Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

Brunei

301,000 (1995). State of Brunei Darussalam. Negara Brunei Darussalam. A British dependency; self governed. Literacy rate: 85% to 95%. Information mainly from SIL 1987, Wurm and Hattori 1981. Also includes Korean, Nepali, from South Asia 4,200, others from the Philippines Data accuracy estimate: B. Muslim, Chinese traditional religion, Christian, traditional religion, Hindu. The number of languages listed for Brunei is 16.

BELAIT (BALAIT JATI) [BEG] 700 (1995 P. Martin). Scattered areas in Belait District, Kampung Kiudang, in Tutong District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A. Related to Kiput, Baram and Tinjar. 54% lexical similarity with Tutong 2. May be the same as Lemeting. Recognized by the government as an indigenous group. The Muslim Belait are Malay in orientation. The non-Muslims retain their Belait identity more. Muslim. Survey needed.

BISAYA, BRUNEI (BISAYAH, BISAYA BUKIT, VISAYAK, BEKIAU, LORANG BUKIT, BASAYA, BESAYA, BISAIA, JILAMA BAWANG, JILAMA SUNGAI, SOUTHERN BISAYA) [BSB] 600 (1984 Dunn). East of Tutong 1 and east to the coast, west of Seria, a few villages near the Sarawak border. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern. 78% to 79% lexical similarity with Sarawak Bisaya, 57% to 59% with Sabah Bisaya, and about 50% with other Dusunic languages. Recognized by the government as an indigenous group. Survey needed.

BRUNEI (BRUNEI-KADAIAN, ORANG BUKIT) [KXD] 250,000 in Brunei (1984 SIL), 54,000 in Malaysia; 304,000 in all countries (1984 SIL). Includes 255,000 Brunei; 49,000 Kedayan. Brunei is in the capital, Brunei-Muara District, and the coastal strip. Kedayan is in West Brunei-Muara District and Tutong District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Dialects: BRUNEI MALAY, KEDAYAN (KADAIAN, KADAYAN, KADIAN, KADIEN, KADYAN, KARAYAN, KEDYAN, KEDAYAN, KEDIEN. KERAYAN). Brunei and Kedayan have more than 90% lexical similarity with each other. 73% to 80% lexical similarity with Standard Malay. The de facto national dialect, very vigorous. Orang Bukit is the name of the people. Brunei and Kedayan are both recognized by the government as indigenous groups. Agriculturalists. Muslim. Survey needed.

CHINESE, HAKKA (HAKKA) [HAK] 3,000 in Brunei, 5.94% of ethnic Chinese (1979); 34,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Bible 1916. NT 1883-1993. Bible portions 1860-1995.

CHINESE, MANDARIN [CHN] 15,000 in Brunei, 29.7% of ethnic Chinese (1979); 885,000,000 in all countries. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Bible 1874-1983. NT 1857-1981. Bible portions 1864-1986.

CHINESE, MIN DONG [CDO] 6,000 in Brunei, 11.88% of ethnic Chinese (1979). Mainly in China. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialect: FOOCHOW. Bible 1884-1905. NT 1856. Bible portions 1852.

CHINESE, MIN NAN (MIN NAN, MINNAN) [CFR] 10,000 in Brunei (1979); 49,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: CHAOCHOW (TIUCHIU, TEOCHOW), HAINAN, FUJIAN (HOKKIEN). Bible 1933. NT 1896-1974. Bible portions 1875-1916.

CHINESE, YUE (CANTONESE, YUE, YUEH) [YUH] 3,500 in Brunei, 6.93% of ethnic Chinese (1979); 66,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Bible 1894-1981. NT 1877, in press (1996). Bible portions 1862-1903.

ENGLISH [ENG] 8,000 in Brunei, 16% of ethnic Chinese speak English as first language; probably other first language speakers; 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Used in media (newspaper, television), government, education. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

IBAN (SEA DAYAK) [IBA] 15,000 in Brunei (1995 (P. Martin); 400,000 in Sarawak, Malaysia (1995 P. Martin); 415,000 in all countries. Also be in Kalimantan, Indonesia; and Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak, Ibanic. Dialects: BATANG LUPAR, BUGAU. Typology: SVO. Bible 1988. NT 1933-1952. Bible portions 1864-1968.

LUNDAYEH (LUN BAWANG, LUN DAYE, BRUNEI MURUT, SOUTHERN MURUT, MURUT) [LND] 450 in Brunei (1987 Langub); 10,000 in Sarawak, Malaysia (1987); 2,800 in Sabah, Malaysia (1982 SIL); 25,000 in Kalimantan, Indonesia (1987); 38,250 in all countries. 7 villages in Temburong District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Dialect: TRUSAN. Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. 'Murut' is recognized by the government as an indigenous group. Christian (Lunbawang, some Lundayeh), traditional religion (others). Bible 1982. NT 1962. Bible portions 1947.

MALAY (STANDARD MALAY) [MLI] 17,600,000 or more in all countries. Also in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, USA, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, a few in Thailand. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Official language since 1959. Used in formal, but not informal, domains. Taught in school through third grade, and used in the classroom through the final year. Used in radio, television, newspaper, religion, government. National language. Sunni Muslim. Braille code available. Bible 1733-1993. NT 1668-1938. Bible portions 1629-1932.

MELANAU (MILANAU, MILANO, BELANA'U) [MEL] 200 Mukah in Brunei ((1995 P. Martin); 25,320 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Around Kuala Belait town. Also in Sarawak, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau. Dialect: MUKAH-OYA (MUKAH, MUKA, OYA, OYA', OGA). Mukah is spoken in Brunei. Tropical forest. Agriculturalists: sago, rice, coconut, rubber; fishermen; loggers; animal husbandry: chickens, goats, water buffalos; traders with Iban. Muslim.

PUNAN-NIBONG (PENAN, NIBONG, NIBON) [PNE] 50 in Brunei (1988 Lian); 9,000 in Sarawak, Malaysia (1988); 9,050 in all countries. Sukang village, interior Belai District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Punan-Nibong. Dialects: NIBONG, BOK PUNAN (BOK), PUNAN SILAT, PUNAN GANG (GANG), PUNAN LUSONG (LUSONG), PENAN APO, SIPENG (SPENG), PUNAN LANYING, JELALONG PUNAN. Not closely related to other languages. Traditionalists are nomadic and semi-nomadic; Muslims are settled. Schools. Tropical forest. Subsistence agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers. Muslim, traditional religion. NT 1974, out of print. Bible portions 1958-1967.

TUTONG 1 (DUSUN) [TTX] 15,000 in Brunei (1995 P. Martin); 25,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central and interior Belait and Tutong districts, east of Bisaya, south of Tutong 2. May not be in Sarawak. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern. Distinct from Tutong 2 in Baram-Tinjar Subgroup. 'Dusun' is recognized by the government as an indigenous group. 72% of parents below 40 years old use Tutong with their children. In mixed marriages, 57% of parents use Brunei Malay with children. Muslim. Survey needed.

TUTONG 2 (TUTUNG) [TTG] 15,000 (1995 P. Martin). Around Tutong town on the coast and central Tutong District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B. 54% lexical similarity with Belait. Distinct from Tutong 1 in Dusunic, Bisaya Group. Tutong 2 is recognized by the government as an indigenous group. They have pride in their language, and use it for interethnic communication. 63% of parents below 40 years old use Tutong 2 with their children. In mixed marriages, 48% use Brunei Malay with their children. Dictionary. Muslim. Survey needed.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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