Ethnologue: Areas: Europe

Bulgaria

9,036,000 (1995). People's Republic of Bulgaria. Narodna Republika Bulgaria. Literacy rate 90% to 98%. Also includes Armenian 27,000, Czech 9,000, Greek 11,000, Russian 18,000, Serbo-Croatian 9,000. Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, secular, Muslim. Blind population 3,312. Deaf institutions: 19. The number of languages listed for Bulgaria is 12. Of those, 11 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

ALBANIAN, GHEG [ALS] 1,000 in Bulgaria (Newmark); 1,372,750 in Yugoslavia (1992); 300,000 in Albania; 242,250 in Macedonia (1992); 17,382 in USA (1970); 2,000,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Also in Romania. Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg. Not intelligible with Tosk Albanian. NT 1869-1872. Bible portions 1866-1978. Work in progress.

BULGARIAN [BLG] 7,986,000 in Bulgaria, 85% of the population (1986); 234,000 in Ukraine; 30,000 in Greece; 10,439 in Romania; 270,000 in Turkey; 361,000 in Moldova (1979 census); 234,000 in Bulgaria (1993); 20,553 in USA (1970 census); 1,630 in Canada (1961 census); 9,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Palityan dialect is also in Romania and Hungary. Also in Yugoslavia, Israel. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern. Dialect: PALITYAN (PALITIANI, BOGOMIL). Palityan is functionally intelligible with Standard Bulgarian. The Sopa are of Petecheneg origin and speak Bulgarian. National language. Typology: SVO. Christian. Braille code available. Bible 1864-1923. NT 1840-1927. Bible portions 1823-1994.

BULGARIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [BQN] Deaf sign language. One sign language which has been used since 1920. There have been elementary schools for deaf people since 1898. Since 1945 sign language has been allowed in the classroom. Sign language interpreters are required in court. Some are available for college students. There is sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. There is a committee on national sign language. Little research on the sign language. There are few sign language classes for hearing people. Different sign languages are used in the classroom and by adults outside. There is a manual alphabet for spelling. There is often signed interpretation on television programs. There are videos and film. Dictionary. Survey needed.

CRIMEAN TURKISH (CRIMEAN TATAR) [CRH] 6,000 in Bulgaria (1990); 189,000 in Uzbekistan (1993); 25,000 in Romania (1982 estimate); 300,000 or more in all countries. Northeast Bulgaria. Also in Turkey, Kyrghyzstan, Moldova, Ukraine, USA. Altaic, Turkic, Southern. Dialects: NORTHERN CRIMEAN (CRIMEAN NOGAI, STEPPE CRIMEAN), CENTRAL CRIMEAN, SOUTHERN CRIMEAN. Muslim. NT 1666-1825. Bible portions 1659-1996. Work in progress.

GAGAUZ (GAGAUZI) [GAG] 12,000 in Bulgaria (1982 estimate); 173,000 in Moldova (1979 census); 198,000 in all countries (1993 UBS). Varna coastal region. Also in Romania, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Dialects: BULGAR GAGAUZ, MARITIME GAGAUZ. Gagauz might be considered a dialect of Turkish, except for the use of Orthodox Christian religious vocabulary. It has literary status in Moldova. The Cyrillic script is used. Christian. Bible portions 1927-1996. Work in progress.

GOTHIC [GOF] Bulgaria and central Europe. Indo-European, Germanic, East. Dialects: CRIMEAN GOTHIC, OSTROGOTH, VISIGOTH. Some settlements survived in the Crimea until the 18th century (Bloomfield 1933). Bible 520. Bible portions c. 350-1665. Extinct.

MACEDONIAN [MKJ] 2,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Pirin Macedonia. Also in Macedonia, Greece, Albania, and Canada. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern. Called 'Slavic' in Greece. Bible 1988. NT 1967-1976. Bible portions 1952-1959.

ROMANIAN, MACEDO (MACEDO-RUMANIAN, ARUMANIAN, AROMUNIAN, ARMINA) [RUP] 110,000 in all countries or more; 50,000 in Greece (1973 Byrd); 60,000 in Albania (1993 Johnstone). Also in Greece, Bulgaria, southern Yugoslavia, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern, South. Structurally a distinct language from Romanian (F. Agard). 'Armini' refers to the people. Bible portions 1881-1889. Survey needed.

ROMANI, BALKAN (GYPSY) [RMN] 187,900 in Bulgaria, 2% of the population (1986); including 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi, 10,000 Tinsmiths; 10,000 East Bulgarian; 400,000 including second language speakers (1985 Gunnemark and Kenrick); 1,000,000 in all countries (1980 Kenrick). Between Sofia and the Black Sea (Central dialect). The Tinsmiths dialect is in central and northwest Bulgaria; Arlija is in the Sofia region and Yugoslavia; Balkan Romani is also in Greece, Turkey, Iran, France, Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Moldova, Ukraine. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan. Dialects: ARLIJA, TINNERS ROMANI, GREEK ROMANI, DZAMBAZI, EAST BULGARIAN ROMANI, PASPATIAN, IRONWORKER ROMANI. A Gypsy language. Ethnic groups: Jerlídes (western Bulgaria), Drindári (central Bulgaria). Muslim. Bible portions 1912-1937. Work in progress.

ROMANI, VLACH [RMY] 500 Kalderash in Bulgaria; 1,500,000 in all countries (1986 estimate). Also in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Albania, Greece, Slovakia, Ukraine, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Sweden, France, Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, USA, England. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. A Gypsy language. Christian. NT 1984-1995. Bible portions 1930-1986.

RUSSIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [RSL] Also used in Russia and other republics of the former USSR. Deaf sign language. Originated 1806. Related to Austrian and French sign languages, but different.

TURKISH (OSMANLI, TURKI) [TRK] 845,550 in Bulgaria, 9% of the population (1986); 46,278,000 in Turkey (1987); 59,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Kurdzhali Province and neighboring areas of South Bulgaria, along the Danube, and various regions of East Bulgaria. Also in Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Germany, USA, Canada, Belgium, many other countries. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Dialects: DANUBIAN, RAZGRAD, DINLER, MACEDONIAN TURKISH. The Turkish language is gradually being replaced by Bulgarian, although Islam and ethnic identity remain strong. Has official regional recognition. Natural growth has been balanced by emigration to Turkey. Muslim. Bible 1827-1941. NT 1819-1991. Bible portions 1782-1985.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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