Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

China

1,214,221,000 (1995). 55 official minority nationalities; total 91,200,314, 6.5% of the population (1990). Han Chinese population: 1,033,057,000 or 93.5% (1991 J. Matisoff). People's Republic of China. Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo. Literacy rate 73% to 76.5%. Information mainly from Sebeok 1967; Voegelin and Voegelin 1977; Dreyer 1976; Wurm et al., China Atlas, 1987; J-O Svantesson 1989, 1995; J.A. Edmondson, ed. 1990; S. Milliken 1994, 1995; EDCL 1991; R. Ramsey 1987; Li Fang-gui 1977. Data accuracy estimate: B. Secular, Chinese traditional religion, Buddhism, Taoism, Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Blind population 2,000,000. Deaf population 3,000,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 7. The number of languages listed for China is 206. Of those, 205 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

ACHANG (ACHUNG, ATSANG, ACH'ANG, ACANG, AHCHAN, NGACANG, NGATSANG, NGACHANG, NGAC'ANG, NGO CHANG, MÖNGHSA) [ACN] 27,708 in China (1990 census); 1,700 or more in Myanmar (1983). Ramsey (1987) says most are in Myanmar. Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture and Baoshan District, western Yunnan Province, along the Myanmar border. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Burmish, Northern. Dialects: LONGCHUAN, LIANGHE, LUXI. Longchuan is more distinct from the other dialects, and has more Dai loan words. Lianghe and Luxi use many Chinese loan words. There are also Burmese loan words. Spoken Chinese and Dai are in common use as second languages; written Chinese is also in use. An official nationality in China. Unidentified ethnic groups in the area: Ben Ren, Hknong. Not a written language. Typology: SOV, four tones. Agriculturalists, craftsmen. Polytheist, Hinayana Buddhist. Work in progress.

ADI (ABOR, ARBOR, ABOR-MIRI) [ADI] 470,000 in all countries, including 110,000 Adi (1990 UBS), 360,000 Miri (1989 USCWM). Tibet, Siang. Mainly in Assam, India. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Dialects: ADI, MIRI (MISHING). Some sources separate Adi and Miri as two languages. Not listed in Chinese sources. Related to Lhoba. NT 1988. Bible portions 1932-1986.

AI-CHAM (JIAMUHUA, JINHUA, ATSAM) [AIH] 2,300 speakers (1986). 13 villages in Di'e and Boyao townships in Libo County of the Qiannan Buyi-Miao Autonomous Prefecture in southern Guizhou Province. Daic, Kam-Sui. Dialects: DI'E, BOYAO. A separate language officially included under the Bouyei nationality. The two dialects listed have phonological differences, but are largely intelligible to each other's speakers. Similar to Mak. Typology: SVO, 6 tones. Survey needed.

AINU (AYNU, AINI, ABDAL) [AIB] 5,000 (1988). Yengixar (Shule) town, Hanalik and Paynap villages in the Kashgar area, and Gewoz village near Hoban; Hetian, Luopu, Moyu, Shache, Yingjisha and Shulekuche counties of southwestern Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. The language has the same grammar as Uyghur but much Persian vocabulary. Some consider it to be a dialect of Uyghur, others to be an Iranian language heavily influenced by Uyghur. They speak Aynu in the family, but Uyghur to outsiders. They do not intermarry with Uyghur. The Uyghur despise them and call them 'Abdal' or 'beggar'. The government counts them as Uyghur. Different from the Ainu spoken in Russia and Japan. Caste of circumcisers. Survey needed.

AKHA (KAW, EKAW, KO, AKA, IKAW, AK'A, AHKA, KHAKO, KHA KO, KHAO KHA KO, IKOR, AINI, YANI) [AKA] 130,000 in China (1990); 25,000 in Thailand (1986); 200,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS); 5,000 in Laos; 360,000 or more in all countries. Southwest Yunnan. Also in Viet Nam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya. 'Aini' may be the same as the Yani dialect of Hani. It is reported that, aside from loan word differences, the Akha of Thailand and Myanmar is virtually identical to the Yani dialect of Hani spoken in Xishuangbanna (Yunnan). Dictionary. Typology: SOV, 3 tones. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1968-1987. Bible portions 1939-1991.

AMDO (ANDUO, NGAMBO) [ADX] 809,500, including 538,500 Hbrogpa, 97,600 Rongba, 112,800 Rongmahbrogpa, 60,600 Rtahu (1987 Wurm, et al). Huangnan, Hainan, Haibei, and Guoluo (Golog) Tibetan Autonomous prefectures and the Haixi Mongolian-Tibetan-Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province; in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Tianzhu Autonomous County of southwestern Gansu Province, and in parts of the Ganzi and Aba (Ngawa) Tibetan Autonomous prefectures of western and northern Sichuan Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Northern. Dialects: HBROGPA, RONGBA, RONGMAHBROGPA, RTAHU. Not intelligible with Central Tibetan or Kham varieties, about 70% lexical similarity with each. Those listed as dialects may not be intelligible with each other. Speakers of all ages. Speakers in 'Golog' are called 'Golog', 'Ngolok', 'Mgolog', 'Ggolo'. Typology: SOV, many onset clusters, not tonal. Pastoral: yak, sheep; wool. Buddhist.

ATUENCE (ATUENTSE, ANSHUENKUAN NYARONG, NYARONG, NGANSHUENKUAN) [ATF] 520,000. Yunnan-Tibet border. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Central. Probably included officially under the Tibetan nationality. It may not be a separate language. It has been identified as Central Bodish (Shafer 1955, 1966), Archaic Nomad Dialect of Tibetan (Roerich 1931), or Central Tibetan (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977). Survey needed.

AYI [AYX] Fugong and Gongshan counties, Nujiang Nu-Lisu Autonomous Prefecture of northwestern Yunnan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Subclassification unknown, perhaps Lolo. Spoken by members of the Nu nationality. Typology: SOV, 4 tones, 3-way obstruent distinction (voiced-voiceless-aspirated), voiced and voiceless nasals and liquids, inflecting. Loan words from Chinese, Lisu, Bai, Burmese, and Tibetan. Survey needed.

BA PAI (YAO MIN, ZAOMIN, DZAO MIN) [BPN] 29,737 (1993). Liannan and Yangshan counties of northern Guangdong Province, and Yizhang County of southern Hunan Province. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Zaomin. Phonological and lexical differences from Mien of Thailand and Laos make communication difficult. Also different from Mian Jin and Biao Jiao. Officially in the Yao nationality. Swidden agriculturalists: paddy rice. Buddhist.

BAI (PAI, MINJIA, MINCHIA, MINKIA, LABBU, NAMA, LEME) [PIQ] 900,000 speakers (1990 J-O Svantesson), out of ethnic group of 1,594,827 (1990 census). Northwest Yunnan, between the Lancang (Mekong) and Jinsha rivers, on the Dali Plain, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture; Yunnan Province, Bijie County. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Minchia. Dialects: DALI (TALI-XIANGYUN, XIANGYUN-DALI), JIANCHUAN (CENTRAL BAI, HEQING-JIANCHUAN, HOKING-JIANCHUAN), LANBI (BIJIANG-LANPING, LANPING-BIJIANG). Probably Lolo; classification difficult because of heavy borrowing (60% to 70%) from Chinese. The 3 dialects may be separate languages. An official nationality. There is an old Bai script dating from around the 8th century called 'Bowen' or 'Lao Baiwen' that is based on Chinese characters. Now a new Roman orthography based on the Jianchuan dialect as spoken in Jinhua town in Jianchuan County is used, which takes into consideration features from the speech of the other two major dialects. 'Eryuan' is the name of a town, not a dialect. Typology: SVO, attributives precede heads, number classifier constructions follow heads, no consonant clusters, no checked syllables, has tense-lax vowel distinction, 4 tones. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Buddhist, Daoist, Christian. Work in progress.

BAIMA (BAI MA, PE) [BQH] 110,000 (1995 EDCL). Pingwu County in north central Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Unclassified. Spoken by members of the Tibetan nationality. Typology: SOV; 4 tones; initial consonant clusters; no consonantal codas; mostly monosyllabic morphemes; loans from Chinese and Tibetan. Survey needed.

BELA (PELA, PALA, BOLA, POLO) [BEQ] 2,000 to 3,000 in Luxi (1992 Edmondson). Yunnan Province, Dehong Prefecture, Luxi County, Santaishan Township, and Yingjang and Lianghe counties. May also be in Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Unclassified. Live among the Jingpo majority and wear Jingpo clothing. Officially included in the Jingpo nationality. They regard themselves as different from Zaiwa and Jingpo and have different traditions. Typology: SOV; 4 tones; only voiceless affricates and stops; no consonant clusters; palatalized and non-palatalized series of labials and velars; nasal and stop codas; tense-lax and nasal unnasalized vowels; tone sandhi; Chinese, Jingpo, Dai, and Burmese loans. Agriculturalists: long grain rice. Survey needed.

BIAO MIEN (BIAO MON, BIAOMAN) [BMT] 21,500 (1993). Ruyuan County, Guangdong Province. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Different from Biao Jiao or its dialect Biaomin, also called 'Biao Mien'. Phonological and lexical differences from Mien of Thailand and Laos make communication difficult. Officially in the Yao nationality. Swidden agriculturalists: paddy rice. Buddhist.

BIAO-JIAO MIEN (BIAO CHAO) [BJE] Northeastern Guangxi in Quanzhou, Gongcheng, and Guanyang counties, and in the southern Hunan counties Lingling and Daoxian. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Biao-Jiao. Dialects: BIAO MIN (BIAOMIN, BIAO MIEN, AO YAO), JIAOGONG MIAN (CHAO KONG MENG, JIAOGONG). Different from Biao Mien (Biaoman). Officially included under the Yao (Mien) nationality in China. Survey needed.

BISU (MBISU, MISU, MIBISU, MBI) [BII] 6,000 in China (1991 Li Yongsui); 1,000 or fewer in Thailand (1987 E. Purnell); 7,000 or more in all countries. Xishuangbanna area of southwestern Yunnan Province: in Mengzhe village of Menghai County, in the villages of Zhutang, Laba, Donglang, and Fubang in Lancang Couunty, in the villages of Jingxin, Fuyan, and Nanya in Menglian County, and in parts of Ximeng County. Also in Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Phunoi. Closely related to Mpi, Pyen, and Phunoi. There are some dialect differences based on Dai versus Lahu loanwords. 36% lexical similarity with Hani, 32% with Lahu, 31% with Lisu. Most in China can also speak Dai, Lahu, or Chinese. Bisu in Menghai County are called 'Laopin' or 'Pin'; they call themselves 'Mbisu'; those in Lancang and Menglian are called 'Laomian'; those in Myanmar and Thailand call themselves 'Bisu", 'Misu', or 'Mbi'. Typology: SVO; simple syllable structure; certain obstruent onsets may be prenasalized, aspiratedd, or palatalized, but otherwise no consonant clusters; syllables may be closed by stop or nasal; 3 tones, tone sandhi; words have 1 or 2 syllables; modifiers follow heads; loan words from Dai and Chinese. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

BIT (KHABIT, PHSING, PHSIN) [BGK] 500 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson); 1,530 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 2,000 in all countries. Southern Yunnan Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao. Not Khmuic but Palaungic (J-O Svantesson 1990). Related to Khao in Viet Nam. Survey needed.

BIYO (BIO, BIYUE) [BYO] 100,000 (J-O Svantesson). Yunnan, near the Hani. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Bi-Ka. A distinct language from Akha and Kado (Kaduo?). Emu may be a separate language. Officially included under the Hani nationality.

BLANG (BULANG, PULANG, PULA, PLANG, KAWA, K'ALA, KONTOI) [BLR] 24,000 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson), out of an official nationality of 82,280 (1990 census); 1,200 in Thailand (1991); 1,000 to 2,000 in Myanmar (1991); 27,000 in all countries speakers. Southwestern Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, and the Simao and Lincang regions. Most live in Menghai and Shuangjiang counties. Some are scattered, living among Va (Wa). Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Bulang. Dialects: PHANG, KEM DEGNE. An official nationality in China; it officially includes Blang, Lawa, and Angkuic languages, Puman, U, and 3 to 7 others. Dialects listed may be separate languages. K'ala may be a separate language. Dai, Wa, and Chinese are in common use. 2 alphabetic scripts are used: 'Totham' in the Xishuangbanna area, and 'Tolek' in the region from Dehong to Lincang. Chinese sources list two dialects: Bulang (Blang Proper), and Awa (A'erwa). It is not known how these relate to the dialects listed above. Typology: SVO; modifiers follow heads; voiceless nasal initials; 4 tones; singular-dual-plural pronoun distinction; rich in morphophonemic processes. Agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 meters and over. Hinayana Buddhist, some Christian. Work in progress.

BONAN (BAO'AN, BOAN, PAOAN, PAONGAN, BAONAN) [PEH] 12,212 (1990 census); 6,000 Jishishan, 4,000 Tongren. East Qinghai Province and southwestern Gansu Province in the Jishishan Bao'an-Dongxiang-Sala Autonomous County of the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture. Bonan-speaking Tu live in Tongren, eastern Qinghai Province. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour. Dialects: JISHISHAN (DAHEJIA, DAKHECZJHA), TONGREN (TUNGYEN). Jishishan subdialects are Ganhetan and Dadun; Tongren subdialects are Nianduhu, Guomari, Gajiuri, and Lower Bao'an village. Jishishan has been influenced by Chinese, Tongren by Tibetan. There are phonological and grammatical differences between the two, and inherent intelligibility may be low. An official nationality. Written Chinese is in common use. Typology: Vowel devoicing and nasalization processes; modifiers precede heads. Agriculturalists. Sunni Muslim.

BOUYEI (BUYI, BUI, BO-I, BUYEI, BUYUI, PUYI, PUI, PU-I, PU-JUI, PUJAI, PUYOI, DIOI, TUJIA, SHUIHU, ZHONGJIA) [PCC] 2,000,000 speakers or more out of a nationality of 2,545,059 in China (1990 census); 1,300 in Viet Nam (1984). Quinnan is the largest dialect. Guizhou-Yunnan plateau, mainly Buyi-Miao and Miao-Dong autonomous prefectures, Zhenning and Guanling counties, south and southwest Guizhou, and some in Yunnan Province, Luoping County, and Sichuan Province, Ningnan and Huidong counties. Daic, Tai, Northern. Dialects: QIANNAN (SOUTHERN GUIZHOU, BOUYEI 1), QIANZHONG (CENTRAL GUIZHOU, BOUYEI 2), QIANXI (WESTERN GUIZHOU, BOUYEI 3). Dialect chain to Northern Zhuang. At times the name 'Buyi' is applied to all, or nearly all Northern Tai groups, including Northern Zhuang in Guangxi; the official division between the Zhuang and Buyi is determined by provincial borders. Those in Guizhou are the Buyi official nationality in China; officially includes the T'en, Ching, and Ai-cham languages. The name 'Quinnan hua' (Quinnan speech) also refers to a dialect of southwestern Mandarin spoken in Guizhou, and should not be confused with Qiannan Bouyei. It has an official Roman pan-dialectal orthography, based on Qiannan Bouyei spoken in Wangmo County. Written Chinese is in common use. An official nationality in Viet Nam. Dictionaries. Typology: SVO; modifiers fllow heads; highly monosyllabic in native vocabulary; 6 tone categories in open syllables and 4 (split of 2 categories according to vowel length) in closed syllables; loans from local Mandarin. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: oranges; batik dyers, textiles, tung oil, kapok. Polytheist, some Daoist. Work in progress.

BUGAN (PUKAN, HUALO, HUAZU) [BBH] 3,000 (1996 J. Edmondson). Southern Guangnan and northern Xichou counties in southeastern Yunnan Province, Laowalong, Xinwalong, Jiuping, Shibeipo, Xinzhai, Manlong, and Nala villages. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified. Newly discovered. All in 1 dialect. They live with Han Chinese in 3 villages, by themselves in 4. Traditionally enoganous. Colorful printed dresses. Typology: Prenasalized and plain stop and affricate initials; tense and lax vowel contrast; nasal and stop variation word final; tone sandhi; 6 tones. Mountain slope. Survey needed.

BUNAN (GAHRI, LAHULI OF BUNAN) [BFU] 2,000 in all countries (1972 Nida). Also India. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. Related languages or dialects: Thebor, Kanam, Lippa, Sumtsu (Sumchu), Sungnam (Sungam), Zangram. Bible portions 1911-1923. Survey needed.

BUNU, BAHENG (PA HNG, PA-HNG, PA NGNG, PAHENG, BAHENG, BAHENGMAI, PA THEN, TONG, MEO LAI, MAN PA SENG) [PHA] 30,000 speakers (1990 J-O Svantesson). Southeastern Guizhou (Liping and Rongjiang counties), northeastern Guangxi (Sanjiang, Longsheng, Rong'an and Lingui counties). Also in Viet Nam. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. A separate language officially included under the Yao nationality. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam, although the variety spoken there may be a separate language. Typology: SVO; uvular onsets; no nasal-final syllables but has nasalized vowels.

BUNU, BU-NAO (PUNU, BUNAO) [BWX] 287,000 speakers (1994) out of an ethnic group of 439,000 (1982 census). 100,000 ethnic Bunu speak Zhuang as mother tongue. Western Guangxi (Du'an, Bama, Baise, Xincheng, Long'an, Laibin, Yishan, Mashan), Guizhou, Hunan, and Yunnan (Funing). Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Dialects: DONGNU (TUNG NU), NUNU, BUNUO (PU NO), NAOGELAO (NAO KLAO), NUMAO (NU MHOU). Ethnically Yao; language is said to be a form of western Hmong. Officially included under Yao (Mien) nationality in China. The dialects listed may be 5 languages (D. Strecker 1987). The classification of Bunu in the Miao branch of Miao-Yao is in dispute. Typology: SVO; most dialects have 8 tones, the greatest number is 11; complex set of initials including pre-nasalized stops; relatively simple rhymes.

BUNU, JIONGNAI (PUNU, QIUNGNAI, KIONG NAI, JIONGNAI, JIONGNAIHUA) [PNU] 1,500 (1994). Longhua, Nanzhou, Dajin, Liuxiang, Mentou, Gubu, Ludan, Liutuan, and Chang'e in the Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, southeast of Liuzhou City in eastern Guangxi Province. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Their own name is 'Kiang Nai'. The Han call them 'Hualan Yao' which means 'Flowery Blue Yao'. Ethnically Yao. Thought to be linguistically in the middle between the Mien, Hmong, Bunu, and She languages. Officially included under Yao (Mien) nationality in China. Very different from and unintelligible to surrounding Yao. 52% lexical similarity with Bu-Nao Bunu. 'Bunu' is a cover term for separate languages.

BUNU, WUNAI (PUNU, WUNAI, NGNAI, HM NAI) [BWN] 30,000 (1994). Western Hunan, Longhui, Xupu, Tongdao, and Chenxi counties. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Ethnically Yao; language is a form of western Hmong. Officially included under Yao (Mien) nationality in China. 'Bunu' is a cover term for separate languages. Typology: SVO; has uvular onsets; only final nasal is velar.

BUNU, YOUNUO (PUNU, PU NO, YOUNUO, YUNUO, YUNO) [BUH] 30,000 (1994). Northeastern Guangxi, Longsheng County. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Ethnically Yao; language is a form of western Hmong. Officially included under Yao (Mien) nationality in China. 'Bunu' is a cover term for separate languages (D. Strecker 1989). Typology: SVO; relatively simple set of initials; 6 tones; many Chinese loans.

BURIAT, CHINA (BURYAT, BURIAT-MONGOLIAN, NORTHERN MONGOLIAN, NORTHEASTERN MONGOLIAN, BARGU BURIAT) [BXU] 65,000 (1982 census), including 47,000 New Bargu, 14,000 Old Bargu, 4,500 Buriat. Hulun-Buyr District of Inner Mongolia, near Russian (Siberian) and Mongolian borders. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat. Dialects: BARGU (OLD BARGU, NEW BARGU), KHORI, AGA. Officially included under Mongolian in China. Differs from Buriat of Mongolia and Russia because of influences from different languages. Buddhist, lamaist. Survey needed.

BUXINHUA [BXT] 200 (1994). Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified. Typology: SVO, no tones, simple syllable structure, complex morphology (prefixing), attributives follow heads, adverbials precede heads. Survey needed.

BUYANG [BYU] 2,000 to 3,000 (1990 Liang Min), including 200 at Ecun, 180 at Lagan, 200 at Maguan, 300 at Langjia, 50 at Nongna, 20 at Damen; 20 30 to 40 in Jinglong Township; and at a settlement in Guangnan County Diyu; and a village near Yiliang. Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous District, Guangnan County, one location, and Funing County, Gula Township. Daic, Kadai, Bu-Rong. A number of dialects. Some similarities grammatically with Kam-Sui. Officially part of the Zhuang nationality. Buyang is used among themselves. Most speakers can use Southwest Mandarin, except for children and the elderly. Those from 15 to 50 can speak the local kind of Zhuang. About half can speak Yerong. 38% lexical similarity with Pubiao, 34% with Lati, 32% with Northern Zhuang, 31% with Gelo, 28% with Dong, 24% with Laka, 23% with Hlai, 10% with Hmong, 6% with Mien. Typology: SVO; adjectives follow nouns; 6 tones (combining categories in checked and unchecked syllables). Survey needed.

CAO MIAO (MJIUNIANG, GRASS MIAO) [COV] 60,000 speakers (1994). Liping county of southeastern Guizhou Province, Tongdao Dong Autonomous County of southwestern Hunan Province, and Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County of northeastern Guangxi, near Southern Dong. Daic, Kam-Sui. Used in daily communication. Chinese used in singing. Members of the Miao nationality. Closely related to Northern Dong and sometimes referred to as a special dialect of Dong. Typology: 6 tones. Survey needed.

CHINESE SIGN LANGUAGE [CSL] (3,000,000 deaf persons in China; 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Also used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia. Deaf sign language. Dialect: SHANGHAI SIGN LANGUAGE. Developed since the late 1950's. There are several dialects, of which Shanghai is the most influential. Few signs of foreign origin. There are also Chinese character signs. Schools and workshops or farms for the deaf are channels of dissemination. Others use home sign languages. The first deaf school was begun by missionary C.R. Mills and wife in 1887, but American Sign Language did not influence Chinese Sign Language. TV programs.

CHINESE, GAN (GAN, KAN) [KNN] 20,580,000, 2% of the population (1984). Jiangxi and southeastern corner of Hubei including Dachi, Xianning, Jiayu, Chongyang, and parts of Anhui, Hunan, and Fujian provinces. Chang-Jing dialect includes the speech of Nanchang City, Xiuhui, and Jing'an; Yi-Liu includes Yichun (Ichun) in Jiangxi to Liuyang in Hunan. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: CHANG-JING, YI-LIU, JI-CHA, FU-GUANG, YING-YI. No written form apart from Standard Chinese. Marginally intelligible with Mandarin and Wu Chinese. Speakers are reported to be sufficiently bilingual in Standard Chinese to use that literature.

CHINESE, HAKKA (HAKKA, HOKKA, KEJIA, KECHIA, KE, XINMINHUA, MAJIAHUA, TU GUANGDONGHUA) [HAK] 25,725,000 in mainland China, 2.5% of the population (1984); 2,000,000 in Taiwan (1991); 985,635 in Malaysia; 640,000 in Indonesia (1982); 69,000 in Singapore (1980); 58,800 in Thailand (1984); 19,200 in French Polynesia (1987); 6,000 in Surinam; 6,000 in Panama (1981); 3,000 in Brunei (1979); 34,000,000 in all countries(1995 WA). Spoken in many parts of mainland China side by side with other dialects. Greatest concentration of speakers in eastern and northeastern Guangdong, otherwise especially in Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, and Sichuan. Also in USA including Hawaii, Hongkong, French Guiana, Mauritius, United Kingdom. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: YUE-TAI (MEIXIAN, RAOPING, TAIWAN KEJIA), YUEZHONG (CENTRAL GUANGDONG), HUIZHOU, YUEBEI (NORTHERN GUANGDONG), TINGZHOU (MIN-KE), NING-LONG (LONGNAN), YUGUI, TONGGU. Meixian is now the standard dialect. Bible 1916. NT 1883-1993. Bible portions 1860-1995.

CHINESE, HUIZHOU (HUIZHOU) [CZH] South Anhui Province and north Zhejiang Province. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: JIXI, XIUYI, QIDE, YANZHOU, JINGZHAN. Formerly considered to be part of the Jianghuai dialect of Mandarin, but now considered by many to be a separate major variety of Chinese. Dialects are reported to differ greatly from each other. Different from the Huizhou dialect of Hakka. No written form apart from Standard Chinese. Speakers are reported to be sufficiently bilingual in Standard Chinese to use that literature.

CHINESE, JINYU (JINYU) [CJY] 45,000,000 (1995 Milliken). Mainly in Shanxi Province, with some in Shaanxi and Henan provinces. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Formerly considered to be part of the Xibei Guanhua dialect of Mandarin, but now considered by many to be a separate major variety of Chinese. Unlike Mandarin in having contrastive glottal checked syllables and other distinctive features. No written form apart from Standard Chinese. Speakers are reported to be sufficiently bilingual in Standard Chinese to use that literature.

CHINESE, MANDARIN (MANDARIN, GUANHUA, BEIFANG FANGYAN, NORTHERN CHINESE, GUOYU) [CHN] 836,000,000 in mainland China, 70% of the population; including 8,602,978 Hui (1990 census); 885,000,000 in all countries. 1,042,482,187 all Han in China (1990 census). Covers all of mainland China north of the Changjiang River, a belt south of the Changjiang from Qiujiang (Jiangxi) to Zhenjiang (Jiangsu), Hubei except the southeastern corner, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, the northwestern part of Guangxi, and the northwestern corner of Hunan. Also in Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Russia, USA, Mongolia, Viet Nam, Brunei, South Africa, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Hongkong, United Kingdom, and Mauritius. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: HUABEI GUANHUA (NORTHERN MANDARIN), XIBEI GUANHUA (NORTHWESTERN MANDARIN), XINAN GUANHUA (SOUTHWESTERN MANDARIN), JINGHUAI GUANHUA (JIANGXIA GUANHUA, LOWER YANGZE MANDARIN). Official language taught in all schools. The Hui are non-Turkic, non-Mongolian, Muslims who speak Mandarin as first language, and if literate, read Chinese. A few read Arabic. Hui is a separate official nationality. The Hui correspond to 'Khoton', 'Hoton', or 'Qotong' in Mongolia, 20,000 Muslim Chinese in Taiwan, and the Hui in Thailand. Several hundred Chinese Jews in Kaifeng city, Henan Province are largely assimilated to the Han or Hui Chinese, and speak Mandarin. They are officially recognized. Wenli is a literary form. Putonghua is the official form taught in schools. Hezhouhua is spoken in the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture and Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of southern Gansu Province, and in neighboring areas in Qinghai Province. The grammar is basically Altaic or Tibetan, while the vocabulary and phonology is basically Northwestern Mandarin, or a relexified variety of Tibetan. More investigation is needed. Typology: SVO, SOV. Hui: agriculturalists (rural), traders (urban). Traditional Chinese religion, Buddhist, Muslim (Hui), Jewish. Braille Bible portions. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1874-1983. NT 1857-1981. Bible portions 1864-1986.

CHINESE, MIN BEI (NORTHERN MIN, MIN PEI) [MNP] 10,290,000, 1.2% of the population (1984); 10,537,000 in all countries (includes Min Bei, Min Dong, Min Zhong, and Pu- Xian). Northern Fujian Province in 7 counties around Jian'ou. Also in Singapore. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. The Chinese now divide Chinese Min into 5 major varieties: Min Nan, Min Bei, Min Dong, Min Zhong, and Pu-Xian. Others say there are at least 9 inherently unintelligible varieties. NT 1934. Bible portions 1934.

CHINESE, MIN DONG (EASTERN MIN) [CDO] (15,000 in Singapore, 1985; 6,000 in Brunei, 1979; 20,000 in Indonesia, 1982). Area from Fu'an in northeastern Fujian to Fuzhou in east central Fujian. Also in Thailand, Malaysia. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialect: FUZHOU (FUCHOW, FOOCHOW, GUXHOU). The prestige variety is that spoken in Fujian. Speakers are reported to be adequately bilingual and literate in Standard Chinese to use that literature. Bible 1884-1905. NT 1856. Bible portions 1852.

CHINESE, MIN NAN (SOUTHERN MIN, MINNAN) [CFR] 25,725,000 in mainland China (1984); 2.5% of the population; 14,177,800 in Taiwan; 1,948,581 in Malaysia; 1,170,000 in Singapore; 1,081,920 in Thailand; 700,000 in Indonesia; 540,000 in Hongkong; 493,500 in Philippines; 10,000 in Brunei; 49,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Southern Fujian, Guangdong, south Hainan Island, southern Zhejiang, southern Jiangxi provinces. Xiamen is spoken in southern Fujian, Jiangxi, and Taiwan; Hainan dialect in Hainan; Leizhou on the Leizhou peninsula of southwestern Guangdong; Chao-Shan in the far eastern corner of Guangdong in the Chaozhou-Shantou area; Longdu is a dialect island in the area around Zhongshan City and Shaxi in Guangdong south of Guangzhou; Zhenan Min in southeastern Zhejiang Province around Pingyang and Cangnan and on the Zhoushan archipelago of northeastern Zhejiang. Also in USA. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: XIAMEN, LEIZHOU (LEI HUA, LI HUA), CHAO-SHAN (CHOUSHAN), HAINAN (HAINANESE, QIONGWEN HUA, WENCHANG), LONGDU, ZHENAN MIN. Xiamen has subdialects Amoy, Fujian (Fukien, Hokkian, Taiwanese). Amoy is the prestige dialect. Amoi and Taiwanese are easily intelligible to each other. Chao-Shan has subdialects Chaoshou (Chaochow, Chaochow, Teochow, Teochew) and Shantou (Swatow). Swatow and Amoy have very difficult intelligibility. Sanjiang is somewhat difficult for other dialect speakers. Hainan is quite different from other dialects. Min Nan is the most widely distributed and influential Min variety. Bible 1933. NT 1896-1974. Bible portions 1875-1916.

CHINESE, MIN ZHONG (CENTRAL MIN) [CZO] Area around Yong'an, Sanming, and Shaxian in central Fujian Province. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Speakers are reported to be adequately bilingual and literate in Standard Chinese to use that literature.

CHINESE, PU-XIAN [CPX] (6,000 in Singapore; 1985). Putian and Xianyou counties of east central Fujian Province. Also in Malaysia. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: PUTIAN (PUTTEN, XINGHUA, HINGHUA, HENGHUA, HSINGHUA), XIANYOU (HSIENYU). Speakers are reported to be adequately bilingual and literate in Standard Chinese to use that literature. Bible 1912. NT 1900. Bible portions 1892.

CHINESE, WU (WU) [WUU] 77,175,000, 7.5% of the population (1984). Jiangsu south of the Changjiang River, east of Zhenjiang, on Chongming Island in the mouth of the Changjiang, and north of the Changjiang in the area around Nantong, Haimen, Qidong, and Qingjiang, and in Zhejiang Province as far south as Quzhou, Jinhua, and Wenzhou. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: TAIHU, JINHUA (KINHWA), TAIZHOU, OUJIANG, WUZHOU, CHUQU, XUANZHOU. Wu is used on local radio and television for soap operas, family planning, and other counselling; Mandarin for news and official broadcasts. Subdialects of the Taihu dialect are Piling, Su-Hu-Jia, Tiaoxi, Hangzhou, Lin-Shao, Yongjiang. Chuqu subdialects are Chuzhou, Longqu. Xuanzhou subdialects are Tongjing, Taigao, Shiling. Bible 1908-1914. NT 1868-1908. Bible portions 1847-1908.

CHINESE, XIANG (HUNAN, HUNANESE, XIANG, HSIANG) [HSN] 36,015,000, 3.5% of the population (1984). Hunan Province, over 20 counties in Sichuan, and parts of Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: CHANGYI, LUOSHAO, JISHU. Xiang has no written form apart from Standard Chinese. Linguistically between Mandarin and Wu Chinese and marginally intelligible with them. Sufficiently bilingual in Standard Chinese to use that literature.

CHINESE, YUE (CANTONESE, YUE, YUEH, YUEYU, BAIHUA) [YUH] 46,305,000 in mainland China, 4.5% of the population (1984); 5,292,000 in Hong Kong; 314,000 in Singapore; 498,000 in Macau; 748,010 in Malaysia, 500,000 in Viet Nam, 180,000 in Indonesia; 180,000 in San Francisco, USA; 70,000 in Netherlands; 29,400 in Thailand; 20,000 in New Zealand; 6,000 to 7,200 in Philippines; 4,500 in Costa Rica; 3,500 in Brunei; several hundred in Nauru; several hundred thousand in Canada; 66,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Spoken in Guangdong (except for the Hakka speaking areas especially in the northeast, the Min Nan speaking areas of the east, at points along the coast as well as Hainan Island) and in the southern part of Guangxi. Also in Panama, United Kingdom, Mauritius. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: YUEHAI (GUANGFU, HONG KONG CANTONESE, MACAU CANTONESE, SHATOU, SHIQI, WANCHENG), SIYI (SEIYAP, TAISHAN, TOISAN, HOISAN), GAOLEI (GAOYANG), QINLIAN, GUINAN. The Guangzhou variety is considered the standard. Outside of mainland China, many Cantonese-specific characters are used in the writing system. Subdialects of Yuehai are Xiangshan, spoken around Zhongshan and Shuhai, and Wanbao aroung Dongwan City and Bao'an County. Braille Bible. Bible 1894-1981. NT 1877, in press (1996). Bible portions 1862-1903.

CHONI (CHONA, CHONE, CONE, JONE) [CDA] 22,710 (1993). Yunnan-Tibet border. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Northern. Dialect: HBRUGCHU. Related to Amdo, Golog, and Kham. Possible dialects or related languages: Dpari (Dpalri, Dparus), Rebkong, Wayen, Horke. Survey needed.

CUN (NGAO FON, CUNHUA, CUN-HUA) [CUQ] 70,000 (1990 Jan-Olof Svantesson). South bank of Changhua River in north Dongfang county and north bank in Changjiang county, Hainan Island. Daic, Kadai, Li-Laqua. 40% cognate with Hlai. Many loan words from Chinese. A separate language officially under the Han (Chinese) nationality. The people are considered to be Han. Typology: SVO, 10 tones (5 in checked syllables and 5 in unchecked syllables. Survey needed.

DARANG DENG (DARANG) [DAT] Chayu (Zayü) County along the Dulai River valley in southeastern Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. 'Dalang' may be an alternate name. Some believe them to be in the Jingpo branch. Apparently not included in any nationality. Typology: SOV; 4 tones which are reported to vary considerably among speakers. Survey needed.

DAUR (DAGUR, DAGUOR, DAWAR, DAWO'ER, TAHUR, TAHUERH) [DTA] 84,950 speakers or 70% of the ethnic group of 121,357 (1990 census). Inner Mongolia and border of Heilongjiang Province, and northwest Xinjiang. Some sources list Tacheng (spoken in Xinjiang) as a dialect. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Dagur. Dialects: BUTEHA (BATAXAN), HAILA'ER (HAILAR), QIQIHA'ER (QIQIHAR, TSITSIKHAR). Definitely distinct from other Mongolian languages (Voegelin and Voegelin). Some sources list Tacheng (spoken in Xinjiang) as a dialect. Some list Haila'er a a dialect of Evenki. An official nationality. There was a Daur script used during the Qing dynasty, then experimental Cyrillic script in 1957, then Latin based on Chinese pinyin. Written Manchu once used, now written Chinese used. No official Daur orthography, but scholars are experimenting with a Latin orthography. Some literacy in Mongolian among those 30 to 50 years old in Hala'er. Low literacy rate. Speakers are reported to have high and widespread levels of bilingualism in Chinese. Dictionary. Typology: SOV; grammatical funcion marked mainly by suffixes; vowel harmony but not very strict; many consonant clusters, palatalized and labialized consonants; rich vocabulary related to hunting, fishing, animal husbandry; loans from Chinese, Manchu, Evenki. Agriculturalists, pastoralists, hunters. Shamanism, lamaist, Christian.

DONGXIANG (TUNGHSIANG, SANTA, TUNG) [SCE] 373,872 (1990 census), about half in the Suonanba dialect. Southwest Gansu Province, mainly in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour. Dialects: SUONANBA, WANGJIAJI, SIJIAJI. Some intelligibility with Bonan. Minor dialect differences in pronunciation and borrowed words. Suonanba is considered to be the standard. An official nationality. No official Dongxiang orthography. Written Chinese is in common use. The people call themselves 'Santa'. 30% of vocabulary borrowed from Chinese. Dictionary. Typology: SOV; no vowel harmony or vowel length disstinction; rich in consonants including uvulars; case marking. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Sunni Muslim.

DONG, NORTHERN (KAM, GAM, TONG, TUNG, TUNG-CHIA) [DOC] 907,560 speakers out of 2,514,014 in the official nationality (1990 census); 38% of the 2,388,310 Dong speakers. Only 1 speaker of Dong found in Viet Nam (1995 J. Edmondson 1996). Area where southeastern Guizhou (Yuping Autonomous County), western Hunan, and northern Guangxi provinces meet, and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 20 contiguous counties. Daic, Kam-Sui. Speakers of Northern Dong are more bilingual than are those in Southern Dong. Dong is an official nationality in China. Has an official orthography. Speakers use Mandarin for literature. 'Kam' is their own name, 'Dong' is the Chinese name. Reported to be close to Mulam. 80% lexical similarity within Northern Dong, 71% between Northern Dong and Southern Dong. 49% lexical similarity with Northern Zhuang, 46% with Laka, 29% with Laqua, 28% with Buyang, 26% with Hlai, 24% with Gelo, 22% with Lati, 6% with Hmong, 4% with Mien. Traditional way of life is relatively undisturbed. Typology: 9 tones. Agriculturalists: rice, tung oil, tea oil; forestry. Polytheist. Survey needed.

DONG, SOUTHERN (KAM, GAM, TONG, TUNG, TUNG-CHIA) [KMC] 1,480,750 speakers out of 2,514,014 in the official nationality (1990 census); 62% of the 2,388,310 speakers speak Southern Dong. Area where southeastern Guizhou (Yuping Autonomous County), western Hunan, and northern Guangxi provinces meet, and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 20 contiguous counties. Daic, Kam-Sui. Speakers of Northern Dong are more bilingual than those of Southern Dong. An official nationality in China. Has an official orthography. Speakers use Mandarin for literature. 'Kam' is their own name, Dong is the Chinese name. Reported to be close to Mulam. 93% lexical similarity within Southern Dong, 71% between Northern Dong and Southern Dong. 49% lexical similarity with Northern Zhuang, 46% with Laka, 29% with Laqua, 28% with Buyang, 26% with Hlai, 24% with Gelo, 22% with Lati, 6% with Hmong, 4% with Mien. Traditional way of life is relatively undisturbed. Dictionaries. Typology: 9 tones. Agriculturalists: rice, tung oil, tea oil; forestry. Polytheist. Work in progress.

DRUNG (TRUNG, TULUNG, DULONG, QIU) [DUU] 11,300 speakers including 5,816 Drung (1990 census) and 5,500 ethnic Nung in the Nu nationality (1990 J-O Svantesson). About 6,000 in Nu River dialect, about 4,000 in Dulong River dialect. Dulong River dialect is spoken along both sides of the Dulong River in Gongshan Dulong-Nu Autonomous County in far northwestern Yunnan. Nu Riber dialect is spoken from Gongshan Dulong-Nu Autonomous County west to Chayu (Zayü) County in Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Dialects: DULONG RIVER, NU RIVER. The dialects are reported to be inherently intelligible. An official nationality, called 'Dulong'. 'Qiuzu' is an old term for the people. Not a written language. The Nu River Drung may be the same as the Tibeto-Burman 'Nung', which are also in Myanmar. Typology: SOV; 3 tones. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

E (KJANG E, "WUSE HUA", "WUSEHUA") [EEE] 30,000 (1992 J.A. Edmondson). Northern Guangxi-Zhuang Autonomous Region, Rongshui Hmong Autonomous County, Yongle Township, and neighboring border areas of Luocheng Mulam Autonomous County. Yongle and nineteen surrounding villages. Daic, Tai, Central. A mixed language, with large amounts of Tuguai Hua (Chinese) vocabulary, tone category, voice quality, and some word structure. The grammar has been more resistant to Chinese influence. Officially under the Zhuang nationality in China, but the speakers do not speak Zhuang. Chinese is the second language (especially the Tuguai Hua variety of Cantonese, or Yue). "Wuse" is the Chinese name, with derogatory connotations. 'E' is their name for themselves. Typology: Tonal. Plains. Agriculturalists: paddy rice; skilled labor. Survey needed.

ERGONG (DAOFUHUA) [ERO] 35,000 (1995). Danba (=Rongzhag), Daofu (Dawu), Luhuo, Xinlong (Nyagrong) counties of the Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan, and Jinchua (Quqên) County of the Aba (Ngawa) Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of northwestern Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. May be Qiang, and the same as Northern Qiang, or related to it. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. Typology: SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; affixation; compounding; reduplication; complex consonant cluster onsets; not tonal. Survey needed.

ERSU (DUOXU) [ERS] 13,000 (1995). South central Sichuan in the lower reaches of the Dadu River, Ya'an District. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Dialects: ERSU (EASTERN ERSU), DUOXU (CENTRAL ERSU), LISU (WESTERN ERSU). May be Qiang, and the same as Thochu Qiang. Dialect differences are reported to be great. Has a pictographic script in which the colr used is reported to play a role in expressing meaning. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. Typology: SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; consonant cluster onsets; most morphemes monosyllabic; 3 tones. Survey needed.

EVENKI (EWENKE, EWENKI, OWENKE, SOLON, SUOLUN, KHAMNIGAN) [EVN] 10,000 speakers (1990 J. O. Svantesson), out of 26,315 in the official nationality in China (1990 census); 12,000 in Russia (1979); 2,000 in Mongolia (1982); 24,000 in all countries. Hulunbuir Banners Ewenki, Moriadawa, Oronchon, Chen Bargu, Arong, Ergune East, and Huisuomu in Inner Mongolia; Nale Prefecture in Heilongjiang Province; and a few in Xinjiang. Altaic, Tungus, Northern, Evenki. Dialects: HAILA'ER, AOLUGUYA, CHENBA'ERHU. Maintain native language and customs. It has official regional recognition in China and literary status in Russia. 'Solon' is their name for themselves in China, but they also now use the official name 'Ewenke'. 'Sulong' may be an alternate spelling. Herdsmen use Mongolian as second language, farmers use Chinese. Written Mongolian and Chinese used as literary languages. Significant dialect differences from Russia. It is not clear how dialect names Solon, Kakut, and Tungus relate to names listed above. Mountain forests, marshlands. Nomadic pastoralists: reindeer; hunters, agriculturalists. Shamanism, lamaist, Christian. Work in progress.

GELAO (GELO, KELAO, KELEO, KEH-LAO, KLAU, KLO, ILAO, KHI, CHILAO, LAO) [KKF] 6,400 speakers out of an ethnic group of 437,997 in China (1990 census), including 3,000 Qau, 1,500 A'ou, 1,700 Hagei, 1,200 Duoluo; 6,700 in Viet Nam (1984); 13,100 in all countries. Daozhen and Wuchuan counties, Anshun and Bijie prefectures of southwest Guizhou province, southern Yunnan (Zhuang-Miao Autonomous District at Maguan, Malipo, and nearby counties), Guangxi (Longlin Pan-Nationalities Autonomous County), and Hunan. The White Gelo are on the China-Viet Nam border at Tiechang and Yangwan townships, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous District, Malipo County, Yunnan Province. They live dispersed among the Han, Miao, Bouyei, Zhuang, and Yi nationalities. Daic, Kadai, Lati-Kelao. Dialects: QAU (GAO), A'OU, HAGEI (HAKEI), DUOLUO. Phonologically close to Hmong, grammatically to Northern Zhuang and Bouyei. Anshun Gelo (Guizhou Anshun) and Sanchong Gelo (Guangxi Longlin) have 54% lexical similarity, and should be considered separate languages. 45% lexical similarity with Southern Zhuang and Dai, 40% with Dong, 36% with Lati, 32% with Laqua, 29% with Buyang, 24% with Northern Zhuang, 24% with Dong, 22% with Laka, 27% to 40% with Hlai, 10% to 15% with Hmong, 5% to 15% with Mien. The White Gelo retain their language. The Flowery Gelo have shifted to Chinese. An official nationality in China and Viet Nam. Called 'Gelao' in China. Typology: SVO; adjectives follow noun head; negative follows predicate but other adverbials precede predicate; 6 tones; only final consonants are alveolar and velar nasals; nasal-stop and some obstruent-lateral onset clusters. Agriculturalists. Polytheistic. Bible portions 1937.

GEMAN DENG [GEN] Chayu (Zayü) County on the tablelands on either side of the lower reaches of the Chayu (Zayü) River in the southeastern corner of Tibet. Some in Assam northern India, and in the northern tip of Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. 'Kuman' may be an alternate name. EDCL calls it a separate language from Darang Deng. Some believe them to be in the Jingpo branch. Apparently not included in any official nationality. Typology: SOV; 4 tones which are reported to have a low functional load. Survey needed.

GROMA (TROMOWA) [GRO] 12,840 (1993). Chambi Valley, between Sikkim and Bhutan, Tibet. Also in Sikkim, India. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Southern. Dialects: UPPER GROMA, LOWER GROMA. Possible dialects or related languages: Spiti, Tomo (Chumbi). Survey needed.

GUIQIONG [GQI] 7,000 (1995). Plateaus on both sides of the Dadu River north from Luding County in the Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecure in west central Sichuan, and nearby in northwest Tianquan County. One town is Wasigou. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. May be Qiang, and the same as Wagsod Qiang. Phonological dialect differences, but communication is possible. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. Typology: SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; 4 tones. Survey needed.

HANI (HANHI, HAW, HANI PROPER) [HNI] 500,000 Hani speakers in China (1990 J-O Svantesson). The official nationality of 1,253,952 (1990 census) probably includes Kado, Mahei, Sansu, Akha, Biyo (Bio, Biyue), Honi, possibly Menghua and others. 180,000 in Myanmar (1994); 30,000 in Laos (1994); 37,000 in Viet Nam (1993); 747,000 in all countries. Yuanjiang and Lancang (Mekong) River basins, Ailao Mountains, south Yunnan. None in Thailand. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya. Divided into three dialect groups depending on whether and to what degree they have vowels with 'clear-muddy' vowel contrasts (P. B. Denlinger 1974). Hani ethnic groups include Pudu (Putu). Sang Kong (Sangkong; 2,000) in Jing Hong Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous State, Yunnan, is officially under Hani, and may be a separate language. Kaduo is reported to be a separate language. An official nationality in China. Written Chinese is in common use. Taught at Kunming Institute. The term 'Hani' has been applied to South, Central, and North Lolo languages. Typology: SOV, 3 tones. Agriculturalists: rice, millet, maize. Altitude: up to 1,600 meters. Polytheist, ancestor worship.

HLAI (LI, DAI, DAY, LAI, LA, LOI, LE, DLI, BLI, KLAI, SLAI) [LIC] 747,000 speakers, including 432,000 Ha, 178,000 Qi, 52,000 Jiamao, 44,000 Bendi, 30,000 Meifu; out of an official nationality of 1,110,900 (1990 census). Mountains in central and south central Hainan Province, southern China. Daic, Kadai, Li-Laqua. Dialects: HA (LUOHUA-HAYAN-BAOXIAN), QI (GEI, TONGSHI-QIANDUI-BAOCHENG), MEIFU (MOIFAU), BENDI (ZWN, BAISHA-YUANMEN). An official nationality, called 'Li'. Has an official Roman orthography. Spoken and written Chinese in common use. Traditional culture. Divided into 5 groups: Ha Li, Meifu Li, Qi Li, Local Li, Detou Li. Some varieties listed as dialects may be separate languages. 30% lexical similarity with Northern Zhuang, 27% with Gelo, 26% with Dong and Laqua, 25% with Lati, 23% with Buyang. Tropical forest. Agriculturalists: rice, coconut, betel nut, sisal, hemp, lemon grass, cocoa, coffee, rubber, palm oil, textiles; traditionally hunters. Polytheist.

HMONG DAW (WHITE MEO, WHITE MIAO, MEO KAO, WHITE LUM, PEH MIAO, PE MIAO, CHUAN MIAO, BAI MIAO) [MWW] 60,000 in China (1987); 25,000 to 30,000 in Thailand (1984 OMF); 70,000 in USA (1987 UBS); 10,000 in France; 165,000 in all countries or more. Central and western Guizhou, southern Sichuan, and Yunnan. Also in Laos, Viet Nam. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Dialects: HMONG GU MBA (HMONG QUA MBA, STRIPED HMONG), MONG LENG, PETCHABUN MIAO. Also spoken by the Hmong Qua Mba people, no significant dialect difference. Largely intelligible with Hmong Njua. Mong Leng is intelligible with Hmong Daw, but sociolinguistic factors require separate literature. Dictionary. NT 1975-1984. Bible portions 1922-1984.

HMONG NJUA (CHUANQIANDIAN MIAO, CHUANCHIENTIEN MIAO, SICHUAN-GUIZHOU-YUNNAN HMONG, TAK MIAO, MEO, MIAO, WESTERN MIAO, WESTERN HMONG) [BLU] 1,000,000 speakers in China (1982), including about 290,000 Punu of the Yao nationality who speak it as mother tongue (1990 J-O Svantesson); 100,000 in Laos (1975); 33,000 in Thailand (1987); 10,000 in Myanmar; 100,000 in USA; 2,000 possibly in France (1981); 1,500 in French Guiana; 1,500 in Surinam; 1,223,500 or more in all countries. The area where Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces meet. Also in Australia, Viet Nam. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Dialects: XIAO HUA MIAO (ATSE, SMALL FLOWERY), TAK (CHING MIAO, GREEN MIAO, BLUE MIAO). Corresponds more or less to Ma's Western and Northern groups, and Purnell's Central and Western groups. Hua, The Miao (Hmongic) group consists of 30-40 inherently unintelligible varieties (Joakim Enwall 1993:12). Miao is an official nationality in China. It has an official orthography. Village centered. A distinct variety called 'Gejiahua' with 50,000 speakers in Huangping County and Kaili City is believed to belong to Hmong Njua. It has 6 tones. Another distinct variety called 'Xijiahua' or 'Haiba Miao' with 50,000 speakers in Huangping, Fuquan, Weng'an, Longli, and Guiding counties and Kaili City is believed to belong to Hmong Njua. It has 3 tones. Another distinct variety called 'Dongjiahua' in Majiang, Longli, and Xiuwen counties and Kaili City is believed to belong to Hmong Njua. Speakers are called 'Dongjia', 'Duck-Raising Miano', or Duck-Raising Gedou'. It shares many characteristics with Gejiahua. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1975-1983. Bible portions 1955-1959.

HMONG, CENTRAL HUISHUI (CENTRAL HUISHUI MIAO, MIAO) [HMC] 30,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City region, central portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong varieties. 30-40 different Hmong (Miao) languages in China. Linguistic differences are great (Joakim Enwall 1993). Village centered. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, CENTRAL MASHAN (CENTRAL MASHAN MIAO, MIAO) [HMM] 50,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Southwestern Guizhou, Ziyun, Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties, central portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Reported to have 13 tones. Village centered.

HMONG, CHONGANJIANG (CHONG'ANJIANG MIAO, GEDOU MIAO) [HMJ] 40,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Kaili City, Huangping county, east central Guizhou. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Village centered.

HMONG, EASTERN HUISHUI (EASTERN HUISHUI MIAO, MIAO) [HME] 20,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City region, eastern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong varieties. Village centered. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, EASTERN QIANDONG (EASTERN QIANDONG MIAO, HMU, MIAO, BLACK MIAO, CENTRAL MIAO, EASTERN EAST-GUIZHOU MIAO) [HMQ] 200,000 (1987 Zhang and Cao). Qiandongnan Miao Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou, and eastward into Hunan Province. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong. Not intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Corresponds more or less to Ma's Central Miao and Purnell's Eastern Miao. Miao is an official nationality in China. It has an official orthography. Dictionary. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, EASTERN XIANGXI (EASTERN XIANGXI MIAO, HSIANGHSI MIAO, RED MIAO, MEO DO, RED MEO, GHAO-XONG, EASTERN WEST-HUNAN MIAO) [MUQ] 70,000 (1987 Zhang and Cao). Western Hunan, Xiangxi Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture, and some places in Hubei. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong (Miao). 'Maojiahua' is a variety of Chinese spoken by about 20,000 members of the Miao nationality in southwestern Hunan, Chengbu Miao Autonomous County, Xining and Suining, and in northeastern Guangxi, Longshen Pan-nationalities Autonomous County and the area around Ziyuan, with 7 tones. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, LUOPOHE (LUOBOHE MIAO, XIMAHE MIAO, XIJIA MIAO) [HML] 40,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Fuquan, Guiding, Longli, Kaiyang, and Kaili counties east of Guiyang, central Guizhou. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Village centered.

HMONG, NORTHEASTERN DIAN (A-HMAO, DIANDONGBEI, VARIEGATED MIAO, TA HUA MIAO, TA HWA MIAO, BIG FLOWERY MIAO, HUA MIAO, HWA MIAO, FLOWERY MIAO, NORTHEASTERN YUNNAN MIAO) [HMD] 200,000 (1987 et al.). Northwestern Guizhou, northeast and central Yunnan provinces. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong (Miao) varieties Village centered. Dictionary. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian. NT 1917-1936. Bible portions 1907-1938.

HMONG, NORTHERN GUIYANG (NORTHERN GUIYANG MIAO, MIAO) [HUJ] 60,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Suburbs of Guiyang City, Pingba, Zhenning, Kaiyang, Guiding, Qingzhen, and Anshun counties or towns, northern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong varieties. Village centered. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, NORTHERN HUISHUI (NORTHERN HUISHUI MIAO, MIAO) [HMN] 50,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City region, northern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong varieties. Village centered. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, NORTHERN MASHAN (NORTHERN MASHAN MIAO) [HMO] 25,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Southwestern Guizhou, Ziyun, Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties, northern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong Reported to have 13 tones.

HMONG, NORTHERN QIANDONG (NORTHERN QIANDONG MIAO, CHIENTUNG MIAO, EAST GUIZHOU MIAO, HMU, MIAO, BLACK MIAO, HEH MIAO, HEI MIAO, CENTRAL MIAO, NORTHERN EAST-GUIZHOU MIAO) [HEA] 900,000 (1987 Zhang and Cao). Northeast Yunnan and upper Cingshuiho River area of southeast Guizhou (southeast, south, and southwest Guizhou Autonomous areas, Songtao County, Guanling County, Ziyun County). Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong. Not intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Corresponds more or less to Ma's Central Miao and Purnell's Eastern Miao. Hmu was chosen by the government as the standard variety. It is based on Yanghao, but with some similarities to other varieties. Miao is an official nationality in China. It has an official orthography. Dictionary. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian. NT 1934. Bible portions 1928-1937.

HMONG, SOUTHERN GUIYANG (SOUTHERN GUIYANG MIAO, MIAO) [HMY] 20,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Suburbs of Guiyang City, Pingba, Zhenning, Kaiyang, Guiding, Qingzhen, and Anshun counties or towns, southern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong varieties. Village centered. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, SOUTHERN MASHAN (SOUTHERN MASHAN MIAO, MIAO) [HMA] 7,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Southwestern Guizhou, Ziyun, Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties, southern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Reported to have 13 tones. Village centered.

HMONG, SOUTHERN QIANDONG (SOUTHERN QIANDONG MIAO, HMU, MIAO, BLACK MIAO, CENTRAL MIAO, SOUTHERN EAST-GUIZHOU MIAO) [HMS] 300,000 (1987 Zhang and Cao). Qiandongnan Miao Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province, and southward into Guangxi Province. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong. Not intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Corresponds more or less to Ma's Central Miao and Purnell's Eastern Miao. Miao is an official nationality in China. It has an official orthography. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, SOUTHWESTERN GUIYANG (SOUTHWESTERN GUIYANG MIAO, MIAO) [HMG] 50,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Suburbs of Guiyang City, Pingba, Zhenning, Kaiyang, Guiding, Qingzhen, and Anshun counties or towns, southwestern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong varieties. Village centered. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, SOUTHWESTERN HUISHUI (SOUTHWESTERN HUISHUI MIAO, MIAO) [HMH] 40,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Gaopa, Huishui, Guiding, Changshun, Ziyun, and Pingba counties, Guiyang City region, southwestern portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Inherently unintelligible with other Hmong varieties. Village centered. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, Christian.

HMONG, WESTERN MASHAN (WESTERN MASHAN MIAO, MIAO) [HMW] 10,000 (1987 Wurm et al.). Southwestern Guizhou, Ziyun, Changshun, Luodian, Huishui, and Wangmo counties, western portion. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong. Reported to have 13 tones. Village centered.

HMONG, WESTERN XIANGXI (RED MIAO, MEO DO, RED MEO, WESTERN XIANGSI MIAO, GHAO-XONG, HUAYUAN MIAO, HSIANGHSI MIAO, WEST HUNAN MIAO, WESTERN WEST-HUNAN MIAO) [MMR] 700,000 (1987 Zhang and Cao). Western Hunan, Xiangxi Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Songtao County in Guizhou, Xiushan County in Sichuan, and some places in Guangxi. Possibly also in Ha Tuyen Province, northern Viet Nam and in Thailand. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Hmong (Miao). Polytheist, Christian.

HONI (WONI, OUNI, UNI, HO, HAONI) [HOW] 100,000 (1990 J-O Svantesson). Yunnan, near the Hani. May also be in Viet Nam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Hao-Bai. Dialect: BAIHONG. Officially included under the Hani nationality, but it is a distinct language. Baihong may be a separate language. Survey needed.

HU [HUO] 1,000 (1984 J. Svantesson). Southwestern Yunnan Province, Mengla, Jinghong, 5 villages. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic. Counted separately in 1982 census and combined into a group of 'Undetermined Minorities'. Typology: Tonal, affixes. Survey needed.

ILI TURKI (T'URK, TUERKE) [ILI] 120 approximately, or at least 30 households in China (1980 R.F. Hahn). Ili Valley near Kuldja, Xinjiang. Probably some in Kazakhstan. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Reported to be a link between Chagatai and Kypchak (Uzbek dialect). Ethnically and linguistically distinct, discovered in 1956. Their oral history says they came from the Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan/Kyrghyzstan) about 200 years ago. Spoken by older people. Younger people are intermarrying with neighboring groups. They understand Ili Turki but are adopting Kazakh or Uyghur. Typology: SOV; vowel harmony; influenced greatly by Kazakh nd Uyghur; has Arabic, Persian, Chinese and Russian loans. Survey needed.

IU MIEN (YOUMIAN, YIU MIEN, YAO, MIEN, MIAN, MYEN, HIGHLAND YAO, PAN YAO) [IUM] 490,000 speakers in China (1990 J-O Svantesson), out of 2,134,013 in the official nationality (1990 census); 300,000 or fewer in Viet Nam (1995 H. Purnell); 33,997 in Thailand; 60,000 or fewer in Laos (1995 H. Purnell); 2,000 in France; 16,000 to 20,000 in USA (1995 H. Purnell); a small number in Myanmar (1995 H. Purnell); 892,000 in all countries. Dayao Mountains, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong, Yunnan, Hunan, and Guizhou provinces. In Guizhou Province Mien are in Rongjiang, Congjiang, and Libo counties; in Guangdong, in Ruyuan County. Also in Taiwan and Canada. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Differences from other Mienic languages are in the tone system, consonants, vowel quality, vowel length. Ethnic groups: Hua Lan, Hua, Hung, Cao Long, Coc, Khoc, Quan Coc, Quan Trang, Son Trang, Sung, Tien (Tiao Tchaine), Yaya. The Laka, Mun, Bunu languages, plus speakers of other Mienic and Hmongic languages, and ethnic Yao who speak Chinese, are officially included under the Yao nationality in China. Roman orthography was devised in 1983. Spoken and written Chinese are also in use. 'Pingdi Yao' (Piongtuojo, Piongtoajeu) is a variety of Chinese with 1,000,000 speakers, half of whom are members of the Yao nationality, in Hunan-Guangxi border and Guangdong Province. It has 7 tones, and may be closest to Mandarin. Swidden agriculturalists: paddy rice; hunters, lumbermen, weavers, embroiderers. Polytheist, ancestor worship. NT 1975-1991. Bible portions 1932-1968.

JIAMAO (KAMAU, TAI) [JIO] 52,300 (1987 Wurm et al.). Near Wuzhi Mountain in southern Hainan Province, Baoting, Lingshui, and Qiongzhong counties. Daic, Kadai, Li-Laqua. Very different from Hlai dialects in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary. Officially under the Li (Hlai) nationality. Survey needed.

JIARONG, EASTERN (JYARUNG, GYARONG, GYARUNG, RGYARONG, CHIARONG, JARONG) [JIR] (100,000 all Jiarong; 1990 J-O Svantesson). North central Sichuan in Li, Wenchuan, and Xiaojin (Zainiha) counties as well as partsof Ma'erkang (Barkam) and Jinchuan (Quqên) counties. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Gyarung. Under the Tibetan nationality. Eastern and Western Jiarong have 55% lexical similarity, Eastern and Northern 75%. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Jiarong has no written form, but some lamaists use Tibetan script to write it. Typology: SOV, phonologically and lexically similar to Tibetan, grammatically more similar to Pumi and Qiang; complex consonant clusters; limited pitch contrast.

JIARONG, NORTHERN (JYARUNG, GYARONG, GYARUNG, RGYARONG, CHIARONG, JARONG) [JYA] 100,000 in all Jiarong (1990 J-O Svantesson). North central Sichuan around Ribu, Caotang and Mu'erzi in Ma'erkang (Barkam) County. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Gyarung. Dialects: PATI, WASSU, SUOMO. Under the Tibetan nationality. Eastern and Northern Jiarong have 75% lexical similarity, Western and Northern 60%. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Chinese sources do not mention dialects within Northern Jiarong. Typology: SOV, phonologically and lexically similar to Tibetan, grammatically more similar to Pumi and Qiang; complex consonant clusters; limited pitch contrast. Survey needed.

JIARONG, WESTERN (JYARUNG, GYARONG, GYARUNG, RGYARONG, CHIARONG, JARONG) [JIW] (100,000 all Jiarong; 1990 J-O Svantesson). North central Sichuan around Chuosijia in Jinchuan (Quqên) County and Danba (Rongshag) and Daofu (Dawu) counties of the Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Gyarung. Under the Tibetan nationality. Eastern and Western Jiarong have 55% lexical similarity, Western and Northern 60%. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Typology: SOV, phonologically and lexically similar to Tibetan, grammatically more similar to Pumi and Qiang; complex consonant clusters; limited pitch contrast.

JINGPHO (JINGPO, JINGHPAW, SINGPO, CHINGPAW, CHINGP'O, SINGFO, KACHIN, MARIP, DASHANHUA) [CGP] 20,000 speakers (1990 J-O Svantesson) out of an ethnic group of 119,209 in China (1990 census); 625,000 in Myanmar (1993); 7,200 in India (1983); 652,000 in all countries. Western Yunnan, Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yingjiang County (Shidan dialect; Enkun dialect elsewhere in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture). Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Kachinic. Dialects: ENKUN, SHIDAN, HKAKU (HKA-HKU), KAURI (HKAURI, GAURI), DZILI (JILI). 'Kachin' refers to the cultural rather than the linguistic group. Dialects in China are Enkun and Shidan. Dzili may be a separate language. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different than Jingpo. Has a Pinyin alphabet in China. An official nationality in China; includes 70,000 Atsi, and Maru and Lashi officially. Taught at Kunming Institute. The orthography is based on the Enkun dialect. Dictionaries. Typology: SOV; adjectives and numbers follow nouns; singular, dual, and plural pronouns; tense-lax vowel distinction; 4 tones with relatively complex sandhi phenomena. Pastoralists, agriculturalists. Polytheist, some Buddhist, Christian. Bible 1927. NT 1912. Bible portions 1895-1912. Work in progress.

JINUO, BUYUAN [JIY] 1,000 speakers (1994); out of an ethnic group of 18,021 Jinuo (1990 census). South Yunnan, Xishuanbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, 53 kilometers east of Jinghong. Youle Mountains. 40 villages. Over 3,000 square kilometers. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern. An official nationality. The two 'dialects' (Youle and Buyuan) are not inherently intelligible with each other. The government sponsored the development and promotion of a Roman- script orthography in 1983. Some bilingualism in Dai. Typology: SOV; 6 tones; initial consonant clusters (stop or nasal plus /r/; no syllable-final consonants; mostly monosyllabic words. Forests. Agriculturalists: rice; hunter-gatherers traditionally. Worship of Kong Ming (a Chinese hero).

JINUO, YOULE (JINO, YOULE) [JIU] 10,000 speakers (1994); out of an ethnic group of 18,021 Jinuo (1990 census). South Yunnan, Xishuanbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, 53 kilometers east of Jinghong. Youle Mountains. 40 villages. Over 3,000 square kilometers. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern. An official nationality. The two 'dialects' (Youle and Buyuan) are not inherently intelligible with each other. The government sponsored the development and promotion of a Roman- script orthography in 1983. Some bilingualism in Dai. Typology: SOV; 6 tones; initial consonant clusters (stop or nasal plus /r/; no syllable-final consonants; mostly monosyllabic words. Forests. Agriculturalists: rice; hunter-gatherers traditionally. Worship of Kong Ming (a Chinese hero).

JURCHEN (NUZHEN, NUCHEN) [JUC] Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southwest. It was spoken by the Nuzhen people. Related to Manchu. Extinct.

KADO (KADU, KATU, KATO, KUDO, GADO, ASAK, SAK, THET, THAT, MAWTEIK, PUTEIK) [KDV] 100,000 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson); 128,500 in Myanmar (1983). South Yunnan. Also in Laos. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Luish. Dialects: KADU, GANAAN (GANAN), ANDRO, SENGMAI, CHAKPA, PHAYENG. Distinct from Katu, a Mon-Khmer language of Viet Nam and Laos. Ganaan may be a separate language. Bible portions 1939. Survey needed.

KADUO (GAZHUO) [KTP] 4,000 to 6,200 in China (1994); 5,000 in Laos (1981 Wurm and Hattori). South central Yunnan Province, Hexi District of Tonghai County. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Unclassified. No information on intelligibility with other Northern Lolo languages. No significant dialect differences. Members of the Mongolian nationality. Remnants of an outpost dating back to the Yuan Dynasty. Typology: SOV; 8 tones; CV(V); a voiced-voiceless distinction only for fricatives; no tense or nasalized vowels; nouns mostly polysyllabic, other words mostly monosyllabic; many loan words from Chinese. Survey needed.

KALMYK-OIRAT (OIRAT, WEILATE, XINJIANG MONGOLIAN, WESTERN MONGOL) [KGZ] 139,000 Oirat in China (1989 Wurm et al.), including 106,000 Torgut, 33,000 Kok Nur; 174,000 Kalmyk in Russia (1993 UBS); 205,000 Oirat in Mongolia; 518,000 in all countries. Bayan Gool Autonomous Prefecture and Bortala Autonomous Prefecture. Also in Germany, Taiwan, USA. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat. Dialects: JAKHACHIN, BAYIT, MINGAT, OLOT (ÖÖLD, ELYUT, ELEUTH), KHOSHUT (KHOSHUUD). Oirat has official status in Bayan Gool Autonomous Prefecture and Bortala Autonomous Prefecture. It is a literary language in China, written in Oirat script, distinct from that of Inner Mongolia. Since 1982 schooling has been in Chahar Mongolian. Officially under the Mongolian nationality in China. People have high bilingualism in Chahar Mongolian in China. Different from varieties of China Mongolian spoken by other Oirat peoples. Work in progress.

KANG [KYP] 34,065 in China (1993). Southwest Yunnan. Also in Laos. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Officially under the Dai nationality. Related ethnic groups, dialects, or languages in the area: Chang Teo Fah, Kentse, Mengka (Mengkah). Survey needed.

KAZAKH (KAZAK, KAZAX, HAZAKE) [KAZ] 1,111,718 in China (1990 census), including 830,000 in Northeastern Kazakh, 70,000 in Southwestern Kazakh (1982); 6,556,000 in Kazakhstan (1979 census); 100,000 in Mongolia (1991); 3,000 in Iran; 2,000 in Afghanistan; 600 or more in Turkey (1982); 8,000,000 or more in all countries. North Xinjiang (Yili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture), east Xinjiang (Mulei Kazakh Autonomous County and Balikun Kazakh Autonomous County), northwest Gansu (Akesai Kazakh Autonomous County), and northwest Qinghai provinces. Also in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Dialects: NORTHEASTERN KAZAKH, SOUTHWESTERN KAZAKH. An official nationality in China. Had an official Roman alphabet; since 1980 uses a modified Arabic script. Radio broadcasts in Kazakh. Typology: SOV. Pastoralists, some agriculture. Sunni Muslim, some shamanism. NT 1820-1910, out of print. Bible portions 1818-1989. Work in progress.

KEMIEHUA [KFJ] 1,000 (1991). Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified. Typology: SVO; most modifiers follow heads, although adverbial phrases precede heads; simple syllable structure; tonal. Survey needed.

KHAKAS (KHAKHAS, KHAKHASS, ABAKAN TATAR, YENISEI TATAR) [KJH] 10 fluent speakers out of 875 in ethnic group in China (1982 census); 64,800 in Russia (1993 UBS); 64,800 in all countries. Fuyu County, north of Qiqihar, in Heilongjiang Province. Altaic, Turkic, Northern. Dialects: SAGAI, BELTIR, KACHA, KYZYL, SHOR, KAMASSIAN. It was counted as Kirghiz in the 1982 Chinese census. People came from the Altay Mts. in Russia in 1761. Only about 10 very old people speak fluently, others use some words, but mainly Mongolian. The young people are monolingual in Chinese. A literary language in Russia; Cyrillic script is used. Work in progress.

KHAM (KHAMS, KHAMS-YAL, KHAMS BHOTIA, KAM, KHAMBA, KANG) [KHG] 1,487,000 (1994), including 996,000 Eastern, 135,000 Southern, 158,000 Western, 91,000 Northern, 77,000 Jone, 30,000 Hbrugchu. Northeastern Tibet, Changdu (Qamdo) and Naqu (Nagqu) districts; Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western Sichuan; Diqing (Dêqên) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in northwestern Yunnan Province; and Yushu Tibetan Autonmous Prefecture in southwestern Qinghai Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Northern. Dialects: EASTERN KHAMS, SOUTHERN KHAMS, WESTERN KHAMS, NORTHERN KHAMS, HBRUGCHU, JONE. 80% lexical similarity with Dbusgtsang (Central Tibetan). Distinct from Takale, Nisi, Sheshi, Maikoti, and Gamale Kham of Nepal. Included officially under the Tibetan nationality. Dialects may be separate languages; differences are reported to be large. Typology: SOV; 4 tones.

KHMU (KAMMU, KHAMU, KHMU', KHAMUK, KAMHMU, KAMU, KEMU, KHOMU, MOU, LAO TERNG, POUTENG, THENG) [KJG] 1,600 in China (1990); 389,694 in Laos (1985); 15,000 to 40,000 in Thailand; 42,853 in Viet Nam (1989); over 2,000 in USA counting northern Khmu; 500 possibly in France; 500,000 in all countries. Mengla and Jinghong counties of Xishuangbanna Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan. Also in Myanmar. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu'. Khmu was counted separately in the 1982 census and combined into a group of 'Undetermined Minorities'. It may soon be recognized as an official nationality. Those in Mengla have no script, but those in Jinghong use a classical script called 'Duota'. Phsing (Bit) is regarded as Khmu in China, but is in the Palaungic branch (J-O Svantesson 1990). Bible portions 1918. Work in progress.

KHUEN (KWEEN, KHWEEN, KHOUEN) [KHF] 1,000 (1993). Also in Laos and USA (Richmond, California and Seattle, Washington. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu'. Work in progress.

KIM MUN (MUN, KEM MUN, GEM MUN, JIM MUN, JINMEN, KIMMUN, MEN, MAN LANTIEN, LANTEN, LAN TIN, LOWLAND YAO, CHASAN YAO, SHANZI YAO, HAINAN MIAO, MIAO OF HAINAN ISLAND) [MJI] 49,000 in Hainan Province, China (1982); 3,600 in Laos (1995); 200,000 in all countries. Qiongzhong, Qionghai, and Baoting counties of Hainan Province, and neighboring areas of surrounding counties (Jinmen); Guangxi (Xilin, Baise, Napo, Bama), Guizhou, and Yunnan (Malipo, Maguan, Guangnan) Provinces. Also in Laos, Viet Nam. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Officially included under Yao (Mien) nationality in China. The largest Yao group after Iu Mien. Dictionary. Some Buddhist.

KIRGHIZ (KIRGIZ, KARA, KE'ERKEZI) [KDO] 141,549 in China (1990 census), including 50,000 in North Kirghiz, 50,000 in South Kirghiz; 2,448,220 in Kyrghyzstan; 500 in Afghanistan; 1,137 in Turkey, arriving in 1982; 2,631,000 in all countries. (The 1982 Chinese census figure included a few Khakas and Akto Türkmen (Uighur). West and southwest Xinjiang. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Two dialects, divided by Kyzyl Su River. An official nationality in China. A literary language, using a modified Arabic script in China, based on the northern dialect. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists. Sunni Muslim, some shamanist traditions. NT 1991. Bible portions 1982-1987.

KON KEU [ANG] Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic. May be in Myanmar or Laos. Under Blang minority in China. Survey needed.

KOREAN (CHAOXIAN) [KKN] 1,920,597 in China (1990 census); 75,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Inner Mongolia. 46% of Koreans in China live in Hyanbian Korean Autonomous District along Tumen River, Jilin (Kirin). Also North and South Korea, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Japan, USA, Guam, Paraguay. Language Isolate. Considered one of the main official nationalities. Chaoxian is the name used in China. High level of education. Radio broadcasts in Korean. Agriculturalists. Buddhist, Christian. Bible 1911-1993. NT 1887-1983. Bible portions 1882-1961.

KUANHUA [QAK] 1,000 (1991). Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, southwestern Yunnan Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

KYERUNG [KGY] Also in Nepal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Unclassified. Close to Tibetan (Lhasa). Apparently distinct from Jiarong (Gyarung). Survey needed.

LAHU (LOHEI, LAHUNA, LAKU, KAIXIEN, NAMEN, MUSSUH, MUHSO, MUSSO, MUSSAR, MOSO) [LAH] 411,476 in China (1990 census), including 240,000 Na, probably including Kutsung and Laopang; 125,000 in Myanmar (1993); 2,000 to 2,500 in Laos (1973 Matisoff); 28,000 in Thailand (1993); 580,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Lancang Lahu Autonomous County, Gengma, and Menglian counties, southwestern Yunnan. Also in Viet Nam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Lahu. Dialects: NA (BLACK LAHU, MUSSER DAM, NORTHERN LAHU, LOHEIRN), NYI (RED LAHU, SOUTHERN LAHU, MUSSEH DAENG, LUHISHI, LUHUSHI), SHEHLEH. Black Lahu and Lahu Shi (Yellow Lahu, Kutsung) have difficult intelligibility. (See separate entry for Lahu Shi.) Mossu is in Laos. Lahu has a Pinyin alphabet in China. Taught at Kunming Institute. An official nationality in China. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Subtropical forest. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: rice, maize; some hunters. Some Christian. Bible 1989. NT 1932-1962. Bible portions 1924-1962.

LAHU SHI (LAHU XI, KUTSUNG, KUCONG, KUI, SHI, YELLOW LAHU, KWI) [KDS] 5,000 in China (1984); 9,500 in Myanmar (1983); a few in Thailand; 600 in Visalia, California, USA (1991 J. Matisoff); 14,500 in all countries. Southern Yunnan. Possibly also in Laos. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Lahu. Difficult intelligibility with Black Lahu. A distinct language from Nyi (Red Lahu). Typology: SOV. Work in progress.

LAHULI, TINAN (LAHULI, BHOTIA OF LAHUL, LAHAULI, LAHOULI, RANGLOI, GONDLA) [LBF] 450 to 1,600 in China (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 24,534 in India (1994); 25,000 in all countries. Western Tibet border and Kashmir, India. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Himalayish, Kanauri. Different from Bunan and Lahuli of Chamba in India. It is probably officially included under Tibetan in China. Bible portions 1908-1915. Survey needed.

LAKA (LAKKJA, LAKJA, TAI LAKA, LAKIA, LAKKIA, LAJIA, CHASHAN YAO, TEA MOUNTAIN YAO) [LBC] 8,500 speakers (1990 J-O Svantesson) to 9,000 (1990 A. Diller ANU). Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County of eastern Guangxi Autonomous Region for the Zhuang people. Daic, Kam-Sui. Officially and ethnically Yao (Mien), but the language is Daic (J. O. Svantesson). Phonetically similar to Mien, word order to Bunu. Tentatively classified as Kam-Sui; may be Kadai. Not intelligible with Hmong or Bunu. 45% lexical similarity with Dong, 44% with Northern Zhuang, 24% with Buyang, 23% with Lati and Laqua, 22% with Gelo. Different from Lashi, which is also called Chashan(hua). 'Lajia' is the same name used for the Yayao variety of the Siyi dialect of Cantonese spoken in Heshan County, Guangdong. Typology: SVO; modifiers follow heads; consonant clusters and palatalized and labialized onsets; voiced and voiceless nasal onsets; long-short vowel distinction; 6 basic tone categories in unchecked syllables and 2 in checked with further split in checked syllables according to vowel length. Bible portions 1912-1936.

LAQUA (PUBIAO, PUPEO, PU PÉO, KA BIAO, KA BAO, KA BEO, KABEO) [LAQ] 307 in China, or 58 households (1990 Zhang Junru); 382 in Viet Nam (1994); 689 in all countries. Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Malipo County, Tiechang, Matong, Punong, Pucha, and Pufeng towns. Daic, Kadai, Li-Laqua. Generally everyone can also speak Southwestern Mandarin. Those at Pialong can speak Southern Zhuang. Those near Matong can speak Hmong. Over 70% of the younger generation do not speak Pubiao (Laqua). Pubiao at all locations can communicate among each other without difficulty. Ka Biao is their name for themselves. Classified officially under the Yi nationality. 38% lexical similarity with Gelo, 33% with Lati, 38% with Buyang, 30% with Northern Zhuang, 29% with Dong, 23% with Laka, 26% with Hlai, 10% with Hmong, 7% with Mien.

LASHI (LASI, LEQI, LETSI, LECHI, LASHI-MARU, LACHIKWAW, CHASHANHUA, AC'YE) [LSI] (55,500 in Myanmar; 1983). Luxi, Longchuan, Yingjiang, and Ruili counties, Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, western Yunnan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Burmish, Northern. Officially included under Jingpo in China. Typology: SOV; 4 tones; final nasals and stops; vowel length and tense-lax distinction.

LATI (LAJI, LIPULIO, AKHU, P'U LA, PULA, TAI LATI, LACHI, FULA, FOULA) [LBT] 1,153 speakers out of 1,634 in China in 306 households (1990 Liang Min), including 193 Bag Lachi in 37 households, 852 Han Lachi in 179 households, 157 Red Lachi in 27 households, 432 Flowery Lachi in 72 households; 7,863 in Viet Nam in 1,450 households (1990 Liang Min); 9,016 in all countries. Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture, southern Maguan County, several villages: Bag Lachi in Nanlao Township, Han Lachi in Renhe and Jiahanqing townships, Red Lachi in Xiaobazi Township, and Flowery Lachi in Jinchang. Daic, Kadai, Lati-Kelao. Dialects: LIPUTE (BAG LACHI), LIPUTCIO (HAN LACHI), LIPUKE (RED LACHI), LIPULIONGTCO (FLOWERY LACHI), LIPUTIÕ (BLACK LACHI), LIPUPI (LONG-HAIRED LACHI). Related to Gelo. Officially in the Yi nationality. The first five dialects listed are in China, the others in Viet Nam. Long-Haired Lachi of Viet Nam (4,806 speakers) has 80% lexical similarity with Flowery Lachi of China; White Lachi of Viet Nam (1,602) has 30% to 40% similarity with the others, and should be considered a separate language. Those who do not speak Lati speak Chinese. The Flowery Lachi also speak Chinese, most can speak Southern Zhuang, and some can speak Miao and Dai. They speak Lati at home. Mixed families speak Chinese. Many younger than 20 cannot speak Lati. 36% lexical similarity with Gelo, 33% with Laqua, 34% with Buyang, 28% with Northern Zhuang, 22% with Dong, 23% with Laka, 25% with Hlai, 7% with Hmong, 4% with Mien.

LAWA, WESTERN (WA, WA PROPER, LAVA, LUWA, LUA, L'WA, LAVUA, LAVÜA, MOUNTAIN LAWA) [LCP] 75,000 in China; 30,000 belong to the Blang nationality, 45,000 to the Va nationality (1990 J-O Svantesson); 7,000 in Thailand (1987 D. Schlatter); 82,000 in all countries. Southwest Yunnan Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Lawa. Unintelligible with Eastern Lawa in Thailand. Some dialects are unintelligible to each other's speakers. Related to Wa and Parauk in Myanmar and China. Traditional religion, Buddhist. NT 1972. Bible portions 1961-1967.

LHOBA, BOGA'ER (LUOBA, LHO-PA, BOGA'ER, BENGNI-BOGA'ER, BOKAR) [LHO] 3,000 (1994). Lhunze and Mainling counties in southeast Tibet, south of the Yaluzangjiang River in the Luoyu area. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. Luoba is an official nationality. A different language from Yidu Lhoba. Different from Lopa in Nepal. Not a written language TG SOV; particles indicate grammatical relations; long-short vowel distinction; no contrastive tone; most words polysyllabic; loans mainly from Tibetan. Agriculturalists, hunters. Lamaism.

LHOBA, YIDU (LUOBA, LHO-PA, YIDU, IDU) [LON] 7,000 in China (1994); 200,000 in India (1990 J-O Svantesson); 207,000 in all countries. There may be 200,000 Luoba in China. Lhunze and Mainling counties in southeast Tibet, in the Danba River valley and adjoining mountain slopes, near the Bhutan border. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Mirish. An official nationality. A different language from Boga'er Lhoba. Different from Lopa in Nepal. Not a written language. Related to Adi. Mountain valley, mountain slope. Agriculturalists, hunters. Lamaism.

LHOMI (LHOKET, SHING SAAPA) [LHM] 1,000 in Tibet; 4,000 in Nepal; 1,000 in India (1985); 6,000 in all countries. Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Central. Dialect may be different from Nepal. Probably officially included under Tibetan in China. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Traditional religion, lamaist. Bible portions 1976.

LINGAO (VO LIMKOU, LIMKOW, LINKOW, ONGBE, ONG-BE, BÊ) [ONB] 520,000 (1982 census) in the ethnic group, including 350,000 Lincheng, 170,000 Qiongshan; the number of speakers is unclear (1990 A. Diller). North central coast of Hainan, entire Lingao county, parts of Danxian, Chengmai, and Qiongshan counties, and suburbs of Haikou city. Daic, Kadai, Unclassified. Dialects: LINCHENG (LINGAO PROPER-DENGMAI), QIONGSHAN. Most think of themselves as Han (Chinese) nationality. Urban members are bilingual in Hainan dialect of Min Nan Chinese. Classified as in Tai or Kadai family. Grammar. Dictionary. Typology: SVO; linguistically similar to Zhuang and Dai. Lincheng reorted to have 7 tone categories, Qiongshan 13. Loans from Cantonese and Hainan variety of Min Nan Chinese. Survey needed.

LIPO (EASTERN LISU, TAKU LISU, HE LISU, BLACK LISU, TAKU) [TKL] 60,068 (1993). Around Taku, east Yunnan, highland areas. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Lisu. Not intelligible with Lisu. Use a different script. NT 1951. Bible portions 1912-1936. Work in progress.

LISU (LISSU, LISAW, LI-SHAW, LI-HSAW, LU-TZU, LESUO, LI, LISHU, LISO, LEISU, LESHUOOPA, LOISU, SOUTHERN LISU, YAO YEN, YAW-YEN, YAW YIN, YEH-JEN, CHUNG, CHELI, CHEDI, LIP'A, LUSU, KHAE) [LIS] 515,000 in China (1990); 126,000 in Myanmar (1987); 16,000 in Thailand (1983); 657,000 in all countries. West Yunnan, upper reaches of the Salween and Mekong Rivers, and Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Lisu. Dialects: HUA LISU (FLOWERY LISU), PAI LISU (WHITE LISU), LU SHI LISU. Dialect differences are not great. An official nationality in China. The official orthography is with Roman script. There are 2 older alphabetic orthographies and 1 indigenous script. Taught at Kunming Institute. Typology: 4 tones. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry. Polytheist, Christian. Bible 1968-1986. NT 1938-1978. Bible portions 1921-1950.

(TAI LU, LUE, LY, LU, DAI LE, XISHUANGBANNA DAI, SIPSONGPANNA DAI, PAI-I, PAI'I', SHUI-PAI-I) [KHB] 250,000 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson) to possibly 770,000 or 75% of the Dai (1990 A. Diller); 200,000 in Myanmar (1981); 78,000 in Thailand (1993); 20,000 in Laos (1993); 3,000 in Viet Nam (1959); 551,000 to 1,070,000 in all countries. South Yunnan, Jinghong (Chiang Hung, Chien Rung), Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, west of the Lixianjiang (Black) River. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Mu'ang Yong and dialects in the Lanna area may converge phonologically with Lanna (Diller 1990). Officially included under Dai nationality in China. Old Lü script is used. An official nationality in Viet Nam. Distinct from Tai Nüa, having their own script and traditions. Dictionary. Typology: SVO; modifiers follow heads. Traditional religion, Buddhist. NT 1933, out of print. Bible portions 1921-1932. Work in progress.

MAK (MO, MOHUA, MO-HUA, CHING, MOJIAHUA, MOCHIAHUA) [MKG] 10,000 or more (1982 census). Yangfeng, Fangcun, Jialiang, and Di'e villages in northwestern Libo County in Guizhou Province, and some in neighboring Dushan County, Guizhou. Daic, Kam-Sui. Dialects: MAK, CHI, CHING (CHAM), HWA, LYO. Officially included under the Bouyei nationality. Close to Sui. Dialect differences are minor. People speak local Chinese or Bouyei as second language. Similar to Ai-Cham. Survey needed.

MAN MET (MANMIT, MANMI) [MML] 900 (1984 J. Svantesson). Southwestern Yunnan Province, 5 communities in Xishuangbanna near the Hu. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic. Counted separately in 1982 census and combined into a group of 'Undetermined Minorities'. Reported to be similar to Hu. Typology: Tonal; affixes. Mountain slope. Survey needed.

MANCHU (MAN) [MJF] 70 to 1,000 speakers (1990); 9,821,180 in ethnic group (1990 census). Heilongjiang, a few Manchu-speaking villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties. The ethnic group is in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces. There may also be members of the ethnic group in North Korea and Siberia. Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southwest. An official nationality. Only those over 70 are reported to speak Manchu (1986), the remainder of the ethnic group speaks Mandarin. Written Manchu was once in use (old Manchu script), but now written Chinese is in common use. Dictionary. Agriculturalists. Chinese traditional religion, shamanism, Buddhism. NT 1835. Bible portions 1822.

MANG (MANG U, XAMANG, CHAMAN, MANBU, BA'E) [MGA] 500 in China; 2,200 in Viet Nam (1989); 5 in Thailand; 2,700 in all countries. Yunnan, Jinping County, Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang. Counted separately in 1982 census and combined into a group of 'Undetermined Minorities'. Dai, Hani, and Kutsung call them 'Chaman', 'Manbu', 'Ba'e'. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Thick forests. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: maize, rice; hunters.

MAONAN (AI NAN) [MMD] 37,000 speakers out of an ethnic group of 71,968 (1990 census). Xianan area of Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County in north central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. A few in nearly Hechi, Yishan, Nandan, and Du'an counties. Daic, Kam-Sui. An official nationality. Chinese script used. Spoken Chinese and Zhuang and written Chinese in use. Close to Sui. Classified as Kam-Sui or Kadai. Typology: SVO; numbers and adjectives follow nouns; reduplication; glottalized pre-nasalized, palatalized and labialized onsets; nasal and stop finals; 6 tone categories in unchecked syllables, 2 in checked (split into 4 according to vowel length); many Chinese loans. Agriculturalists. Daoist, Christian.

MARU (MATU, MALU, LAWNG, LAUNGWAW, LAUNGAW, LANGSU, LANG'E, MULU, DISO, ZI) [MHX] (98,700 in Myanmar). Western Yunnan, Luxi, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Ruili, and Lianghe counties of the Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Burmish, Northern. Officially included under Jingpo in China. Different from the Matu variety of Khumi Chin. Typology: SOV; 3 tones; tense-lax vowel distinction; loans from Jingpo, Dai Burmese, and Chinese. Bible portions 1940. Work in progress.

MOINBA (MENBA, CUONA MENBA, MOMPA, MONPA, MOMBA, MONBA, MENPA, MEMBA) [MOB] 30,000 speakers in China (1990 J-O Svantesson), although the 1990 census gives only 7,475 in the official nationality; 43,649 in India (1994 IMA); 73,650 in all countries. To the east of Bhutan, partly in southeastern Tibet, mainly on the Yarlung-Zanbo River, Medog, Nyinchi, Cona counties. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Eastern Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern, Unclassified. Dialects: NORTHERN MOINBA, SOUTHERN MOINBA. An official nationality. Tsangla (7,000) is also officially included in the Menba nationality. There are more speakers of the Southern variety. The 2 'dialects' are probably separate languages; intelligibility is low or difficult. May be related to Limbu of Nepal and India. Written Tibetan is used. Typology: 2 tones (Northern), 4 tones (Southern). Agriculturalists: rice, maize, bananas, peppers, leeks, ginger, millet; cattle. Altitude: 6,500 meters. Lamaist Buddhism.

MONGOLIAN, PERIPHERAL (MONGOL, MONGGOL, MENGGU, SOUTHERN-EASTERN MONGOLIAN, INNER MONGOLIAN) [MVF] 2,713,000 (1982 census); 4,806,849 including Buriat and Tuvin (1990 census). 299,000 Chakhar; 317,000 Bairin; 1,347,000 Khorchin; 593,000 Kharachin; 123,000 Ordos; 34,000 Ejine (1982 census). Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper. Dialects: CHAHAR (CHAHA'ER, CHAKHAR, QAHAR), ORDOS (E'ERDUOSITE, TUMUT (TUMET), SHILINGOL (UJUMCHIN), ULANCHAB (URAT, MINGAN), JO-UDA (BAIRIN, BALIN, NAIMAN, KESHIKTEN), JOSTU (KE'ERQIN, KHARCHIN, KHARACHIN, KHARCHIN-TUMUT, EASTERN TUMUT), JIRIM (KALAQIN, KHORCHIN, JALAIT, GORLOS), EJINE. One of the five main official nationalities. They use the standard Inner Mongolian script. Radio broadcasts are in Mongolian. The government includes Buriat, Tuvin, Oirat, and other varieties under the Mongolian official nationality. In Xinjiang, the Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the 'Four tribes of Oirat'. Largely intelligible with Halh standard dialect of Mongolia, but there are phonological and important loan differences. Written Chinese is in use. Language of wider communication. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Buddhist, Lamaist, shamanism. NT 1952. Bible portions 1995. Work in progress.

MULAM (MULAO, MOLAO, MULOU, MULIAO, MULAO MIAO, ABO, AYO) [MLM] 159,328 (1990 census). Luocheng Mulam Autonomous County (90% in Dongmen and Siba communes), and adjacent counties in north central Guizhou Province; also in Majiang and Kaili City in Guizhou Province. Daic, Kam-Sui. An official nationality. Most Mulam people use Mulam extensively. They live close to the Han, Zhuang, Dong, Hmong, and Mien, and many use Chinese or Northern Zhuang as second language. Many Han Chinese and Zhuang are bilingual in Mulao. Written Chinese in common use. Close to Kam. 65% lexical similarity with Dong (probably Southern Dong); 53% with Zhuang (probably Northern Zhuang). The people call themselves 'Mulam'. Some around Luocheng call themselves 'Kyam'. Typology: SVO; reduplication; aspirated, palatalized, labialized, voiceless nasal, lateral onsets; nasal and stop finals; 6 tone categories in unchecked syllables, 2 in checked (split into 4 according to vowel length; many Chinese loans. Agriculturalists. Some Buddhist.

MUYA (MIYAO) [MVM] 15,000 (1995). West central Sichuan (Kangbo and Juilong (Gyaisi) in the Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Simian County in the Ya'an District. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. May be Qiang. 'Muyak' may be an alternate name. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. Typology: SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; compounding; affixation; reduplication; consonant cluster onsets; tense-lax vowel distinction; nasalized vowels; 4 tones. Survey needed.

NAMUYI (NAMUZI) [NMY] 5,000 (1982). Mianning, Muli, Xichang, and Yanyuan counties of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefectue, and Jiulong (Gyaisi) County in the Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of southwestern Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Yi. Some believe it to be Qiang. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. They call themselves 'Namuzi'. Typology: SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; compounding; affixation; consonant cluster onsets but no consonantal codas; tense-lax vowel distinction; nasalized and retroflexed vowels; 4 tones. Survey needed.

NANAI (GOLDI, GOLD, SUSHEN, JUCHEN) [GLD] 40 elderly speakers out of 4,245 in the ethnic group in China (1990 census); 6,600 speakers out of 12,000 in Russia (1993 UBS); 6,640 in all countries. Sanjiang plain in the northeasteastern corner of Heilongjiang Province, near where the Heilong, Songhua, and Wusuli rivers merge, with most in Tongjiang county, Bacha and Jiejinkou villages and in Sipai village in Raohe County. Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Dialects: HEZHEN (HEZHE, HECHE), QILENG. Younger generation in China speaks Chinese. An official nationality in China. Has literary status in Russia. Written Chinese in common use. Formerly called 'Sushen'. 'Hezhen' is the name used in China, but it may refer to Udihe. Agriculturalists, fishermen, hunters. Shamanism. Bible portions 1884. Work in progress.

NAXI (NAHSI, NASI, NAKHI, LOMI, "MOSO", "MOSSO", "MO-SU") [NBF] 278,009 (1990 census) including 225,000 in Yunnan, 20,000 in Sichuan. Most (200,000) in Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County, northwestern Yunnan. Some scattered through Weixi, Zhongdian, Ninglang, Deqing, Yongsheng, Heqing, Jianchuan, and Lanping counties. Some in Yanyuan, Yanbian, and Muli counties of Sichuan Province. A few in Mangkang county, southeastern Tibet. Possibly also in Myanmar. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Unclassified. Dialects: LICHIANG, LAPAO, LUTIEN. The western dialect is reported to be fairly uniform, and is considered to be the standard (from Dayan in Lijiang County). Eastern has some internal differences, and intelligibility may be low within it. A Roman alphabet was developed in the 1950's and revised in 1984. An 'ideogaphic' writing system called 'Dongba' is not practical for everyday use, but is a system of prompt-illustrations for reciting classic texts. Two syllabary scripts called 'Geba' and 'Malimasa' are also used in Weixi county. Dictionary. Written Chinese in common use. People resent the older term "Moso". One of the official nationalities in China. The 8,000 or so 'Eastern' Naxi in the Lugu Lake area are matriarchal. Most Naxi are patriarchal. Typology: SOV; no checked syllables; 4 tones. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry. Lamaist Buddhist, Daoist, Christian. Bible portions 1932.

NUSU [NUF] 9,000 speakers (1994), including 2,000 in Northern Nusu, 3,000 in Southern Nusu, and 4,000 in Central Nusu. Bijiang County in Nujiang Prefecture of northwestern Yunnan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Unclassified. Dialects: NORTHERN NUSU, SOUTHERN NUSU, CENTRAL NUSU. A separate language officially under the Nu nationality with Ayi, Zauzou (1,500), and 5,500 speakers of Drung. Some bilingualism with Lisu. Typology: SOV; grammatical relations indicated mainly by word order and particles; 4 tones with relatively complex sandhi; loans from Lisu, Chinese, and a few from Burmese. Survey needed.

OROQEN (OROCHON, ORONCHON, OLUNCHUN, ELUNCHUN, ULUNCHUN) [ORH] 2,240 speakers (1982) out of 6,965 in official nationality (1990 census). Huma, Aihui, Sunko districts, Great Xingan Ridge, Heilongjiang Province. Possibly eastern Siberia. Altaic, Tungus, Northern, Evenki. Maintain native language and customs. An official nationality. Not a written language. Dense mountain forests. Hunters, lumbermen, agriculturalists. Shamanism, ancestor worship.

PALAUNG, PALE (DI-ANG, NGWE PALAUNG, SILVER PALAUNG, PALE, PALAY, BULAI, PULEI, SOUTHERN TA'ANG) [PCE] 5,000 in China (1995); 5,000 in Thailand (1989); 200,000 to 300,000 in all countries. Western Yunnan, Luxi County, just east of Rumai. Mainly in Myanmar. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung. Dialects: BULEI, RAOJIN. Officially under De'ang in China. 50% of the De'ang speak Pale. Some intelligibility with Riang, and close to Shwe. Not intelligible with Rumai. Work in progress.

PALAUNG, RUMAI (RUMAI, HUMAI, RUOMAI) [RBB] 2,000 in China (1995); 139,000 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Far western Yunnan, Longchuan and Ruili counties. Mainly in Myanmar. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung. Officially under De'ang in China; 20% of the De'ang speak Rumai. Not intelligible with Pale.

PALAUNG, SHWE (TA-ANG PALAUNG, GOLDEN PALAUNG, SHWE) [SWE] (6,000 in China together with Pale Palaung, 1990; 150,000 in Myanmar, 1982). Yunnan. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung. Officially included under De'ang in China.

PALYU (PALJU, BOLYU, LAI) [PLY] 10,000 (1993). Other reports say 150 (1995), and 800 (1996). Far western Guangxi on the Guizhou border, Xilin and Longlin counties, in 2 groups. There may be some in Yunnan. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Palyu. Recently discovered. Called 'Lai' in Chinese. Typology: SVO; modifiers follow heads; grammatical relations marked mainly by word order and particles; reported to have long and half long versus short vowel distinction; uvular stops; 6 tone categories in unchecked syllables plus 5 in checked syllables. Shows similarities to Kadai languages. Survey needed.

PANANG (PANAGS, PANAKHA, PANANAG, BANAG, BANANG, SBANAG, SBRANAG) [PCR] Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Central. Probably included officially under Tibetan. May not be a separate language. Survey needed.

PARAUK (WA, PRAOK, BARAOG, BARAOKE) [PRK] 180,000 speakers (1990) out of 351,974 in the official Wa nationality in China (1990 census); 348,400 in Myanmar (1983 estimate); 528,400 in all countries. Awa Mountains, southwest Yunnan as far east as the Lancang (Mekong) River. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Wa. A large and powerful group. Traditional culture. Taught at Kunming Institute. Part of the Wa official nationality, which includes 3 languages: Parauk, Vo, and Western Lawa. Parauk is the largest and the standard. It has an orthography. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: potatoes, cotton, hemp, tobacco, sugarcane, tea, rice, beans, buckwheat, maize; some hunters. Hinayana Buddhist, some Christian. NT 1938. Bible portions 1934-1935.

PUMI, NORTHERN (P'UMI, PIMI, PRIMMI, PRUUMI, P'ÖMI, P'ROME, CH'RAME) [PMI] 54,000 speakers together with Southern Pumi: 24,000 in the Pumi nationality, 30,000 in the Tibetan nationality (1994). Southwestern Sichuan, Muli, Yanyuan, and Kiulong counties; and northwestern Yunnan, Yongning District of Ninglang County. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Pumi is an official nationality. May be the same as Muli of Myanmar. Northern Pumi has 5 subdialects. Lexical similarity between Northern and Southern is 60%, grammatical differences minor, intelligibility difficult. May be in the Qiang branch. No written form. Typology: SOV; adjectives and numbers follow noun heads; 3 tones; no uvular obstruents; no initial /s/ or consonant clusters; different vowels from S. Pumi; loans mainly from Tibetan (10% of the vocabulary). Agriculturalists. Lamaist.

PUMI, SOUTHERN (P'UMI, PIMI, PRIMMI, PRUUMI, P'ÖMI, P'ROME, CH'RAME) [PUS] (54,000 speakers together with Northern Pumi): 24,000 in the Pumi nationality, 30,000 in the Tibetan nationality (1994). Northwestern Yunnan Province, Lanping, Weixi, Yongsheng and Lijiang counties, and Xinyingpan District of Ninglang County. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Pumi is an official nationality. May be the same as Muli of Myanmar. Southern Pumi has 5 subdialects. Lexical similarity between Northern and Southern is 60%, grammatical differences minor, intelligibility difficult. May be in the Qiang branch. No written form. Typology: SOV; adjectives and numbers follow noun heads; 2 tones; uvular obstruents; initial /s/ + consonant clusters; different vowels from N. Pumi; loans mainly from Chinese (making up 15% of the vocabulary). Agriculturalists. Lamaist.

QIANG, DZORGAI (CH'IANG, CHIANG, JIANG, DZORGAI) [DZI] (130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages; 1990 J-O Svantesson). 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). Western Sichuan Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist. Survey needed.

QIANG, KORTSE (CH'IANG, KORTSE) [KBG] (130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages; 1990 J-O Svantesson). 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). Western Sichuan Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist. Survey needed.

QIANG, LOFUCHAI (CH'IANG, LOFUCHAI) [LFU] (130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages; 1990 J-O Svantesson). 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). Western Sichuan Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist. Survey needed.

QIANG, NORTHERN (CH'IANG) [CNG] 130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages, including 80,000 in the Qiang nationality and 50,000 in the Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O Svantesson.) 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). North central Sichuan Province, Heishuihe River basin nortard through most of Heishui County. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. Typology: No tones; more consonants than Southern Qiang. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist.

QIANG, PINGFANG (CH'IANG, PINGFANG) [PFG] (130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages; 1990 J-O Svantesson). 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). Western Sichuan Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist. Survey needed.

QIANG, SOUTHERN (CH'IANG) [QMR] (130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages, including 80,000 in the Qiang nationality and 50,000 in the Tibetan nationality; 1990 J-O Svantesson.) 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). North central Sichuan Province, along the Minjiang River basin between Zhenjiangguan in Songpan County to the north and Wenchuan and Li counties to the south, as far east as Beichuan County. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. Typology: 2 to 6 tones, depending on location. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist.

QIANG, THOCHU (CH'IANG, THOCHU) [TCJ] (130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages; 1990 J-O Svantesson). 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). Western Sichuan Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. 'Thouju' might be an alternate name. May be the same as Ersu. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist. Survey needed.

QIANG, WAGSOD (CH'IANG, WAGSOD) [WGS] (130,000 speakers in all Qiang languages; 1990 J-O Svantesson.) 198,252 people in the Qiang nationality (1990 census). Western Sichuan Province. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Qiang is an official nationality. J. Matisoff (1991) says there are 9 or 10 Qiangic languages. Written Chinese is in use. Agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Lamaist, polytheist. Survey needed.

QUEYU (ZHABA) [QEY] 7,000 (1995). Xinlong (Nyagrong), Yajiang (Nyagquka)) and Litang counties in the Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. The term 'Zhaba' is used in Tuanjie township of Yajiang county. Information about inherent intelligibility among dialects is unavailable. Different from the Zhaba language in Zhamai District. Typology: SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; consonant cluster initials; 4 tones. Survey needed.

RIANG (RIANG-LANG, LIANG, YANG SEK, YANG WAN KUN, YIN, YANGLAM) [RIL] 3,000 in China (1995); 20,000 or more in Myanmar (1955); 23,000 in both countries or more. Western Yunnan, vicinities of Zhenkang and Baoshan. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Riang. Officially under De'ang in China. Close to Pale Palaung. May be the same as Shwe Palaung. Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1950.

RUSSIAN (OLOSSU, ELUOSI, RUSS, RUSSKI) [RUS] 13,504 in China (1990 census); 160,000,000 in all countries. North Xinjiang, including Urumqi, and Heilongjiang. Also in Russia and other republics of the former USSR Mongolia, Israel, USA, Canada, eastern Europe. Indo-European, Slavic, East. An official nationality in China. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry. Christian. Bible 1680-1993. NT 1821-1946. Bible portions 1815-1993.

SALAR (SALA) [SLR] 55,000 speakers (1982) out of 87,697 in the official nationality (1990 census). Xunhua Salar Autonomous County and Hualong Hui Autonomous County in Qinghai Province, Jishishan Autonomous County in Gansu Province. Also Yining in Xinjiang. Altaic, Turkic, Southern. Dialects: JIEZI, MENGDA. The people use Chinese as literary language. Bilingualism is reported high in Chinese, Uyghur, and Tibetan. Reinhard F. Hahn says Salar is spoken by descendants of an Oghuz-Turkic-speaking sub-tribe that, in the 15th century area of Samarkand, split off a main tribe and 'returned eastward,' eventually settling in Western China. Their language has an Oghuz Turkic base, has taken on a medieval Chaghatay Turkic stratum through Central Asian contacts and finally acquired a stratum of features from local languages. An official nationality. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry, commerce. Sunni Muslim.

SAMEI [SMH] Small. Yunnan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Unclassified. Children do not speak Mandarin. May be officially under Yi. Survey needed.

SAMTAO (SAMTAU, SAMTUAN) [STU] 100 in China (1993). Also in Myanmar. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic. Different from Blang. Probably Angkuic. Survey needed.

SARIKOLI (SARYKOLY, TAJIK, TADZIK, TAJIKI) [SRH] 20,500 (1982 estimate), out of 33,538 'Tajik' (1990 census). Southwest Xinjiang, in and around Taxkorgan (Tashkurghan), Sarikol Valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami. An official nationality, called 'Tajik' in China. The majority of Tajiks speak Sarikoli, the remainder speak Wakhi. Written Uyghur is used. They use Uyghur or Chinese as second languages. Not intelligible with Shughni of Russia and Afghanistan. Distinct from Tajiki of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Iran; the label 'Tajik' is used in differing ways in different countries. 15% to 51% literate. Typology: SOV. Mountain slope, plateau. Pastoralists; agriculturalists: wheat, barley, peas. Ismaili Muslim.

SHE (HUO NTE, HO NTE) [SHX] 1,000 speakers or fewer (1987 Wurm et al.) out of ethnic group of 630,378 (1990 census), including 270,000 in Fujian and a smaller group in Guangdong. Southeastern Guangdong, 4 counties. Luofu in Haifeng and Huidong counties; Lianhua in Boluo and Zengcheng counties. Hmong-Mien, Ho Nte. Dialects: LUOFU, LIANHUA. Most She people speak Hakka or Min Chinese. 'Shehua' refers to the variety of Hakka spoken by the She. An official nationality. Written Chinese is in common use. Major linguistic differences with Mien. Closest to Jiongnai Bunu. Dialects are inherently intelligible. Typology: SVO; 8 tones; modifiers precede heads; mainly monosyllabic roots, but mainly compound words; loans from Hakka and Cantonese Chinese. Mountains. Agriculturalists. Daoist.

SHERPA (SHARPA, SHARPA BHOTIA, XIAERBA, SERWA) [SCR] 800 speakers in China (1994); 14,126 in Nepal (1972); 19,000 in India (1994); 34,000 or more in all countries. Tibet. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Southern. Officially under the Tibetan nationality in China. Lamaist. Bible portions 1977.

SHIXING [SXG] Muli Tibetan Autonomous County in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of southwestern Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. It may be Qiang. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. Typology: SOV; adjectives and number-classifier constructions follow noun heads; consonant cluster initials; 4 tones. Survey needed.

SUI (SHUI, AI SUI, SUI LI, SUIPO) [SWI] 345,993 in China (1990 census); 55 in Viet Nam (1979 J. Edmondson 1996). Districts of Sandu and Libo in Guizhou and District of Nandan in Guangxi, dispersed in Guangxi and northeastern Yunnan. Daic, Kam-Sui. Dialects: SANDONG (SAN TUNG), YANG'AN, PANDONG. An official nationality. Written Chinese is in use. Dialect differences are minor. That spoken in Yunnan is reported to be more different. Bilingualism is low in the main areas. Agriculturalists. Polytheist.

TAI HONGJIN [TIZ] 150,000 (1995 Luo Meizhen). Scattered communities in Honghe, Jinshajiang, Yuanyang, Yuanjiang, Xinping, Maguan, Wuting, and Sichuan north of the Yangtze at Huili and Takou. Daic, Tai, Southwestern. Only recently known and described. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

TAI NÜA (DAI NUEA, TAI NEUA, TAI NUE, TAI NÜ, DAI NA, DEHONG DAI, DEHONG, TAI DEHONG, TAI LE, TAI-LE, TAI-LOE, DAI KONG, TAI-KONG, KONG, TAI MAO, CHINESE SHAN, CHINESE TAI, YUNANNESE SHAN, YUNNAN SHANT'OU) [TDD] 250,000 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson) out of 1,025,128 in the official nationality (1990 census); 72,400 in Myanmar (1983); 120,000 in Laos (1990 A. Diller); 442,400 in all countries. Dehong Prefecture, southwest of Dali near the Lancang (Mekong) River in south central Yunnan. Also possibly in northern Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. Dialects: DEHONG, TAI PONG (LA, YOU, YA, KA, TAI KA, SAI), YONGREN. Northern Shan-like varieties referred to collectively as 'Tai Nüa'. Officially included under Dai in China; called 'Dehong Dai'. The Laos dialect is different. Language taught at Kunming Institute. 65% lexical similarity with Northern Zhuang, 29% with Laqua, 27% with Buyang and Lati, 22% with Gelo. They have their own script and traditions. Typology: SVO; modifiers follow heads. Agriculturalists: paddy rice, sugar, Pu'er tea, bananas, coconuts, papayas, rubber. Hinayana Buddhist, polytheist. Bible portions 1931-1948. Survey needed.

TAI YA (TAI-CUNG, TAI-CHUNG, TAI CUNG, CUNG, DAIYA, YA) [CUU] 34,000 or more (1982). Central Yunnan Province, Xinping Yi-Dai Autonomous County, Mosha District. Daic, Tai, Southwestern. Probably not intelligible with other varieties of Dai. Closely related to Tai Nüa. Called 'Daiya' in China. Grammar. Dictionary. Typology: SVO; 6 tone categories in unchecked syllables, 2 (split into 4 according to vowel lengt)h in checked syllables; nasal and stop finals. Survey needed.

TAKPA (DWAGS) [TKK] Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Takpa. Survey needed.

TATAR (TARTAR, TATA'ER) [TTR] 1,000 speakers out of 4,873 in the official nationality in China (1990 census); 5,715,000 in Russia (1989); 7,000 to 10,000 in USA; 350 in Afghanistan; 7,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). North Xinjiang, mainly in Yining (Ghulja, Kulja), Qöqek, and Ürümqi. Also in Turkey, Finland. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian. An official nationality in China. Written Uyghur and Kazakh are used as literary languages; nearly all use them. Speech in different areas is influenced by Uyghur and Kazakh. Typology: SOV. Traders, craftsmen, agriculturalists. Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1864-1995. Work in progress.

T'EN (THEN, YANGHUANG) [TCT] 20,000 (1982 census). A few villages in Huishui, just south of Guiyang, and Pingtang and Dushan counties, Guizhou. Daic, Kam-Sui. Officially under the Buyi nationality. Close to Sui. People speak local Chinese or Buyi as second language. Survey needed.

TIBETAN (WEI, WEIZANG, CENTRAL TIBETAN, BHOTIA, ZANG, PHOKE, DBUS, DBUSGTSANG, U) [TIC] 1,066,200 in China (1990 census), including 570,000 Dbus, 460,000 Gtsang, 40,000 Mngahris; 60,000 in Nepal (1973 SIL); 124,280 in India (1994); 3,000 in Bhutan (1973); 2,000 in Taiwan (1993); 352 in USA (1970 census); 1,500 in Switzerland; 1,254,000 in all countries, or more. There are 4,593,339 in the official nationality in China (1990 census). Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai. Also in Norway. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Central. Dialects: GTSANG (TSANG), DBUS, MNGAHRIS (NGARI). Xifan (Hsifan) and Bhotia are general terms for Tibetan. One of the main official nationalities, called 'Zang' in China. Written Tibetan is reported to be based on a southern dialect. Probably officially includes many separate languages: Atuence, Choni, Groma, Niarong, Lhomi, Panang, Sherpa, Tseku, Tinan Lahul, Kham. 30% literate. Nomads in central and northern Tibet in Phala on the 15,000 foot Chang Tang plateau are known as 'Drokba'. They number around 500,000 (National Geographic June 1989.752-781). They herd yaks, sheep, and goats, are salt traders, and do not know Chinese. Dictionary. Typology: SOV; 4 tones. Agriculturalists, pastoralists, weavers. Lamaist Buddhism, some Muslim. Bible 1948. NT 1885-1973. Bible portions 1862-1991.

TSANGLA (SANGLA, TSHANGLA, CANGLUO MENBA, MOTUO MENBA) [TSJ] 7,000 in China (1967); 80,000 in Bhutan (1990); 87,000 in both countries. Southeastern Tibet, Motuo (Medoz) and Linzhi (Ngingchi) counties. Also in India. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tsangla. Close to Sharchagpakha. Not the same as Tsanglo (Angami Naga) of India. Typology: SOV; numbers and adjectives follow their noun; not tonal; singular-dual-plural personal pronouns. Buddhist. Bible portions. Survey needed.

TSAT (UTSAT, UTSET, HUIHUI, HUI, HAINAN CHAM) [HUQ] 4,500 (1991 I. Maddieson). Southern Hainan, villages of Huixin and Huihui in the Yanglan suburban district of Sanya City. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, North. The phonology suggests a history of some independence from other Chamic languages (Maddieson). Their name for themselves is 'Utsat', for their language 'Tsat'. 'Huihui' or 'Hui' is the Chinese name. Typology: Tonal. Muslim. Survey needed.

TSEKU [TSK] Tibet. Also in Bhutan and possibly Nepal. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Central. Probably officially under Tibetan in China. Survey needed.

TU (MONGOUR, MONGOR) [MJG] 90,000 speakers (1982) out of 191,624 in the official nationality (1990 census); 60,000 in Huzhu and 30,000 in Minhe dialects. East Qinghai Province. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour. Dialects: HUZHU, MINHE. Said to be the most divergent of all the Mongolian languages. Intelligibility is reported to be low between dialects. An official nationality. An unwritten language; written Chinese or Tibetan is used. Dictionary. Agriculturalists. Lamaist Buddhism.

TUJIA, NORTHERN (TUCHIA) [TJI] 170,000 to 200,000 speakers (1982) out of 5,704,223 in the official nationality (1990 census). Northwest Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou in Yingjiang and Yanhe counties. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Unclassified. Dialects: LONGSHAN, BAOJING. An official nationality. Spoken and written Chinese are in use. 40% lexical similarity with Southern Tujia. There are also phonological and grammatical differences. Typology: SOV; 4 tones; no voiced stops or affricates. Agriculturalists.

TUJIA, SOUTHERN (TUCHIA) [TJS] 4,000 speakers (1994) out of 5,704,223 in the official nationality (1990 census). Northwest Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou in Yingjiang and Yanhe counties. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Unclassified. Tujia is an official nationality. Spoken and written Chinese are in use. 40% lexical similarity with Northern Tujia. There are also phonological and grammatical differences. Typology: SOV; 4 tones; voiced stops and affricates. Agriculturalists.

TUVIN (DIBA, KÖK MUNGAK, TUWA) [TUN] 400 in China (1990); 206,000 in Russia (1993 Johnstone); 27,000 in Mongolia (1993 Johnstone); 233,400 in all countries. Burjin, Habahe, Fuyun, and Altay counties of Altay Prefecture, Yinjiang Autonomous Region. Altaic, Turkic, Northern. Included under the Mongolian official nationality in China. Chahar Mongolian used in education. More than 90% are bilingual in Kazakh, 30% also know Kalmyk-Oirat. It has literary status in Russia. Lamaist Buddhist mixed with shamanism. Work in progress.

U (PUMAN, P'UMAN) [UUU] 3,000 (1990 J-O Svantesson). Southwestern Yunnan Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic. Officially included under the Blang nationality, although not very closely related (Svantesson). Survey needed.

UYGHUR (UIGHUR, UYGUR, UIGUR, UIGHUIR, UIGUIR, WEIWUER) [UIG] 7,214,431 in China (1990 census), including 4,700,000 Central Uyghur, 1,150,000 Hotan, 25,000 Lop; 300,000 in Kazakhstan (1993); 37,000 in Kyrghyzstan (1993); 3,581 in Tajikistan; 36,000 in Uzbekistan; 3,000 in Afghanistan; 1,000 in Mongolia; 500 or more in Turkey (1981); a few hundred families of traders in Pakistan; 7,464,000 in all countries, or more. Throughout the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Also in Germany, India, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, USA, Taiwan, possibly Morocco, Iran. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Dialects: CENTRAL UYGHUR, HOTAN (HETIAN), LOP (LUOBU). Roman, Arabic, and Cyrillic script have been used. The literary standard is basedd on the Central dialect as spoken in the area between Yili (Ili) and Urumqi in China. One of the five main official nationalities in China. It had a Pinyin (Roman) alphabet in China; a new Arabic script was introduced in 1987. Cyrillic script is used in the former USSR. Only the Roman alphabet is known in Turkey. There are radio broadcasts in Uyghur. Those in the north are more influenced by modern Chinese culture. The Akto Türkmen speak a dialect of Uyghur with 500 different seldom-used words. They have different appearance and customs. They say they originated in Samarkand, and are listed as Kirghiz by the government. There are 2,000 in two villages, Kösarap and Oytak in Akto County, south of Kashgar, Xinjiang. Dolan is a dialect spoken around the fringes of the Taklimakan desert in Xinjiang. Chinese linguists recognize 3 dialects. Others have used the following dialect names: Kashgar-Yarkand (Kashi-Shache), Yengi Hissar (Yengisar), Khotan-Kerya (Hotan-Yutian), Charchan (Qarqan, Qiemo), Aksu (Aqsu), Qarashahr (Karaxahar), Kucha (Kuqa), Turfan (Turpan), Kumul (Hami), Ili (Kulja, Yining, Taranchi), Urumqi (Urumchi), Lopnor (Lopnur), Dolan, Akto Türkmen. Typology: SOV. Desert, oases. Valleys. Agriculturalists: grain, fruit, grapes, vegetables, cotton; traders; craftsmen. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1950. NT 1914-1939. Bible portions 1898-1995. Work in progress.

UZBEK, NORTHERN (OZBEK, OUZBEK, USBEKI, USBAKI) [UZB] 3,000 speakers out of 14,502 in the official nationality in China (1990 census); 16,530,000 in Uzbekistan (1995 UN); 18,386,000 in all countries. North and west Xinjiang; Urumqi, Kashgar, and Yining (Ghulja) cities, especially Ili. Also in USA, Australia, many republics of the former USSR, possibly in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. An official nationality in China. It has an alphabetic script based on Arabic. They use Uyghur and Kazakh as literary languages. All are bilingual in Uyghur and can write Uyghur. Distinct from Southern Uzbek of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Turkey. Typology: SOV; has lost its historical vowel harmony and its vowel system now resembles that of Tajiki. Agriculturalists, some traders. Sunni Muslim. NT 1992-1995. Bible portions 1891-1992.

VIETNAMESE (JING, GIN, KINH, CHING, ANNAMESE) [VIE] 6,000 speakers out of 18,915 in the official nationality in China (1990 census); 66,897,000 in all countries. On the Shanxin, Wanwei, and Wutou peninsulas in the Jiangping region of the Fangcheng Pan-Nationality Autonomous County on the south coast of Guangxi Province. Also in Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Canada, USA, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire,. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese. An official nationality in China, called 'Jing'. They do not use the Vietnamese alphabet. Not written. Use Chinese as a written language. Bilingualiam in Yue Chinese of Guanxi is reported to be high. Intelligibility with Viet Nam Vietnamese is high. Fishermen, agriculturalists. Christian, Daoist. Braille code available. Bible 1916-1994. NT 1914-1993. Bible portions 1890-1989.

VO (AWA, WA, K'AWA, KAWA, WA PWI, WAKUT) [WBM] 60,000 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson); 558,000 in Myanmar (1993 Johnstone); 618,000 in all countries. Awa Mountains, southwest Yunnan as far east as the Lancang (Mekong) River. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Traditional culture. Officially under Wa nationality in China. The Wa language is related to the Lawa and Parauk languages, also under the Wa nationality in China. Dictionary. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: potatoes, cotton, hemp, tobacco, sugarcane, tea, rice, beans, buckwheat, maize. Survey needed.

WAKHI (VAKHAN, WAKHANI, WAKHIGI, KHIK) [WBL] 6,000 in China; 7,000 in Afghanistan; 9,100 in Pakistan (1992); 7,000 in Tajikistan (1993); 29,000 in all countries. Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County (especially Daftar), and in the mountains south of Pishan, Xinjiang. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Dialect: EASTERN WAKHI. Included under the Tajik nationality (mainly Sarikoli) in China. Dialect intelligibility is reported to not be a problem, even with those in other countries. Typology: SOV. Pastoralists: sheep, cattle; agriculturalists: barley, wheat, peas. Ismaili Muslim. Needs survey.

WAXIANGHUA (XIANGHUA, WOGANG) [WXA] 300,000 (1995 Milliken). A 6,000 square km. area in western Hunan Province, Wuling Mts., including Yuanling, Chunxi, Jishou, Guzhang, and Dayong. Unclassified. It differs greatly from both Southwestern Mandarin (Xinan Guanhua) and Xiang Chinese (Hunanese), but is relatively uniform within itself. Neighboring Han Chinese, Miao and Tujia people do not understand it. Some view it as a special variety of Chinese, others as a minority language, perhaps related to Miao. Mountain slope. Survey needed.

WUTUNHUA [WUH] 2,000 (1995). Eastern Qinghai Province, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Tongren County, Longwu township, Upper and Lower Wutun villages and Jiangchama village. Sino-Tibetan, Unclassified. Reported to be a variety of Chinese heavily influenced by Tibetan or perhaps a Tibetan language undergoing relexification with Chinese forms. Neighboring Tibetans refer to the Wutun people as 'Sanggaixiong', meaning 'center of the lion'. Known for their paintings of Buddha. Some consider themselves members of the Tu nationality, others Han Chinese. Typology: SOV; adjectives follow nouns; adverbials precede predicate; case and number marked on nouns; prenasalized consonants; 11 different syllable-final consonants; tone and stress have low functional load; most words polysyllabic; 60% Chinese, 20% Tibetan vocabulary with the rest having mixed Chinese and Tibetan elements. Agriculturalists. Survey needed.

XIANDAOHUA [XIA] 100 (1994). Xiandao and Meng'e villages, Manmian Township, Jiemao District, Yingjiang County in the Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in extreme western Yunnan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Burmish. Subclassification unknown. Spoken by members of the Achang nationality, and some consider it to be a dialect of Achang. Typology: SOV, 4 tones, voiced and voiceless nasals and laterals. Loan words from Chinese, Jingpo, Dai, and Burmese. Survey needed.

XIBE (SIBO, XIBO) [SJO] 26,760 speakers (1982) out of 172,847 in the nationality (1990 census). 50,000 speak Chinese as mother tongue. Ili region of Xinjiang Province. Altaic, Tungus, Southern, Southwest. Colloquial Manchu. Descendants of an 18th century Qing dynasty military garrison. An official nationality. A literary language, using a modified Manchu script. Many prefer Chinese as a literary language. Typology: SOV; modifiers precede heads; complex vowel harmony; loans from Uyghur, Kazakh, and Chinese. Agriculturalists. Shamanism.

YERONG (DABAN YAO) [YRN] 300 to 400 (1990 Liang Min). Guangxi Napo County, Longhe Township and Pohe Township, just northeast of where Yunnan, Guangxi, and Viet Nam meet. Daic, Kadai, Bu-Rong. Officially under the Yao nationality. 'Yeyong' may refer to this. Survey needed.

YI, CENTRAL [YIC] 460,000 (1991 EDCL). 6,572,173 in the official Yi nationality (1990 census). Covering much of central Yunnan, including Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, and Simao District. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Yi. Dialects: DAYAO (NORTH CENTRAL YI), NANHUA (SOUTH CENTRAL YI). A separate language in the Yi official nationality. The 2 dialects are reported to be 80% similar. Yi syllabary script is not used. Typology: SOV; 4 tones. Mountain slopes.

YI, GUIZHOU (EASTERN YI, SOUTHEASTERN YI) [YIG] 800,000 (1991 EDCL); 6,572,173 in in all countries Yi nationality (1990 census). Guizhou Province, Weining Yi-Hui-Miao Autonomous County, Dafang Autonomous County, Hezhang County, Pan County; some in the Baise District of western Guangxi. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Yi. Dialect: DIAN-QIAN (YUNNAN-GUIZHOU, PAN COUNTY, DIAN DONGBEI (NORTHEASTERN YUNNAN). Distinct from other Yi. Intelligibility between dialects is reported to be low; 50% lexical similarity. Fairly large differences within the dialects also. Dictionary. Typology: SOV.

YI, SICHUAN (NORTHERN YI, I, "LOLO", ICHIA, MANCHIA, MANTZU, "NORTHERN LOLO", SEN NOSU, GNI, NYI) [III] 1,600,000 speakers (1991 EDCL), out of 6,572,173 in official nationality (1990 census). Mainly in Greater and Lesser Liangshan Mountains, southern Sichuan, southeast Xizang (Xichang). Yangshan is a cultural center. Yi in Gulin County are reported to no longer speak Yi. Also in northwestern Yunnan. Spoken in over 40 counties. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Yi. Dialects: NORTHERN SICHUAN YI, SOUTHERN SICHUAN YI. Yi is the official term for what was formerly called Lolo and other names, all derogatory. 'Yi' is used in a broad sense, even at times including languages like the Lisu. At other times it is used in a more narrow sense for only those north of Kunming, Yunnan, and in the Great Cool and Small Cool Mountains of Sichuan. Black Lolo (Hei-I, Hei Kutou) and White Lolo (Pei-I) are caste names and do not refer to linguistic distinctions. An official nationality, including at least 6, and possibly 20, languages. The Northern dialect of Sichuan Yi has subdialects Yinuohua, Shengzhahua and Tianbahua. Shengzhahua is said to be understood by 85% of speakers. Has an official script, the Yi syllabary based on Shenzhahua area, used in the Liangshan area. Written Chinese is also used. Differences in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar among the Yi languages. Dictionary. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Polytheist, some Christian.

YI, SOUTHEASTERN [YIE] 240,000 (1991 EDCL); 6,572,173 in the Yi nationality (1990 census). Eastern and southeastern Yunnan in the Qujing District and in Honghe Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture. The Sani dialect is mainly in Yijiang County just east of Kunming; the Axi dialect is mainly in Mile County southeast of Kunming. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Yi. Dialects: YILIANG (SANI), MILE (AXI, AHI), AWU, AXHEBO. A major variety of Yi, one of 6 to 20 separate languages. Intelligibility between dialects is reported to be low. 2 dialects are also called Huami and Wenxi, but it is not known how they correspond to Awu and Axhebo. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Polytheist.

YI, WESTERN [YIW] 300,000 (1991 EDCL). 6,572,173 in official Yi nationality (1990 census). West central Yunnan, over 20 counties. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Yi. Dialects: DONGSHAN, XISHAN. A separate language in the Yi official nationality. Vocabulary is reported to be relatively uniform between dialects. Yi syllabary is not used. Bilingualism in Chinese is reported to be high, especially among young people.

YI, YUNNAN (SOUTHERN YI, SOUTHERN NOSU, SHUI NOSU, NOSU, NASU, NASÖ, NYI, GNI, I) [NOS] 800,000 or slightly fewer (1991 EDCL); 6,572,173 in the Yi nationality (1990 census). Central Yunnan, in Yuxi and Simao districts and Honghe Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Yi. Dialects: SHIJIAN, YUANJIN, EXIN. One of 6 to 20 separate languages in the Yi nationality. Derogatory names are "Lolo", "Minchia", "Ichia", "Keikutou", "Peikutou". 'Nosu' originally referred to eastern Yi, an elite caste, endogamous, who raised horses; slaves and serfs in a separate caste. There is some dialect variation in Yunnan Yi, but communication is claimed to be possible with all locations, and lexical similarity at least 85%. High bilingualism in Chinese is reported among young people. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists, some animal husbandry. Polytheist, some Christian. NT 1948. Bible portions 1913-1926.

YUGUR, EAST (SHIRA YUGUR, SHERA YOGUR, EASTERN YOGOR, YOGOR, YÖGUR, YUGU, YUGAR) [YUY] 3,000 (1991 EDCL). Northwest Gansu Province. Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Mongour. An official nationality together with West Yugur, a Turkic language. Written Chinese is in use. Chinese is used as a lingua franca with West Yugur. Pastoralists. Shamanism, lamaist Buddhist.

YUGUR, WEST (SARYGH UYGUR, SARIG, YA LU, YELLOW UIGHUR, SARI YOGUR, YUKU, YUGU, SARY-UIGHUR) [YBE] 4,600 speakers out of ethnic group of 12,297 (1990 census). Sunan Yugur Autonomous County near Zhangye (Kanchow) in northwest Gansu Province. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. An official nationality together with East Yugur, a Mongolian language. About one-third of the ethnic group speaks Chinese as first language. Written Chinese is in use. Chinese is used as a lingua franca with East Yugur. Typology: SOV. Animal husbandry. Lamaist Buddhist, shamanism.

ZAIWA (TSAIWA, ATSI, ATZI, AJI, ATSHI, ACI, AZI, ATSI-MARU, SZI, XIAOSHANHUA) [ATB] 70,000 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson); 13,200 in Myanmar (1983); 83,200 in all countries. Yunnan Province, Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Bangwa Districts in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Burmish, Northern. Dialects: ZAIWA, LANGWA, POLO. They call themselves 'Tsaiva'. Closely related to Maru, Lashi, and Bela. Dialects have only minor phonological differences. Officially under the Jingpo nationality in China. Distinct from the Ahi group under Yi. A Roman-script orthography was developed in 1957, based on the speech of Longzhun in the Xishan District of Luxi County. Typology: SOV; 3 tone categories in unchecked syllables and 2 in checked. Bible portions 1939-1951.

ZAUZOU (ROURUO) [ZAL] 1,500 (1990 J-O Svantesson). Northwestern Yunnan Province, Lanping and Lushui counties. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Unclassified. A separate language officially under the Nu nationality with Ayi, Nusu, and 5,500 ethnic Nung who are Drung speakers. Typology: SOV; no consonant clusters; no checked syllables; tense-lax and nasalized-unnasalized vowel distinctions; 6 tones. Survey needed.

ZHABA [ZHA] 7,700 (1995). Zhamai District of Yajiang (Nyagquka) County and Zhaba District of Daofu (Dawu) County, which are in the Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of western Sichuan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Qiang. 'Zaba' may be an alternate spelling. Different from Queyu, also called 'Zhaba'. Speakers belong to the Tibetan nationality. Survey needed.

ZHUANG, NORTHERN (CHUANG, TAI CHUANG, VAH CUENGH, CANGVA) [CCX] 10,000,000 speakers (1992 J.A. Edmondson) out of 15,489,630 in the Zhuang nationality (1990 census), including Yongbei 1,600,000, Youjiang 732,000, Guibian 522,000, Liujiang 1,300,000, Guibei 1,300,000, Hongshuihe 2,700,000, Qiubei (not available). Northern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture. Also Guizhou Province, Congjiang County, southwestern Hunan and northeastern Guangdong in Lianshan Zhuang-Yao Autonomous County. Yongbei is north of the Yongjiang and Youjiang rivers in the area from Hengxian to Pingguo; Hongshuihe is along the Red Water River; Liujiang around the town of Liujiang west of Liuzhou city; Youjiang straddles the Youjiang River in the area from Tiandong to Baise; Guibian in the northwesternmost region of Guangxi (Guibian lies across north central Guangxi); and Quibei around the town of Qiubei in Yunnan. Daic, Tai, Northern. Dialects: YONGBEI (YUNGPEI), LIUJIANG (LIUCHIANG), YOUJIANG (YUCHIANG), GUIBIAN (KUEIPIEN), QIUBEI (CHIUPEI), HONGSHUIHE, GUIBEI. One of the five main official nationalities. Dialect chain to Bouyei. Some primary schools now use the Zhuang language. The Roman script is based on the pronunciation of the Yongbei dialect spoken in Wuming County, and may be difficult for some dialect speakers to use. The traditional ideographic script is based on Chinese characters, but is not standardized or widey used for general purposes. 75% to 86% lexical similarity between the dialects; average 65% between Northern and Southern Zhuang; Northern Zhuang has 49% with Dong, 44% with Laka, 32% with Buyang, 30% with Laqua and Hlai, 28% with Lati, 25% with Gelo, 6% with Hmong, 5% with Mien. The Guangxi Language Commission and SIL are working on a Zhuang-Chinese-English dictionary. Literacy is generally low except in major towns and cities. 'Biao' (Pumen) is a special variety spoken in Lianshan area of northwestern Guangdong and in eastern Guangxi around He Xian. In a Mandarin-speaking area, but some also speak Cantonese. Many in more developed locations control a variety of Chinese to some useful degree, but the majority in the countryside do not. Everywhere except in major cities the clear preference is to speak Zhuang, even in sizable towns. Dictionaries. Typology: SVO; modifiers follow heads; Wuming dialect has 6 tone categories in unchecked syllables and 2 (split into 4 according to vowel length) in checked syllables; most dialects lack aspirated stop series; rich in reduplicating modifiers and sound symbolism employing vowel gradation; several historical layers of borrowing from Chinese. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: paddy rice. Polytheist. Bible portions 1904. Work in progress.

ZHUANG, SOUTHERN [CCY] 4,000,000 speakers (1990 J-O Svantesson) out of 15,489,630 in the Zhuang nationality (1990 census), including Yongnan 1,400,000, Zuojiang 1,400,000, De-Jing 980,000, Yan-Guang (not available, Wen-Ma 100,000. Southwest Guangxi and southern Wenshan Zhuang-Miao Autonomous Prefecture of southeastern Yunnan Province. Yongnan is south of the Yongjiang River from Yongning in the east to Long'an in the west; Zuojiang is in southwestern Guangxi around Tiandeng, Daxin, Chongzuo, Longzhou, Pingxiang, and Ningming, down to the Viet Nam border; De-Jing is in southwestern Guangxi around Debao, Jingxi, and Napo, down to the Yunnan and Viet Nam borders; Wen-Ma is in southeastern Yunnan Province south of Wenshan and Malipo, but excluding an area west of Maguan; Yan-Guang is in southeastern Yunnan Province north of Wenshan and Malipo, including Yanshan and north to Guangnan, and west of Maguan along the Viet Nam border. Daic, Tai, Central. Dialects: YONGNAN (YUNGNAN), ZUOJIANG (TSOCHIANG), DE-JING (TECHING), YAN-GUANG (YENKUANG), WEN-MA. Dialects share about 70% lexical similarity, about 65% with Northern Zhuang. Dialect chain into Vietnam. The varieties between the Youjiang River and the Vietnam border (particularly Zuojiang and De-Jing) refer to their language as 'Tho', share many regional characteristics, and are intelligible with the Tay ("Tho") of Vietnam. The Yan-Guang and De-Jing varieties are intelligible with Nung (and Tay) of Vietnam, and refer to their language as 'Nong'. Man Cao Lan may be close to the Yan-Guang dialect (if found in China--that name is not used) of Viet Nam. Typology: Similar to Northern Zhuang, but has aspirated stop series.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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