBS); 1,144,000 in Angola (1990); total of 836,000 speakers of all Kikongo languages in Congo, 46.5% of population (1993 Johnstone). Pool Region, west and northwest of Brazzaville. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10). Dialects: LAADI (LARI), SUUNDI (CISUUNDI), GHAANGALA (KIGHAANGALA, HANGALA). Other languages of the Kongo group are sometimes regarded as dialects of Kongo (see separate entries for Beembe, Doondo, Kunyi, Vili, Monokutuba, and Kituba). Christian, Muslim. Bible 1905-1933. NT 1891-1993. Bible portions 1885-1931.

KOOZIME (NZIME, DJIMU, ZIMU, KONZIME) [NJE] 45,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). Sangha Region, Souanke District, along Cameroon Border. Also in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: NZIME, BADJOUE, NDJEM (NJEM, NDJEM), NJEME. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.

KOTA (IKOTA, IKUTA) [KOQ] 28,000 to 60,000 in all countries (1990 CMA). Cuvette Region, west of Mbomo; Sangha Region, Liouesso area. Primarily in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.20). Bible portions 1938-1948. Survey needed.

KOYO [KOH] Cuvette Region, Owando District, around Owando. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mbosi (C.30). Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

KUNYI (KIKUNYI, KUGNI) [KNF] Bouenza and Niari regions, south and southeast from Makabana to the Zaïre border. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10). Dialects: SUUNDI (KISUUNDI), NYAANGA (KINYAANGA). A dialect cluster. Survey needed.

LIKUBA (KUBA) [KXX] Cuvette Region, on the Congo River, just above the mouth of the Sangha River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mbosi (C.30). Survey needed.

LIKWALA (LIKOUALA, KWALA) [KWC] Cuvette Region, on lower reaches of the Likouala-Mossaka, Sangha, and Likouala-aux-Herbes rivers. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mbosi (C.30). Survey needed.

LINGALA (NGALA) [LIN] 300,000 in Congo (1993 SIL); 8,400,000 in all countries including second language speakers (1979 Muyunga). Center and north. Primarily in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo. 25% to 75% literate. National language. Bible 1970. NT 1942-1992. Bible portions 1908-1968.

LOBALA [LOQ] (40,000 in Zaïre; 1986 SIL). Primarily in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40). Work in progress.

LUMBU (ILUMBU) [LUP] 12,000 to 28,000 in all countries (1990). Niari Region, Kibangou District, between Kibangou and Gabon border. Primarily in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.40). Bible portions 1933-1966. Survey needed.

MANGALA (NGALA) [MGH] Likouala Region, on the west bank of the Oubangui River, upstream from the confluence with the Congo River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo. Survey needed.

MBAMA (LEMBAAMBA, MBAMBA, MBAAMA, OBAMBA) [MBM] 10,000 to 12,000 in all countries (1990 CMA). Lekoumou Region, Bambama District. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.60). 81% lexical similarity with Teghe, 77% with Mbere, 66% with Tsaayi.

MBANGWE (MBAHOUIN, M'BAHOUIN) [ZMN] 2,000 to 7,000 in all countries (1990). Lekoumou Region, small groups in Bambama District. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.20). Survey needed.

MBANZA (MBANDZA) [ZMZ] 200,000 in all countries (1982). Extreme north of Likouala Region, close to Oubangui River. Almost entirely in Zaire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southern. Closely related to Mbanja, but distinct. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.

MBERE (MBÉDÉ, MBÉTÉ, LIMBEDE) [MDT] 45,000 to 60,000 in all countries (1990). All Mbete languages in Congo 195,800 or 7% of the population (1993 Johnstone). Cuvette Region, Kelle and northern Ewo districts. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.60). Dialect: NGWII. 77% lexical similarity with Mbamba, 76% with Ngungwel, 74% with Teghe, 70% with Tsaayi. The people are called 'Ambede'. Different from Mbre (Mbere) in CAR. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

MBOKO (MBOXO, MBUKU) [MDU] Cuvette Region, western part of Makoua District. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mbosi (C.30). Dialect: NGARE. A dialect cluster. Survey needed.

MBOSI (MBOSHI, MBOSHE, MBOCHI) [MDW] Speakers of all Mbosi languages in Congo: 195,000, or 11% of population (1993 Johnstone). Cuvette Region, Owando and Mossaka districts, but not as far north as Owando. Plateaux Region, Abala District. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mbosi (C.30). Work in progress.

MOI (LEMOI) [MOW] West bank of Oubangui River, at mouth of Alima River, south of Mossaka. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40). Survey needed.

MONZOMBO (MONJOMBO, MONDJEMBO, MONZUMBO) [MOJ] 6,000 in Congo (1993 Johnstone); 5,000 in Zaïre (1986 SIL); 1,600 in CAR (1996); 13,000 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Extreme northeast, on Oubangui River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo. Survey needed.

MUNUKUTUBA [MKW] 1,156,800 or 60% of the population (1987 SIL). Mainly along roads and railroads westwards from Brazzaville and northwards to Mayoko. Creole, Kongo based. It is close to Kituba of Zaïre. The main language of the south. 15% to 25% literate. National language. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress.

NCHINCHEGE [NCQ] Plateaux Region, Lekana District, between the Leketi River and the Gabon border. Possibly also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Survey needed.

NDASA (ANDASA) [NDA] 5,000 in all countries (1990 CMA). Lekoumou Region, west of Zanaga. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.20). Survey needed.

NDUMU (LENDUMU, MINDUUMO, MINDUMBU, ONDOUMBO) [NMD] 4,000 to 7,000 in all countries (1990). Lekoumou Region, Bambama District. Primarily in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.60). Dialects: EPIGI, KANANDJOHO, KUYA, NYANI. Survey needed.

NGBAKA [NGA] 2,000 to 3,000 in Congo (1987 SIL); 750,000 in Zaïre (1983); 3,000 in CAR (1996); 755,000 in all countries; 1,330,000 including second language speakers (1991 UBS). Likouala Region, small group on west bank of Oubangui River, midway between Impfondo and confluence with the Congo River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. Related to Gbaya of Central African Republic and Cameroon. Different from Ngbaka Ma'bo. Bible 1995. NT 1983. Bible portions 1936-1989.

NGBAKA MA'BO (NGBAKA LIMBA, MBAKA, MBACCA, BWAKA, BOUAKA, NBWAKA, GBAKA, MA'BO) [NBM] 150,000 in all countries (1972 Nida); 11,000 in Zaïre (1984 census); 88,000 in CAR (1996). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka. Close to Gilima. Bible portions 1936-1937. Survey needed.

NGOM (UNGOM, ANGOM, BANGOM, BANGOMO, ONGOM) [NRA] 11,000 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Cuvette Region, northwest of Mbomo. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.20). Bible portions 1910. Survey needed.

NGUNDI (INGUNDI, NGONDI) [NDN] Sangha Region, east of Ouesso. Only a few individuals in Central African Republic. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20). Different from Gundi of Central African Republic, which is Adamawa-Ubangi. Survey needed.

NGUNGWONI (NGU NGWONI) [NGF] Southwest corner of Plateaux Region, southwest of Djambala. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Survey needed.

NJEBI (NZEBI, INJEBI, NDJABI, NJEVI, BINZABI, NJABI, YINZEBI, YINJEBI) [NZB] 40,000 to 150,000 in all countries (1990 CMA). Niari Province, Mayoko District. Primarily in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Njebi (B.50). NT 1968-1979. Bible portions 1958-1959.

POL (POMO, PORI, PUL, CONGO POL) [PMM] 27,000 in all countries (1982 SIL). Sangha Region, north of Ouesso, on borders with Cameroon and Central African Republic. Also in Cameroon. Not in CAR. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.90). Survey needed.

PUNU (IPUNU, YIPUNU, PUNO, POUNO, YIPOUNOU) [PUU] 50,000 in all countries (1991 UBS). Total of all Sira-Punu languages in Congo 80,000 or 4% of the population (1993 Johnstone). Primarily in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Sira (B.40). NT 1977. Bible portions 1939-1955.

TEKE, CENTRAL (KITEKE) [TEC] 35,000 or more in Congo (1984); 490,000 in all languages in the Teke subgroup in Congo (1993 Johnstone). Tyoo in Pool Region, Ngabe District. Boo and Njyunjyu in Plateaux Region, Djambala District; Njyunjyu around Djambala, Boo eastwards to Congo River. Also a few in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Dialects: TYOO (ITYOO, TEO, TIO, TIOO, TYO), BOO (BOÕ, EBOO, EBOOM, BAMBOMA), NJYUNJYU (NJIUNJIU). Speakers of Eboo called 'Aboo'. The Aboo speak the dialect of the ancient Teke kings. Boõ has 63% lexical similarity with Yaa, 69% with Laali, 75% with Tsaayi, 85% with Tyee (West Teke), 86% with Kukua (South Teke), 89% with Ngungwel (Northeastern Teke), 79% with Tege (Northern Teke). Work in progress.

TEKE, EASTERN (KITEKE, IBALI) [TEK] 71,000 in all countries. On Congo River, Pool region, close to Brazzaville. Primarily in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Bible portions 1889-1905. Survey needed.

TEKE, NORTHEASTERN (NGUNGWEL, NGUNGULU, NGANGOULOU) [NGZ] 45,000 (1988 SIL). Plateaux Province, Gamboma District. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Dialect: MPU (MPUMPUM). The speakers would not accept Eboo (Central Teke) or Kikukua (Southern Teke) literature. They consider themselves a distinct people from other Teke groups. The people are called 'Angungwel'. 89% lexical similarity with Boõ, 81% with Kukua, 77% with Teghe, 76% with Tsaayi and Mbere, 75% with Tyee, 68% with Laali, 61% with Yaa.

TEKE, NORTHERN (TEGHE, ITEGHE, TEGE) [TEG] 30,000 in Congo (1987 SIL); 9,000 in Nzikini, 15,000 in Teghe; 10,000 to 20,000 in Gabon (1990 CMA); 40,000 to 50,000 in all countries. Cuvette Region, Ewo and Okoyo districts. Some in Plateaux Region, Abala District, west of Mpama River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Dialects: KATEGHE (NZIKINI), KETEGHE. 81% lexical similarity with Mbamba, 79% with Kukua, 77% with Ngungwel, 76% with Boõ, 75% with Tyee, 74% with Mbere, 73% with Laali and Tsaayi, 67% with Teghe. Survey needed.

TEKE, SOUTH CENTRAL (KITEKE) [IFM] 5,000 or more (1988 SIL). Pool Region. Fuumu is immediately north of Brazzaville; Wuumu extends north and northwest to the Lefini River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Dialects: FUUMU (IFUUMU, MFUMU), WUUMU (IWUUMU, WUMBU). Survey needed.

TEKE, SOUTHERN (KUKWA, KUKUYA, KIKUWA, CHIKUYA, KOUKOUYA) [KKW] 21,800 (1984). Plateaux Province, Lekana District, east of Leketi River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). They would not accept Ngungwel (Northeastern Teke) literature. Strong ethnic pride. 86% lexical similarity with Boõ, 85% with Tyee, 81% with Ngungwel, 80% with Tsaayi, 79% with Teghe, 75% with Laali, 70% with Yaa. Survey needed.

TEKE, WESTERN (WEST TEKE) [TEZ] 60,000 or more in Congo including 10,000 Yaka (1988); 32,000 in Gabon (1990 CMA); 92,000 in all countries. Lekoumou Region, in arc to west, south and east of Mbama, east and northeast from Mossendjo. Tsaayi dialect also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70). Dialects: TSAAYI (GETSAAYI, TSAYA, TSAYE, TSAYI), LAALI (ILAALI), YAA (IYAA, IYAKA, YAKA), TYEE (ETYEE). Yaa has 91% lexical similarity with Laali, 74% with Tsaayi, 69% with Tyee; Laali has 81% with Tsaayi, 78% with Tyee; Tsaayi has 76% with Tyee, 80% with Kukua; Tyee has 85% with Kukua and Boõ. Bible portions 1933. Survey needed.

TSAANGI (ITSANGI, TCENGUI, TCHANGUI, ICAANGI) [TSA] 10,000 in all countries (1971 Welmers). Niari Region, north and northwest of Mossendjo. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Njebi (B.50). Work in progress.

VILI (TSIVILI, CIVILI, FIOTE, FIOT) [VIF] 5,000 to 6,000 (1990 CMA). Kouilou Province, along the coast between the Angola and Gabon borders. Yoombe Island. Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10). Dialect: YOOMBE (YOMBE, CIYOOMBE). A dialect cluster. The people are called 'Bavili'. Coastal. Survey needed.

WUMBVU (WUMVU) [WUM] 4,000 to 24,000 in all countries (1990 CMA). Also in Gabon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.20). Survey needed.

YAKA (AKA, BABINGA, BINGA, BEKÁ, MÒÁKA) [AXK] 15,000 in Congo (1986 Cavalli-Storza); 15,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 30,000 in all countries (1985 Bahuchet). Northeast corner. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngando (C.10). Dialects: BASESE (EASTERN AKA), BAMBENZELE (WESTERN AKA). Mòáka is singular, Beká plural. Different from the Baka language of Cameroon and Gabon, which is Ubangi. There may be more than one pygmy language in Congo, or this one may be different than Yaka in CAR. Nomadic. Pygmies. Forest. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

YOMBE (KIYOMBE, KIOMBI, BAYOMBE) [YOM] Also Zaïre, Angola. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10). Dialects: MBALA (MUMBALA), VUNGUNYA (KIVUNGUNYA, YOMBE CLASSIQUE). Distinct enough from Kongo-Fioti to need separate literature. Christian, traditional religion. Work in progress.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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