Ethnologue: Areas: Americas

Brazil

Federative Republic of Brazil. República Federativa do Brasil. 153,725,670 (1995 govt. figure), including 311,656 American Indians (1995 govt. figure). 155,000 speakers of American Indian languages (Rodrigues 1985). There are reports of up to 34 groups without peaceful contact. Literacy rate 76% (1989 WA). Information mainly from Ribeiro 1957, Hopper 1967, SIL 1996. Christian, traditional religion, secular. Blind population 124,805. Deaf institutions: 60. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. The number of languages listed for Brazil is 236. Of those, 195 are living languages and 41 are extinct.

ACROÁ (COROÁ) [ACS] Bahia area. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central. Extinct.

AGAVOTAGUERRA (AGAVOTOKUENG) [AVO] 100 (1986 SIL). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, between the Curisevo and Culuene rivers. Unclassified. May be Arawakan, related to Waurá. Survey needed.

AKAWAIO (ACEWAIO, AKAWAI, ACAHUAYO, INGARIKÓ) [ARB] 500 in Brazil; 4,300 in Guyana (1990 J. Forte); a few in Venezuela (1982 D. Wall WC); 4,300 or more in all countries. Roraima and Rio Branco. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Kapon. Close to Macushi and Arecuna. Not intelligible with Macushi. Limited bilingualism. Bible portions 1873. Work in progress.

AMAHUACA (AMAWÁKA, AMAWACA, AMENGUACA, SAYACU) [AMC] 220 in Brazil (1995); 500 in Peru (1993 SIL); 720 in both countries. Amazonas. Panoan, South-Central, Amahuaca. Dialects: INUVAKEN, VIWIVAKEU. Bible portions 1963-1992. Work in progress.

AMANAYÉ (AMANAJÉ, MANAZE, AMANAGE, MANAXO, MANAJO, MANAZO, AMANYÉ) [AMA] 66 or fewer (1995 SIL). Pará. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII). Integrated culturally and linguistically to Portuguese.

AMAPÁ CREOLE (LANC-PATÚA) [AMD] 25,000 (1995 SIL). Throughout State of Amapá, concentrated around the capital, Macapá. Creole, French based. Has English and French influences. Some Indian groups in Amapá speak other creoles, like the Karipuna and Galibi. Survey needed.

AMIKOANA [AKN] Northern Amapá. Unclassified. Survey needed.

AMONDAWA (AMUNDAWA, AMUNDAVA) [ADW] 50 (1994 SIL). Rondônia. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Similar to Tenharim. Survey needed.

ANAMBÉ [AAN] 7 active speakers (1991 SIL) out of an ethnic group of 77 (1993 SIL). Pará. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII). Some monolinguals. Most are bilingual in, and switching to, Portuguese. Some Brazilians who have intermarried with Anambé have learned Anambé. Close to Asuriní. Nearly extinct.

APALAÍ (APARAI, APALAY) [APA] 450 (1993 SIL). Pará, mainly on the Paru Leste River with fringe groups on the Jari and Citare rivers. 20 villages. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio. Grammar. Dictionary. 37% literate. Typology: OVS, SOV. NT 1986. Bible portions 1972-1975.

APIACÁ (APIAKE, APIAKÁ) [API] 65 to 70 (1986 SIL). Northern Mato Grosso, upper Rio Tapajos, near confluence of São Manoel. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Assimilated into Brazilian culture. Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) treat Carib Apiacá as distinct.

APINAYÉ (APINAJÉ, APINAGÉ) [APN] 800 (1994 SIL). Tocantins, near Tocantinopolis, 6 villages. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Apinaye. People are somewhat bilingual. Grammar. 15% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV. Between tropical forest and savannah. Hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists: manioc, sweet potatoes, gourds, cotton. Bible portions 1967-1989. Work in progress.

APURINÃ (IPURINÃN, KANGITE, POPENGARE) [APU] 2,000 (1994 SIL). Amazonas, Acre; scattered over a thousand miles of the Purus River from Rio Branco to Manaus. Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus. Typology: OSV. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1993. Work in progress.

ARAPASO (ARAPAÇO, ARASPASO, KONEÁ) [ARJ] 268 (1992 ALEM). São Gabriel, Iauarete, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern. May only speak Tucano. Reported to be a dialect of Tucano. Survey needed.

ARÁRA, ACRE [AXA] 200 (1995 SIL). Acre. Unclassified. May be a dialect of Panoan Katukina. Survey needed.

ARÁRA, MATO GROSSO [AXG] Mato Grosso. Unclassified. Members of the ethnic group speak only Portuguese. Extinct.

ARÁRA, PARÁ (AJUJURE) [AAP] 110 (1994 SIL). Pará in 2 villages. Carib, Northern, Northern Brazil. There are uncontacted groups. The closest extant languages are Txicão and Bakairí. A few can speak a little Portuguese. Hunter-gatherers, fishermen. Work in progress.

ARÁRA, RONDÔNIA (ARÁRA DO JIPARANÁ) [ARR] 92 (1986 SIL). Rondônia, Acre. Tupi, Ramarama. A separate language. Bilingualism is limited. Survey needed.

ARAWETÉ [AWT] 184 (1994 ALEM). Amazonas, at least one sizeable village, near Xingú River, near Altamira. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kayabi-Arawete (V). Close to Asuriní, Parakanã, and Tapirapé. Nearly all speakers are monolingual (1986).

ARIKAPÚ (MAXUBÍ, ARICAPÚ) [ARK] 15 (1968 SIL). Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio Branco, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. Macro-Ge, Yabuti. Integrated into Brazilian culture and language. Nearly extinct.

ARUA (ARAWÁ) [ARA] Arawakan, Arauan. Became extinct in 1877. Known from an 1869 word list. Different from Tupi Arua and Ge Arua.

ARUÁ [ARX] Rio Branco post, Rondônia. Tupi, Monde. Dialect: ARUÁSHI (ARUACHI). Said to be many in Mato Grosso. Voegelin and Voegelin treat as distinct from Arawak Arua (Aruan, Araua) and Ge Arua. A few still remember the language. Nearly extinct.

ARUTANI (AUAQUÉ, AUAKE, AWAKE, AOAQUI, OEWAKU, URUAK, URUTANI) [ATX] 17 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 5 in Venezuela (1977); 22 total. Roraima. Arutani-Sape. The remaining speakers are bilingual in Ninam. Most are intermarried with the Ninam, some with the Pemon (Arecuna) and a few with the Sapé and do not speak Arutani fluently. Nearly extinct.

ASURINÍ (ASSURINÍ, ASSURINÍ DO TOCANTINS, AKWAYA) [ASU] 191 (1995 AMTB). Trocará on the Tocantins River, Pará. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). Closely related to Parakanã. Different from Asuriní do Xingú. Dictionary. Grammar. Below 5% literate. Typology: OVS. Agriculturalists: manioc, fishermen. Bible portions 1973. Survey needed.

ASURINÍ, XINGÚ (AWATÉ) [ASN] 63 (1994 ALEM). At least one sizeable village, on Rio Piçava off Xingú River near Altamira, Pará. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kayabi-Arawete (V). A separate language, different from Asuriní of the Tocantins (Akwaya), and Arawete. Bilingualism is limited. Work in progress.

ATRUAHÍ (ATROAÍ, ATROARÍ, ATROWARI, ATROAHY, KI'NYA) [ATR] 350 (1995 SIL). On the Alalau and Camanau rivers on the border between the state of Amazonas and the territory of Roraima. Also on the Jatapu and Jauaperi rivers. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waimiri. Dialects: ATRUAHI, WAIMIRÍ (UAIMIRÍ, WAHMIRÍ), JAWAPERI (YAUAPERI). Contacted by Waiwai people in 1968. Dialects or related languages: Sapara, Pauxiana. Piriutite and Tiquiriá are subgroups. Traditional religion.

AVÁ-CANOEIRO (CANOEIROS, CANOE, CANOA, AVÁ, ABÁ, AWANA) [AVV] 56 (1995 SIL). Goiás, Island of Bananal, also upper Tocantins River valley. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). FUNAI contacted another group of 15 in 1983 close to the Tocantins River. Monolingual. Culturally isolated. Semi-nomadic. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

AWETÍ (AWETÖ, AUETO, AUITI, ARAUITE, ARAUINE) [AWE] 36 (1986 SIL). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Tupi, Aweti. May be bilingual in Kamayura. Tropical forest. Fishermen, hunter-gatherers, swidden agriculturalists: manioc, maize. Survey needed.

BAKAIRÍ (BACAIRÍ, KURA) [BKQ] 570 (1994 SIL). Mato Grosso in 9 or 10 villages. Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin. Speakers are somewhat bilingual in Portuguese. Grammar. 15 to 25% literate. Typology: SOV, OVS. Bible portions 1969-1976. Work in progress.

BANAWÁ (KITIYA, BANAVÁ, BANAUÁ, JAFÍ) [BNH] 70 (1994 SIL). Amazonas, upriver quite a distance from the Jamamadí. Half live on the Banawá River, others on small creeks and in scattered locations; 1 village and 2 extended family settlements. Arawakan, Arauan. Isolated. Not as close to Jamamadí linguistically as previously thought. Some bilingualism in Jamamadí, and a little in Portuguese. They prefer their own language. 'They call themselves Kitiya'. 1% to 5% literate or lower. Tropical forest. Work in progress.

BANIWA (BANIUA DO IÇANA, MANIBA, BANIVA, BANIBA, ISSANA) [BAI] 5,460 in Brazil, including 4,057 Baniwa; 1,000 Hohodene; 403 Seuci (1983 SIL); 407 in Venezuela (1975 Gaceta Indigena). Middle Içana River, Amazonas. Also in Colombia. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland. Dialects: HOHODENÉ (HOHODENA, KADAUPURITANA), SIUSY-TAPUYA (SEUCI, SIUCI, SIUSI). They go to Colombia or Venezuela mainly to work or trade. Related to Karutana and Kuripaco. Several groups on the middle Içana and Ayarí Rivers who speak Baniwa: Hohodené, Kadaupuritana, Sucuriyu-Tapuya, Siusy-Tapuya, Irá-Tapuya, Kawá-Tapuya, Waliperedakenai (Ribeiro 1967). 'Kohoroxitari' may be another name for Baniwa. NT 1965-1985. Bible portions 1959.

BORA (BORO) [BOA] 1,500 to 2,000 in all countries; 500 Bora in Colombia; 1,000 to 1,500 in Peru (1977 SIL). Amazonas near the Solimões, between the Tefé and Caiçara rivers, and along the Brazilian part of the Rio Içá. Witotoan, Boran. Dialect: MIRANHA (MIRAÑA, MIRÃNIA). Miraña has 94% intelligibility with Bora. 457 Miraña in Brazil (1986 SIL) no longer speak the language. Typology: SOV. Riverine. NT 1982. Bible portions 1962-1976.

BORÔRO (BOE) [BOR] 850 (1994 SIL). Central Mato Grosso, 8 villages. Macro-Ge, Bororo, Bororo Proper. 15% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV. NT 1993. Bible portions 1977-1995. Work in progress.

BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE (LSB, SÃO PAULO SIGN LANGUAGE) [BZS] São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, and elsewhere. Deaf sign language. Some relationship to North American and European sign languages. The fingerspelling used for proper names is similar to a European system. The first deaf school was begun in 1857 in Rio de Janeiro, then one in Porto Alegre. The deaf in São Paulo generally receive an oralist education. The dialects appear to be inherently intelligible, although northern dialects above the Amazon are probably more distinct. The news is reported to be signed on TV each evening.

CAFUNDO CREOLE [CCD] 40 (1978 M. Gnerre, U. Estadual de Campinas). Cafundo, 150 miles from São Paulo. Creole, Portuguese based. Bantu lexicon in Portuguese morphological and syntactic framework. The people are all fluent in Portuguese. The creole is considered a secret language. A similar creole has been recently discovered in Minas Gerais.

CALÓ (CALO, GITANO, IBERIAN ROMANI) [RMR] 55,000 to 165,000 in all countries, including 10,000 in Latin America. Also in Spain, Portugal, France. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Central. Dialect: BRAZILIAN CALÃO. Gypsy language very different from other Romani. A cryptolectal variety of Portuguese. Speakers are bilingual in Portuguese. Christian. Bible portions 1837-1872.

CAMPA, UCAYALI-YURUA ASHÉNINCA (KAMPA) [CPB] 212 to 235 in Brazil (1983 SIL); 7,000 in Peru (1995 SIL). Acre. Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Campa. Intermittent contact in Brazil.

CANELA (KANELA) [RAM] 1,420 (1995 SIL), including 950 Ramkokamekra, 470 Apanjekra (1995 SIL). Maranhão, southeastern Pará. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira. Dialects: APANJEKRA (APANHECRA, APANIEKRA), RAMKOKAMEKRA. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Hunters, agriculturalists: maize, yams. Traditional religion. NT 1990. Bible portions 1976-1981.

CARAPANA (CARAPANÃ, KARAPANÃ, MEXTÃ) [CBC] 50 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 600 in Colombia (1990 SIL); 650 total. São Gabriel and Pari-Cachoeira, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Tatuyo. NT 1992. Bible portions 1977-1989.

CARÚTANA (KARUTANA, ARARA DO AMAZONAS) [CRU] 250 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northwest Amazonas, near Curripaco. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland. Dialects: ADARU, ARARA, DZAUI (DZAWI), JAUARETE (YAWARETE TAPUYA), JURUPARI (YURUPARI TAPUYA), MAPACHE, UADZOLI (WADZOLI), URUBU. Close to Curripaco and Baniwa. Arara may be distinct. Survey needed.

CASHINAHUA (CASHINAHUÁ, KAXINAWÁ, KAXINAUÁ, KAXYNAWA, CAXINAWA, CAXINAWÁ) [CBS] 775 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 850 to 1,200 in Peru (1977 SIL); 1,600 to 2,000 total. Acre. Panoan, Southeastern. Somewhat bilingual. Minor changes from Peruvian dialect. NT 1983. Bible portions 1971-1977.

CHIRIPÁ (NHANDEVA, ÑANDEVA, TSIRIPÁ, TXIRIPÁ, APYTARE, GUARANÍ) [NHD] 4,900 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 7,000 in Paraguay (1991); 11,900 in all countries, or more. Mato Grosso do Sul State, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo. Also in Argentina. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Dialect: APAPOCUVA. In Brazil it has been influenced by Paraguayan Guaraní, Mbya, and Kaiwá. Most speakers are from the Apapocuva group, which has been described by ethnographers. In Brazil, speakers are over 40, and the group is shifting to Portuguese. Called 'Chiripá' in Paraguay, 'Nhandeva' in Brazil. The name 'Ñandeva' is used in the Paraguayan Chaco for Tapiete, a different but related language. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

CINTA LARGA [CIN] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Western Mato Grosso. Tupi, Monde. Some as still uncontacted. Rodrigues lists Zoró, Cinta Larga, and Gavião as separate languages (1986). Survey needed.

COCAMA-COCAMILLA (COCAMA, KOKAMA) [COD] Ethnic group: 176 in Brazil (1995 SIL); 20 in Colombia; 15,000 to 18,000 in Peru (1977 SIL). Amazonas. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tupi (III). Dialects: COCAMA, COCAMILLA (KOKAMILLA, PAMBADEQUE), XIBITAONA. They speak only Portuguese in Brazil. Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1961-1967.

CUBEO (CUVEO, CUBEU, KOBEUA, KOBEWA, KUBWA, KOBÉWA, HEHENAWA, PAMIWA) [CUB] 150 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 6,000 in Colombia (1994 SIL); 6,150 total. Northwest Amazonas. Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan. NT 1970-1989. Bible portions 1958-1986.

CULINA (KULÍNA, KULYNA, CORINA, MADIJA, MADIHÁ) [CUL] 865 in Brazil (1995 SIL); 150 to 400 in Peru (1977 SIL); 1,000 to 1,265 in both countries. Amazonas, Acre. Arawakan, Arauan. Minor changes from Peruvian dialect. The Arawan languages may not be Arawakan. Bible portions 1965-1985. Work in progress.

CURRIPACO (CURIPACO, KURIPAKO, KORIPAKO, KORISPASO) [KPC] 810 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 2,000 to 2,500 in Colombia; 210 in Venezuela; 3,000 to 3,500 in all countries. Northwest Amazonas. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland. Dialects: KORRIPAKO (KARUPAKA), UNHUN (CADAUAPURITANA, ENHEN). Close to Baniwa and Carutana. NT 1959. Bible portions 1948.

DENÍ (DANI) [DAN] 600 (1986 SIL). Amazonas. Arawakan, Arauan. Dialect: INAUINI. Sometimes called 'Jamamadí', but that is a separate language. Dictionary. Work in progress.

DESANO (DESÂNA, WINA, UINA, WIRÃ, BOLEKA, OREGU, KUSIBI) [DES] 960 in Brazil (1995 SIL), 800 in Colombia (1982 SIL); 1,760 in both countries. Northwestern Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano. NT 1984. Bible portions 1975-1981.

FULNIÔ (FURNIÔ, FORNIÓ, CARNIJÓ, IATÊ, YATÊ) [FUN] 2,788 (1995 SIL). Pernambuco. Macro-Ge, Fulnio. Bilingual in Portuguese. Fulniô language is mainly used in 3-month annual religious retreat. Subsistence agriculturalists: beans, cotton. Survey needed.

GAVIÃO DO JIPARANÁ (GAVIÃO DO RONDÔNIA, DIGUT) [GVO] 472 including 220 Gavião (1986 SIL) and 252 Zoró (1995 AMTB). Rondônia (Gavião), Mato Grosso (Cinta Larga). Tupi, Monde. Dialects: GAVIÃO, ZORÓM (PANGINEY, CABEÇA SECA). It is partially intelligible with Suruí. Different from Gavião of Pará, which is Je. Rodrigues lists Zoró and Cinta Larga as separate languages from Gavião (1986). Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

GAVIÃO, PARÁ (PARAKATÊJÊ, PYKOBJÊ) [GAY] 180 in the main village and others scattered (1995 SIL). State of Pará, in a new village called 'Kaikoturé', near Marabá. Some live scattered in or near their original locations in Maranhão and Pará. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira. They call themselves 'Parakatêjê Indian Community'. 'Gavião', meaning 'hawk', is used by outsiders. Related to Krikati-Timbira, Canela, and Krahô. They prefer their language, but there is increasing use of regional Portuguese. Schools are in Portuguese. Not to be confused wih the Gavião of Rondônia.

GUAJÁ (AWA GUAJÁ, AYAYA, WAZAIZARA, GUAXARE) [GUJ] 370 (1995 AMTB). Maranhão, babassu palm area near Gurupi and Upper Pindare rivers, some in Serra Canastra, Tocantins, and Guamá post in Pará. At least 6 isolated groups. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII). A separate language. Limited bilingualism. Hunter-gatherers.

GUAJAJÁRA (GUAZAZARA, TENETEHAR, TENETEHÁRA) [GUB] 10,000 (1986 C. Harrison SIL). Maranhão, 81 villages. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). Dialects: PINDARE, ZUTIUA, MEARIM, TEMBE OF GURUPI. Somewhat bilingual. 30% literate. Three main dialects. Grammar. NT 1985. Bible portions 1930-1934.

GUANA (KINIKINAO, CHUALA, CHANA, EAST PARANÁ, KINIHINAO, EQUINAO) [QKS] Mato Grosso do Sul, near the Terêna. Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana. Related to Ter^ena, Iranche. Extinct.

GUANANO (WANÂNA, WANANO, UANANA, ANANA, KÓTEDIA, KÓTIRYA) [GVC] 550 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 450 in Colombia (1983 SIL); 1,000 in both countries. Northwest Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern. Close to Piratapuyo, but ethnically distinct. NT 1982. Bible portions 1968.

GUARANÍ, MBYÁ (MBYÁ, MBUA, MBIÁ, BUGRE) [GUN] 5,000 or more in Brazil (1995 SIL); 7,000 in Paraguay (1995 SIL); 12,000 in all countries, or more. Southwestern Paraná, southeastern São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais. 35 villages in 7 states. Also in Argentina. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Dialects: TAMBÉOPÉ, BATICOLA. Different from Paraguayan Guaraní; 75% lexical similarity. 15% literate in Brazil. Typology: SVO. Levels of bilingualism in Portuguese for Female: 0:30%, 1:50%, 2:18%, 3:2%, 4:0%, 5:0%; Male: 0:2%, 1:22%, 2:50%, 3:20%, 4:4%, 5:2%; Total 0 16, 1 36, 2 34, 3 11, 4 2, 5 1. NT 1987. Bible portions 1971-1976.

GUAREQUENA (UREQUEMA, WAREKÉNA, WEREKENA, UEREQUEMA, WERIKENA, AREQUENA) [GAE] 338 in Brazil (1983 NTM); 367 in Venezuela; 705 total. Amazonas, Rio Chié (Xié) and Içana near Venezuelan border. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland. Many speak Nhengatu in Brazil, but most use Guarequena by preference. Spoken in remote areas; those in centers are more bilingual. In Venezuela all are bilingual in Spanish. Survey needed.

GUATÓ [GTA] 40 scattered speakers out of 382 in the ethnic group (1993 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul and Bolivian border, banks of the Paraguai and going up the São Lourenço rivers. Macro-Ge, Guato. Survey needed.

HALÓ TÉ SÚ [HLO] 38 to 52 (1987 SIL). Mato Grosso. Nambiquaran. Recently contacted. Survey needed.

HIMARIMÃ [HIR] Small. Amazonas, near the Jamamadi and Jarawara. Isolated. Unclassified. Survey needed.

HIXKARYÁNA (HIXKARIANA, HISHKARYANA, PARUKOTO-CHARUMA, PARUCUTU, CHAWIYANA, KUMIYANA, SOKAKA, WABUI, FARUARU, SHEREWYANA, XEREWYANA, XEREU, HICHKARYANA) [HIX] 550 (1994 SIL), including 89 Xereuyana (1986 SIL). Amazonas, upper Nhamundá River to Mapuera and Jatapú Rivers. Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana. Isolated. Close to Waiwai. No dialectal variation. The Sherewyana speak the same language but some live with the Waiwai. Grammar. 50% literate. Typology: OVS. Levels of bilingualism in Portuguese are 0:85%, 1:10%, 2:5%, 3:0%, 4:0%, 5:0%. NT 1976. Bible portions 1966.

HUPDÉ ("HUPDÁ MAKÚ", "JUPDÁ MACÚ", "MAKÚ-HUPDÁ", "MACÚ DE TUCANO", UBDÉ) [JUP] 1,208 in Brazil (1995 SIL); 150 in Colombia (1991 SIL); 1,350 in both countries. Rio Auari, northwestern Amazonas. Maku. Dialects: HUPDË, TUHUP, NËHUP. Possibly 50% are bilingual in Tucano or some other Tucanoan language. They are subservient to the Tucano and other Tucanoan Indians. The name "Macu" is offensive. Ruhlen and others classify it as Puinave, Macro-Tucanoan. Intelligibility among Yahup, Tuhup, and Nëhup needs investigation. Some are nomadic between Brazil and Colombia. Tropical forest. Work in progress.

IAPAMA [IAP] Border region of Pará and Amapá. Unclassified. Existence uncertain. Survey needed.

IPEKA-TAPUIA (PATO-TAPUYA, PATO TAPUIA, CUMATA, IPECA, PACU, PAKU-TAPUYA, PAYULIENE, PAYUALIENE, PALIOARIENE) [PAJ] 135 (1976 RC). Içana, Amazonas. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland. Dialect: WALIPERI (VELIPERI). They may all speak Tucano. Voegelin and Voegelin treat it as a dialect of Siuci (see Baniwa). Survey needed.

IRÁNTXE (IRANXE, IRANCHE, MUNDU) [IRA] 191 (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso, headwaters of the Rio Cravari, tributary of the Rio Sangue, which is a tributary of the Rio Juruena. Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Unclassified. Dialects: MÜNKÜ (MYNKY, MENKU, KENKÜ, MY~KY), IRÁNTXE. Most are bilingual in Portuguese. 'Mundu' is a self designation. Survey needed.

ITOGAPÚK (ITOGAPUC, NTOGAPIG, NTOGAPID, RAMARAMA, ITANGA) [ITG] 95 (1986 SIL). Mato Grosso. Tupi, Ramarama. Survey needed.

JABUTÍ (YABUTÍ) [JBT] 5 (1990 YWAM). Rio Branco Post, Rondônia. Macro-Ge, Yabuti. Nearly extinct.

JAMAMADÍ (YAMAMADÍ, KANAMANTI, CANAMANTI) [JAA] 195 (1994 SIL) including 12 Mamoria. Amazonas, scattered over 200,000 square miles. Arawakan, Arauan. Dialects: BOM FUTURO, JURUA, PAUINI, MAMORIA (MAMORI), CUCHUDUA (MAIMA), TUKURINA. Other groups are called 'Jamamadí' which are closer to Culina or Dení. Tukurina may be a separate language. Dialects or related languages: Araua, Pama, Sewacu, Sipo, Yuberi. People want a school. 75% to 100% literate. Typology: OSV. Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

JARUÁRA (JARAWARA) [JAP] 150 (1993 SIL). Amazonas, near the Jamamadí, 7 villages. Arawakan, Arauan. Formerly considered a dialect of Jamamadí. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: OSV. Selections 1993. Work in progress.

JEPA-MATSI (YEPÁ-MAHSÁ, PANEROA, YEHPÁ MAJSÁ, YEPÁ MAXSÃ, YEBAMASÃ) [JEP] 55 (1973 RC). Amazonas, Prelazia Rio Negro. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern. It may be the same as Macuna or Barasana (Paneroa) of Colombia. Survey needed.

JÚMA (YUMÁ, KATAUIXI, ARARA, KAGWAHIVA, KAGWAHIBM, KAGWAHIV, KAWAHIP, KAVAHIVA, KAWAIB, KAGWAHIPH) [JUA] 7 (1993 Jornal do Brazil). There were 300 in 1940. Amazonas, Rio Açuã, tributary of the Mucuim. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Call themselves 'Kagwahiva'. Isolated. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Nearly extinct.

JURÚNA (YURÚNA, IURUNA, JARUNA) [JUR] 150 (1995 SIL). Xingú Park, northern Mato Grosso, near mouth of the Manitsaua-mitau River, 2 villages. Tupi, Yuruna, Yuruna-Chipaya. A separate language. Bilingualism is limited. Agriculturalists: manioc; fishermen. Survey needed.

KABIXÍ (CABICHÍ, CABISHI) [KBD] 100 (1986 SIL). Slopes of Planalto dos Parecís, right bank of upper Guaporé, near Vila Bela, Mato Grosso. Chapacura-Wanham, Guapore. Isolated. Related to Cujuna, Cumana, Mataua, Wanham, Urunumacan. The term is also used for Parecís or Nambikuara. Both people and language may be extinct. Survey needed.

KADIWÉU (MBAYA-GUAIKURU, CADUVÉO, EDIU-ADIG) [KBC] 1,200 (1995 SIL) to 1,800 (1995 Filomena Sandalo). Mato Grosso do Sul, around Serra da Bodoquena. 3 villages. Mataco-Guaicuru, Guaicuruan. 'Payagua' may be a term for 'enemy' applied to this group. 25% to 50% literate. Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1981. Work in progress.

KAIMBÉ [QKQ] (1,100 to 1,400 in ethnic group; 1986 SIL). Bahía. Unclassified. Ethnic group now speaks Portuguese. Extinct.

KAINGÁNG (COROADO, COROADOS, CAINGANG, BUGRE) [KGP] 18,000 (1989 U. Wiesemann SIL). São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul; 21 locations. Central Kaingang is in São Paulo and Santa Catarina. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern. Dialects: PARANÁ KAINGANG, CENTRAL KAINGANG, SOUTHWEST KAINGANG, SOUTHEAST KAINGANG. 4 dialects. The name 'Bugre' is also used for Xokleng and Mbya Guaraní. Somewhat bilingual. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. NT 1977. Bible portions 1967-1968.

KAINGANG, SÃO PAULO [ZKS] 80 (1989 U. Wiesemann SIL). São Paulo. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern. Different enough from Kaingang to need adapted literature. Most use Portuguese as second language. Grammar.

KAIWÁ (CAIWÁ, CAINGUA, CAYUA, CAIUA, KAYOVA, KAIOVA) [KGK] 15,000 in Brazil (199 SIL); 512 in Argentina; 15,500 in both countries, or more. Mato Grosso do Sul. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Dialects: TEÜI, TEMBEKUÁ, KAIWÁ. Somewhat intelligible with Paraguayan Guaraní. 70% lexical similarity with Pai Tavytera of Paraguay. 15% to 25% literate. NT 1986. Bible portions 1966-1972.

KALIHNA (CARIB, CARIBE, KALINYA, CARIÑA, GALIBÍ, MARAWORNO, MARWORNO) [CRB] 100 or more in Brazil (1995 SIL); 2,500 in Surinam; 475 or more in Guyana; 1,200 in French Guiana; 4,000 to 5,000 in Venezuela (1978 J.C. Mosonyi); 10,000 in all countries (1991). State of Amapá. Carib, Northern, Galibi. Dialect: TYREWUJU (EASTERN CARIB). Called 'Galibi' in Brazil. Portuguese-Carib creole people (Galibí do Uaçá) also speak Crioulo (French Creole). Work in progress.

KAMÃ (KAMÃ MAKÚ, DÂW) [KWA] 83 (1994 ALEM). Amazonas, across the river from São Gabriel de Cochoeira, a county seat just below the confluence of the Vaupés and Negro rivers. Maku. They call themselves 'Dâw'. Work in progress.

KAMAKAN (EZESHIO) [VKM] Bahia area. Macro-Ge, Kamakan. Extinct.

KAMAYURÁ (KAMAIURÁ, CAMAIURA, KAMAYIRÁ) [KAY] 279 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kamayura (VII). A separate language. Limited bilingualism. Hunters, fishermen, agriculturalists.

KAMBA (CAMBA) [QKZ] (2,000 in ethnic group; 1986 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul, near Corumbá. Unclassified. May have been Tupí. Ethnic group came from Bolivia, and now speaks Spanish. Extinct.

KAMBIWÁ [QKH] (1,108 in ethnic group; 1995 SIL). Pernambuco. Unclassified. Ethnic group now speaks Portuguese. Extinct.

KANAMARÍ (KANAMARÉ, CANAMARÍ) [KNM] 647 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, upper regions of Jurua, Jutai, Itaquai rivers. Katukinan. Dialect: TSHOM-DJAPA (TXUNHUÃ-DJAPÁ, TXUNHUÃ DYAPÁ. Work in progress.

KANOÉ (CANOÉ, GUARATÉGAYA, GUARATEGAJA, KOARATIRA, GUARATIRA, AMNIAPÉ, MEQUENS) [KXO] Ethnic group: 30 (1995 SIL). Rondônia, scattered locations. Tupi, Tupari. Distinct from Ava (Canoeiros). They speak only Portuguese. Extinct.

KAPINAWÁ [QKP] (354 in ethnic group; 1995 AMTB). Pernambuco. Unclassified. Ethnic group now speaks Portuguese. Extinct.

KARAHAWYANA [XKH] 40 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, near the Waiwai. Unclassified. Probably Cariban. Today some live with the Waiwai and some near the Hixkaryana, and speak those languages. Nearly extinct.

KARAJÁ (XAMBIOÁ, CHAMBOA, YNÃ) [KPJ] 1,700 (1995 SIL), including 383 Javaé (1986 SIL). Goiás, Pará, Mato Grosso, Araguaia River, Bananal Island, and Tocantins. Macro-Ge, Karaja. Dialect: JAVAÉ (JAVAHE). 75% literate. Men and women speak different dialects. Grammar. Agriculturalists, hunters. NT 1983. Bible portions 1965.

KARIPÚNA (KARIPÚNA DO UAÇÁ, KARIPÚNA DO AMAPÁ) [KGM] Territory of Amapá, on French Guiana border. Unclassified. It has been suggested, but not demonstrated, that this was a Tupi-Guarani language. The descendants now speak Karipúna Creole French. Extinct.

KARIPUNÁ (KARIPUNÁ DO GUAPORÉ, CARIPUNA, JAU-NAVO, JUANAUO, KARIPUNÁ DE RONDÔNIA) [KUQ] 12 or more (1995 SIL). Rondônia, sides of Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias rivers. Panoan, Southern. Dialects: JACARIA, PAMA (PAMANA). Isolated. There may be more in the jungle. They may be bilingual in Tenharim. Survey needed.

KARIPÚNA CREOLE FRENCH (CRIOULO) [KMV] 672 (1995 SIL). Amapá, on French Guiana border. Creole, French based. Speakers formerly spoke Karipúna, an unclassified language, possibly formerly from Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazon. There are conflicting reports about how different it is from French Guianese. It is distinct from Haitian Creole. Limited bilingualism. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Islands, swamp. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists: manioc. Traditional religion, Christian. Selections 1984.

KARIRI-XOCÓ (KARIRÍ, KARIRI XUCÓ, KIPEÁ, XOKÓ-KARIRÍ, XUKURU KARIRI, XUKURÚ, XOCÓ, XOKÓ) [KZW] (1,062 in ethnic group; 1995 SIL). Alagoas. Unclassified. Dialects: KIPEÁ (QUIPEA), KAMURÚ (CAMURU), DZUBUKUÁ (DZUBUCUA), SABUJÁ (PEDRA BRANCA). People are monolingual in Portuguese. Attested only in a grammar and catechism (Mamiani 1699, 1698). Other dialects or languages are even less well attested. Classified as Equatorial (Greenberg 1959), Macro-Carib (Swadesh 1959), Macro-Ge (Rodrigues 1975), Isolate (Rivet and Loukotka 1952, Larsen 1984). Extinct.

KARITIÂNA (CARITIANA) [KTN] 150 (1995 SIL). Rondônia. Tupi, Arikem. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1981. Work in progress.

KATAWIXI (CATAWIXI, CATAUIXI, CATAWISHI, CATAUICHI) [QKI] 10 (1986 SIL). Amazonas. Katukinan. Nearly extinct.

KATUKÍNA (KATUKINA DO JUTAÍ, PIDÁ-DJAPÁ, CATUQUINA) [KAV] 1 speaker (1976 SIL); 253 in ethnic group (1986 SIL). Acre. Katukinan. Dialect: CUTIADAPA (KUTIA-DYAPA). Different from Panoan Katukina in Amazonas and Acre. Nearly extinct.

KATUKÍNA, PANOAN (CATUQUINA, WANINNAWA, KAMANAWA, KAMANNAUA, KATUKINA DO JURUÁ) [KNT] 196 (1995 AMTB). Amazonas, Acre. Panoan, Southeastern. Dialects: ARARA-SHAWANAWA (SHAWANAWA-ARARA), ARARAPINA, ARARAWA, SANAINAWA (SANINAWACANA). Different from other Katukína (Katukinan Family) in Acre. Possibly intelligible with Marubo. Work in progress.

KAXARARÍ (KAXARIRI) [KTX] 220 (1995 AMTB). Alto Rio Marmelo, tributary of Rio Abuna, Acre, Rondônia, Amazonas. Panoan, Eastern. Distinct from Arawakan Casharari (Cacharari; Voegelin and Voegelin 1977.215). Limited bilingualism.

KAXUIÂNA (KASHUYANA, KASHUJANA, KACHUANA, WARIKYANA, WARIKIANA, KAXÚYANA) [KBB] 434 including 300 Warikyana, 134 Kaxuiana (1986 SIL). Imabu River near perimetral norte, on Trombetes River near junction with Mapuwera, northwestern Pará. A few are living with the Hixkaryána; most with the Trió. Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana. Dialect: PAWIYANA (PAWIXI). There is a fair amount of bilingualism between some speakers of Trió and Kaxuiâna. Survey needed.

KAYABÍ (KAJABÍ, CAIABI, PARUA, MAQUIRI) [KYZ] 800 (1994 SIL). Northern Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, and southern Pará; Teles Pires River and Tatui, many villages. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kayabi-Arawete (V). Grammar. Below 5% literate. Typology: OSV. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.

KAYAPÓ (KOKRAIMORO) [TXU] 4,000 (1994 SIL) including 469 Xikrin (1986 SIL). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso, southern Pará. 9 villages. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Kayapo. Dialects: XIKRIN (XUKRU, DIORE), KARARAÓ, KAYAPÓ-kRADAÚ. Those listed as dialects are only slightly different. Village names sometimes listed as dialects are: Txukuhamai (Txucarramãe), Gorotire, Kube-Kran-Kenh (Cabeca Pelada), Menkragnotire (Mentuktire, Kuben-Kragnotire, Gente Preta, Kubenkrangnoti, Kubenkrankegn, Menkrangnoti), Pacajá. Grammar. Typology: SOV. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1975-1978.

KIRIRÍ-XOKÓ (XUKURÚ, SHOCU, SHOCO, KIRIRÍ) [XOO] (1,800 in the ethnic group; 1995 SIL). Pernambuco, Serra de Urubá (Arobá) near the city of Cimbres, Bahia. Unclassified. The people are monolingual in Portuguese. Apparently distinct from Karirí-Xocó. Extinct.

KOHOROXITARI [KOB] 622 (1976 RC). Amazonas, Prelazia Rio Negro. Unclassified. Possibly Tucanoan. May be the same as Baniwa. Survey needed.

KORUBO [QKF] 500 (1995 AMTB). Amazonas. Unclassified. Possibly Panoan. May be the same as Marubo, or related to Yanomami. No permanent contact. They do not welcome outsiders. Survey needed.

KRAHÔ [XRA] 1,200 (1988 SIL). Maranhão, southeastern Pará, Tocantins, 5 villages. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira. The Krahô do not accept the name 'Canela'. Different from Canela, but may be able to use literature adapted from Canela. Limited bilingualism. Typology: SOV.

KREEN-AKARORE (KREN AKARORE, PANARÁ) [KRE] 122 (1995 SMTB). Xingú Park, northern Mato Grosso. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Kreen-Akarore. Not a dialect of Kayapó; possibly closer to Canela. Bilingualism is limited. Agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers. Survey needed.

KRENAK [KQQ] 80 approximately; at least 20 families in southern São Paulo (1989 U. Wiesemann SIL). Left margin of Doce River, on reservations in east Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso, Paraná. Macro-Ge, Botocudo. Second language is Portuguese. Survey needed.

KREYE (KREM-YE, CRENGE, CRANGE, CREYE, CRENYE, TAZE, TAGE) [XRE] 30 or fewer (1995 SIL). Maranhão and Pará. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira. Nearly extinct.

KRIKATI-TIMBIRA [XRI] 420 (1995 AMTB). Maranhão, southeastern Pará, Tocantins. The Timbira are in Governador Village, Municipality of Amarante. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira. Dialects: KRINKATI (KARAKATI), TIMBIRA. The Krikati and Timbira are separate ethnic groups speaking related dialects. Limited bilingualism. Literature may also serve the Gavião of Rondônia. Typology: SOV. Work in progress.

KUIKÚRO-KALAPÁLO (KUIKURU, GUICURÚ, KURKURO, CUICUTL, KALAPALO, APALAKIRI, APALAQUIRI) [KUI] 526, including 277 Kuikuro and 249 Kalapalo (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin. The Kuikuru and the Kalapalo speak the same language, but are separate ethnically. Limited bilingualism. Fishermen, hunters, swidden agriculturalists: manioc, maize.

KURUÁYA (XIPAIA, CARAVARE, CURUAIA) [KYR] 147 (1995 AMTB). Pará. Tupi, Munduruku. The people use Portuguese almost exclusively now (1995).

MACHINERE (MANCHINERE, MANCHINERI, MANITENERÍ, MANITENERE, MAXINÉRI) [MPD] 400 (1995 AMTB). Acre. Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus. Isolated. Distinct enough from Piro in Peru to need separate literature. Manitenére may be distinct from Machinere. Bible portions 1960. Work in progress.

MACUNA (BUHAGANA, BAIGANA, WUHÁNA, MAKUNA) [MYY] 46 in Brazil (1973 RC); 450 in Colombia (1991 SIL); 500 in both countries. Rio Chié, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern. NT 1989. Bible portions 1978-1987.

MACUSHI (MAKUXÍ, MACUSI, MAKUSHI, TEWEYA, TEUEIA) [MBC] 3,800 in Brazil; 7,000 in Guyana (1990 J. Forte); 600 in Venezuela (1976 UFM); 11,400 to 13,000 in all countries. Contingo, Quino, Pium, and Mau rivers, northeast Roraima and Rio Branco. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Macushi. Bilingualism increasing in Portuguese. Not intelligible with Arecuna or Patamona. Typology: OVS. NT 1981. Bible portions 1923-1975. Work in progress.

MAKURÁP (MAKURÁPI, MACURAP, MACURAPI, MASSAKA, KURATEG) [MAG] 114 (1995 AMTB). Pororoca Post, Rondônia, and scattered locations. Tupi, Tupari. Children speak Portuguese as first language. Young adults speak Portuguese. Intermarriage on same post with speakers of other languages. They call themselves 'Kurateg'.

MANDAHUACA (MANDAUACA, MANDAWÁKA, IHINI, ARIHINI, MALDAVACA, CUNIPUSANA, YAVITA, MITUA) [MHT] 3 in Brazil (1993 ALEM); 3,000 in Venezuela (1975); 3,000 in all countries. Amazonas, upper Cauaboris, tributary of the Rio Negro, Colombian border. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland. The name 'Baré' is also used as a cover term for separate languages: Baré, Mandahuaca, Guarekena, Baniwa, Piapoko. Related to Adzaneni, Yabaana, Masaca. Survey needed.

MAQUIRITARI (MAYONGONG, MAQUIRITARE, MAQUIRITAI, MAKIRITARE, PAWANA, SOTO) [MCH] 270 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 4,970 in Venezuela (1975 Gaceta Indigenista); 5,240 total. Roraima. Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana. Dialects: CUNUANA, DE'CUANA (WAINUNGOMO), IHURUANA, MAITSI, MAYONGONG (YE'CUANA, YEKUANA). Isolated. NT 1970. Bible portions 1957-1968.

MANITSAUÁ (MANITSAWÁ, MANTIZULA, MARITSAUA) [MSP] Manitsaua-Missu, a tributary of the Upper Xingú, Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Tupi, Yuruna, Manitswa. Dialect: ARUPAI (URUPAYA). Extinct.

MARÚBO (MARUBA, MAROVA) [MZR] 594 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, along the headwaters of the tributaries of the Curuçá, Ipixuna, and Javarí, near the Peru border. Panoan, North-Central. Speakers say they cannot understand Matsés (Mayoruna). Possibly intelligible with Panoan Katukína. Korubo may be the same. Work in progress.

MATIPUHY (MATIPU, MARIAPE-NAHUQUA) [MZO] 40 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin. Dialects: MATIPUHY, NAHUKUÁ (NAKUKWÁ, NAFUKWÁ, NAHUQUA). Ruhlen says Kalapaló is a dialect of Nahukuá. May also be intelligible with Kuikúro. Fishermen, hunters, swidden agriculturalists: manioc, maize. Survey needed.

MATÍS [MPQ] 120 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, Javari Valley, Municipality of Atalaia do Norte, on the border with Peru. Panoan, Northern. Seems to be different from Matsés, although similar. Isolated. Survey needed.

MATSÉS (MAYORUNA, MATSE) [MCF] 483 in Brazil (1995 SIL); 800 in Peru (1981 SIL); 1,280 in both countries. Amazonas. Panoan, Northern. Different from Mayo, Marubo, or Maya. Matís seems to be different. NT 1993. Bible portions 1976-1988.

MAXAKALÍ (CAPOSHO, CUMANASHO, MACUNI, MONAXO, MONOCHO) [MBL] 728 (1994 SIL). Minas Gerais, 100 miles inland from coast, 14 villages. Macro-Ge, Maxakali. The population is largely young. 37% literate. Typology: SOV. NT 1981. Bible portions 1968.

MEHINÁKU (MEHINACO, MAHINAKU, MINACO) [MMH] 121 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran. Somewhat intelligible with Waura, but probably needs adapted literature. Bilingualism is limited. Fishermen, hunters, swidden agriculturalists: manioc, maize. Survey needed.

MEKEM (MEQUEM, MEQUEN, MUKI) [XME] 50 (1995 AMTB). Rondônia. Tupi, Monde. May be the same as Kanoé (Mequens). Survey needed.

MIARRÃ [XMI] Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Unclassified. Survey needed.

MIRITI (MIRITI-TAPUIA, MIRITI TAPUYO, NEENOÁ) [MMV] Ethnic group: 55 (1995 AMTB). Pari-Cachoeira, Taracua, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Miriti. Aall speak Tucano. 'Tapuya' comes from the Tupí word for 'enemy'. Extinct.

MONDÉ (SANAMAIKÁ, SANAMAYKÃ, SANAMAICA, SALAMÃI, SALAMAIKÃ) [MND] 30 (1995 AMTB). Apidia River, tributary of Igarape Tanaru, Rondônia. Tupi, Monde. May be Huarí, not Tupí. Related to Arua, Digüt. May be extinct. Nearly extinct.

MOREREBI [XMO] Amazonas, Rio Preto and Marmelos. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). May be a Tenharim dialect. A family group that has not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and does not want contact with outside culture. Existence not able to be confirmed in 1993. Survey needed.

MUNDURUKÚ (MUNDURUCU, WEIDYENYE, PAIQUIZE, PARI, CARAS-PRETAS) [MYU] 2,000 or more (1995 SIL). Pará, Amazonas. 22 villages. Tupi, Munduruku. Grammar. Typology: OV. Tropical forest, savannah. NT 1980. Bible portions 1967.

MÚRA-PIRAHÃ (PIRAHÃ) [MYP] 150 (1986 SIL) out of an ethnic group of 1,500 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, along the Maici and Autaces rivers. Mura. Nomadic. The Pirahã are small and quite monolingual. The Mura are larger, mostly integrated. Probably related to Matanawi, which is extinct. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Riverine. Hunter-gatherers. Altitude: 40 to 120 feet. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

NADËB (NADEB MACU, MAKÚ NADËB, MAKUNADÖBÖ, NADÖBÖ, ANODÖUB, KABORI, KABARI, XIRIWAI, XURIWAI) [MBJ] 300 (1986 SIL). Amazonas, three locations on the Uneiuxi River, a tributary of the Negro River, on the Japura and Negro rivers, and in other scattered places. Maku. Ruhlen and others classify it as Puinave in Macro-Tucanoan. The people are semi-nomadic. Typology: OSV. Hunter-gatherers. Work in progress.

NAMBIKUÁRA, NORTHERN (MAMAINDÉ) [MBG] 126 (1995 SIL). Mato Grosso (Mamaindé), Rondônia (Latundê). Nambiquaran. Dialects: MAMAINDÉ, NEGAROTE, TAWANXTE, TAXMAINITE, TAXWENSITE, YALAPMUNXTE (LACONDE, LATUNDÊ). The Latundê live with the Tubarão. Tropical forest. Rubber gatherers. Bible portions 1979-1980. Work in progress.

NAMBIKUÁRA, SOUTHERN (NAMBIQUARA, NAMBIKWARA) [NAB] 900 (1988 SIL), including 150 Galera (1983 SIL). Northwestern Mato Grosso, scattered along the Porto Velho-Cuiabá highway for about 300 km. 10 villages. Nambiquaran. Dialects: MANDUKA, KHITHAULHU, SERRA AZUL, HAHAINTESU, WASUSU, ALATESU, WAIKISU, GALERA. Grammar. The Manduca are semi-integrated. The Nambikuara were reduced from 10,000 in the 1940's by measles. Manairisu is a subgroup. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV, tonal. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1992. Bible portions 1972-1980.

NHENGATU (YERAL, GERAL, LÍNGUA GERAL, NYENGATÚ, NHEENGATU, NYENGATO, ÑEEGATÚ, WAENGATU, COASTAL TUPIAN, MODERN TUPÍ) [YRL] 5,000 in all countries. Lower Vaupés, Içana, and Negro River areas, Amazonas. Also in Colombia and Venezuela. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tupi (III). All speak Tucano as a second language. Based on Tupinambá. Trade language. NT 1973. Bible portions 1960-1967.

NINAM (YANAM, XIRIANÁ, SHIRIANA CASAPARE, KASRAPAI, JAWAPERI, CRICHANA, JAWARI) [SHB] 466 (1976 UFM), 236 in southern dialect, 230 in northern; 100 in Venezuela; 566 total. Mucajai, upper Uraricáa, and Paragua rivers, Roraima. Yanomam. Dialects: SOUTHERN NINAM (MUKAJAI), NORTHERN NINAM (URARICAA-PARAGUA). Distinct from the Arawakan Xiriâna. Generally monolingual; a few children are beginning to learn Portuguese. Bible portions 1970. Work in progress.

NUKUINI (NUQUINI) [NUC] Acre, northwestern, from the upper Mõa to the Rio Sungarú in Juruá. Panoan, South-Central, Unclassified. Dialect: CUYANAWA. They have used mainly Portuguese for 3 generations. Some older people remember a little of the language. Extinct.

OMAGUA (OMAGUA-YETE, ARIANA, PARIANA, ANAPIA, MACANIPA, YHUATA, UMAUA, CAMBEBA, CAMPEBA, CAMBELA, CANGA-PEBA, AGUA, KAMBEBA, COMPEVA) [OMG] There may be none left in Brazil (1995); 10 to 100 in Peru (1976 SIL). Amazonas. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tupi (III). Dialects: AIZUARE (AISSUARI), CURACIRARI (CURAZICARI), CURUCICURI (CURUZICARI), PAGUANA (PAGUARA). All are bilingual in Spanish or Cocama in Peru. Closest to Cocama. Nearly extinct.

OPAYÉ (OPAIÉ-SHAVANTE, OFAIÉ-XAVANTE, OFAYÉ) [OPY] Ethnic group: 37 (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso do Sul, along the Verde, Vacaris, and Ivinhema rivers, and area of Brazilândia. Macro-Ge, Opaye. Laborers. Extinct.

ORO WIN [ORW] 5 speakers, all over 40 years old (199 D. Everett SIL). Headwaters of the Pacaas-Novos River, a tributary of the Mamoré River, along the Brazil-Bolivia border. Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira. Related to Tora, Itene (More), and Wari (Pakaasnovos), but not inherently intelligible with them. Speakers use Wari as second language. Typology: VOS. Nearly extinct.

OTI (CHAVANTE, EUCHAVANTE) [OTI] São Paulo. Macro-Ge, Oti. Extinct.

OTUKE (OTUQUE, OTUQUI, LOUXIRU) [OTU] Mato Grosso lowlands into eastern Bolivia. Macro-Ge, Bororo, Otuke. Related dialects or languages: Covareca, Curuminaca, Coraveca (Curave), Curucaneca, Tapii; all are extinct.

PAKAÁSNOVOS (JARU, UOMO, PAKAANOVAS, PACAAS-NOVOS, PAKAANOVA, PACAHANOVO, ORO WARI, WARI) [PAV] 1,833 (1994 D. Everett SIL). Rondônia. Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira. Isolated. Bible portions 1975-1984. Work in progress.

PALIKÚR (PALIKOUR, PALICUR, PALIJUR) [PAL] 800 in Brazil; 400 in French Guiana; 1,200 total (1988 SIL). Northern coastal tip along rivers, Amapá. Arawakan, Maipuran, Eastern Maipuran. Somewhat bilingual. Around 200 literates. Grammar. Riverine, island. Hunters, agriculturalists. NT 1982. Bible portions 1971.

PANKARARÉ [PAX] Ethnic group: 1,200 (1995 AMTB). Bahía. Unclassified. Monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

PANKARARÚ (PANKARARÁ, PANKARÚ, PANCARU, PANCARÉ, PANKARAVU, PANKARORU) [PAZ] Ethnic group: 3,676 (1995 AMTB). Pernambuco, Alagoas. Language Isolate. Highly acculturated. Monolingual in Portuguese. Possibly related to Kirirí. Extinct.

PAPAVÔ [PPV] Acre, Taramacá River. Unclassified. A separate language. Limited bilingualism. Existence unconfirmed. Survey needed.

PARAKANÃ (PARAKANÂN, PAROCANA) [PAK] 451 (1995 AMTB). Pará, Xingú Park, lower Xingú River. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). Isolated. Work in progress.

PARANAWÁT (PARANAUAT, PAWATÉ, MAJUBIM) [PAF] (50 to 100 in ethnic group; 1986 SIL). Rondônia, tributaries of the Jiparaná (Machado) River and Sono River. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Extinct.

PARECÍS (PARESSÍ, PARESÍ, HALITI) [PAB] 1,200 (1994 SIL). Mato Grosso, 6,000 square kilometers. 15 to 20 villages. Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran. Somewhat bilingual. There are public schools in 7 villages. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SOV, OVS. Plateau. Altitude: 650 meters. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1971-1985.

PATAXÓ-HÃHÃHÃI (PATAXI, PATASHÓ, PATOXÓ, PATAXÓ-HÃHÃHÃE) [PTH] (2,950 in ethnic group; 1995 AMTB). Minas Gerais, Bahía, Pôsto Paraguassu in the municipality of Itabuna. Unclassified. The people are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

PAUMARÍ (PURUPURÚ) [PAD] 700 or more (1994 SIL); half of the speakers are under 12 years of age (1984 SIL). Amazonas. 3 villages. Arawakan, Arauan. Dialects: PAUMARÍ (PAMMARI), KURUKURU (CURUCURU), UAIAI. Three inherently intelligible dialects. Speakers are fairly bilingual. 20% literate. Grammar. NT 1995. Bible portions 1972-1976.

PEMON (PEMONG, INGARIKÓ, INGARICÓ) [AOC] 220 Taulipang in Brazil; 459 Ingarikó in Brazil; 400 to 500 Arekuna in Guyana; 4,850 Pemon in Venezuela (1977 Migliazza); 5,930 in all countries. Rio Branco, near Guyana border, Roraima. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Kapon. Dialects: TAULIPANG (TAUREPAN), CAMARACOTA (IPURICOTO), ARECUNA (ARICUNA, AREKUNA, JARICUNA). Typology: OVS. Work in progress.

PIRATAPUYO (WAIKINO, PIRA-TAPUYA, UAIKENA, UAICANA, WAIKHARA, WAINA, UAIANA, UAINANA) [PIR] 618 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 450 in Colombia; 1,070 total. Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern. Close to Guanano linguistically, ethnically distinct, but the two groups do not intermarry. Tucano is the second language of speakers. NT 1991.

PLAUTDIETSCH (LOW GERMAN, MENNONITE GERMAN) [GRN] 5,955 in Brazil (1985 SIL); 306,000 in all countries of whom 150,000 use it habitually (1983); 110,735 or more in Latin America are fairly monolingual. Primarily in Canada. Also in USA, Mexico, Paraguay, Bolivia, Belize, Uruguay, Argentina, Costa Rica, Russia, Kazakhstan, Germany. Indo-European, Germanic, West, Continental, Low. Speakers are bilingual in Portuguese and Standard German. Christian. NT 1987. Bible portions 1984-1986.

POKANGÁ (PAKANG, POKANGÁ-TAPUYA, BARÁ, BARASANO, BARA SONA) [POK] 100 (1983 SIL). Upper Tiquie, tributary of Vaupés, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara. It may be the same as Barasana or Northern Barasano (Bará, Waimaja). Survey needed.

PORTUGUESE [POR] 153,000,000 in Brazil (1995 estimate); 170,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Also in Portugal, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé, Macau, France, USA, Canada, Goa (India), Timor (Indonesia), Spain, Germany, United Kingdom. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Western. Literacy rate 71%. National language. Christian, spiritism. Braille NT. Bible 1751-1988. NT 1681-1995. Bible portions 1877-1981.

POTIGUÁRA (PITONARA) [POG] Ethnic group: 6,120 (1995 AMTB). Paraíba, Pôsto Nísia Brasileira on the Baía da Traição, in the municipality of Mamanguape. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tupi (III). People speak only Portuguese and are culturally assimilated. Extinct.

POTURU (ZO'É, TUPÍ OF CUMINAPANEMA, POTURUJARA, BURÉ) [PTO] 136 (1995 SIL). State of Pará, Municipality of Obidos, on the Cuminapanema River. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII). Similar to Wayampi.

POYANÁWA (POIANÁUA, PUINAHUA) [PYN] 310 (1995 AMTB). Acre, upper Rio Môa, tributary of the Jumá. Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua. Pacified in 1913. Survey needed.

PURI (COROADO) [PRR] Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais, and adjacent areas. Macro-Ge, Puri. Extinct.

PURUBORÁ (PURUBA, AURÃ, PUMBORA, PUROBORÁ, BURUBORA, KUYUBI, CUJUBI, MIGUELENO, MIGUELENHO) [PUR] 50 (1986 SIL). Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio São Miguel, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. Tupi, Purubora. Survey needed.

RIKBAKTSA (ARIPAKTSA, ERIKBATSA, ERIKPATSA, CANOEIRO) [ART] 800 or more (1994 SIL). Mato Grosso, confluence of Sangue and Juruena rivers, Japuira on the east bank of the Juruena between the Arinos and Sangue rivers, and Posto Escondido on the west bank of the Juruena 700 kilometers north. 9 villages and 14 settlements. Macro-Ge, Rikbaktsa. Distinct from Ava-Canoeiro and Kanoe (Canoe). 15% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Bible portions 1977-1993. Work in progress.

ROMANI, VLACH [RMY] Several hundred thousand in Latin America (1984 Ian Hancock); 1,500,000 in all countries (1986 estimate). Also in Romania, Albania, Greece, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Norway, France, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, USA, Hungary, England, Argentina, Chile, Colombia. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. A Gypsy language. Christian. NT 1984-1986. Bible portions 1930-1986.

SABANÊS (SABONES, SABANÊ) [SAE] 60 (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso. Nambiquaran. Integrated into Brazilian culture. Men are trilingual, understanding Portuguese and Northern Nambikuára.

SAKIRABIÁ (SAKIRIABAR, SAKIRABIAK, SAKIRAP) [SKF] 51 (1995 SIL). Rondônia, Municipality of Cerejeira and Colorado do Oeste, on the Mequens River. Unclassified. Survey needed.

SALUMÁ [SLJ] Northwest Pará, on the upper Anamu, source of the Trombetas, along the Surinam border. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai, Sikiana. Distinct from Salumã in Mato Grosso. Survey needed.

SALUMÃ (ENAWENÉ-NAWÉ, ENEUENE-MARE) [UNK] 165 (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso within northeast Nambiquara reserve. Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran. Isolated. Another village of 30 to 50 people of totally different design is near this. Related to Parecis. Distinct from Carib Salumá in Pará. Survey needed.

SANUMÁ (TSANUMA, SANEMA, GUAIKA, SAMATARI, SAMATALI, XAMATARI) [SAM] 462 in Brazil (1976 UFM); 1,000 to 4,000 in Venezuela (1976 NTM); 1,500 to 4,500 total. Auaris River, Roraima. Yanomam. Dialects: CAURA, ERVATO-VENTUARI, AUARIS. Dialects are closely related. In some areas up to 25% of the speakers are bilingual in Maquiritare. Work in progress.

SARARÉ (KABIXI, KAVIXI) [SRR] 150 (1983 SIL). Mato Grosso, Juina River. Nambiquaran. Bilingual in Southern Nambikuára. Distinct from Kabixi which is Chapacuran.

SATERÉ-MAWÉ (MAUE, MABUE, MARAGUA, SATARÉ, ANDIRA, ARAPIUM) [MAV] 9,000 (1994 SIL). Pará, Andirá and other rivers. May also be in Amazonas. More than 14 villages. Tupi, Mawe-Satere. People are somewhat bilingual. 12% literate. Grammar. NT 1986. Bible portions 1968.

SHARANAHUA [MCD] 350 in Brazil; 500 to 600 in Peru (1989 SIL); 850 to 950 total. Marináwa in Acre, along the upper Envira, tributary of the Tarauacá. Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua. Dialects: MARINAHUA (MARINÁWA), CHANDINAHUA. The Marináwa are integrated into Brazilian society. There may be no speakers left. Bible portions 1973-1981. Work in progress.

SIKIANA (SIKIÂNA, SHIKIANA, CHIQUIANA, CHIKENA, CHIQUENA) [SIK] 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL); possibly extinct in Venezuela. Northwest Pará, between the Rio Cafuini and the headwaters of the Turuna and Itapi, near Surinam border. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai, Sikiana. Close to Salumá. Survey needed.

SIRIANO (SURYANA, SURIRÁ, SARIRÁ) [SRI] 10 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 250 to 300 in Colombia (1992 SIL); 260 to 310 in both countries. São Gabriel, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano. The people may all speak Tucano but they are ethnically distinct. They also speak Nhengatu. Bible portions 1981-1991. Work in progress.

SURUAHÁ (SURUWAHÁ, ZURUAHÁ, ÍNDIOS DO COXODOÁ) [SWX] 130 (1995 AMTB). Amazonas. Arawakan, Arauan. First contact with the outside was 1980. Typology: Word minimality, word binarity, foot minimality. Tropical forest. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

SURUÍ (SURUÍ DO JIPARANÁ, SURUÍ DE RONDÔNIA) [SRU] 800 (1994 SIL). A series of villages and scattered locations along the Rondônia-Mato Grosso border. 10 villages. Tupi, Monde. Related to Cinta Larga and Gavião do Jiparaná. 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists: coffee. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

SURUÍ DO PARÁ (AKEWERE, AKEWARA, "MUDJETÍRE", "MUDJETÍRE-SURUÍ", SURUÍ) [MDZ] 140 (1995 A. Graham SIL). Pará, 110 km. from Marabá, in municipio of São João do Araguaia. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). Isolated. Different from Suruí do Jiparaná. Probably fairly close linguistic relationship to Asuriní and Parakanã. The name "Mudjetire" is offensive to the people. Below 5% literate. Work in progress.

SUYÁ [SUY] 196, including 31 Tapayuna (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso, headwaters of Rio Culuene. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Suya. Dialect: BEIÇO DE PAU (TAPAYÚNA). A separate language. Bilingualism is limited. Agriculturalists: manioc, maize, hunters, fishermen. Survey needed.

TAPEBA (TABEBA) [TBB] Ethnic group: 984 (1995 AMTB). Ceará. Unclassified. Monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

TAPIRAPÉ [TAF] 208 (1986 SIL). Mouth of the Tapirapé and Araguaia Rivers, northeastern Mato Grosso. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). Agriculturalists: manioc, maize, beans, pumpkins, peanuts, cotton; hunters, fishermen. Survey needed.

TARIANO (TARIÂNA, TALIÁSERI) [TAE] Only a few elderly speakers out of an ethnic group of 1,500 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Middle Vaupés River, Amazonas. Also in Colombia. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland. No one has been located who speaks Tariano in Colombia, but the tribal identity is still maintained. The first language is Tucano or Nhengatu. Nearly extinct.

TEMBÉ [TEM] 100 speakers out of 853 ethnic Tembé (1995 SIL). Maranhão, Gurupi River and Guama. None in Guama speak Tembe, only Portuguese. In Gurupi about 100 of 170 speak Tembe. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). Well integrated. The speech of most or all groups of this name is intelligible with Guajajára. Work in progress.

TENHARIM (TENHAREM, TENHARIN) [PAH] 345, including 13 Diahói (1994 SIL). Amazonas. The Diahói are on the Rio Marmelos, Karipuna on Jaci Paraná River Post in Rondônia, Morerebi on Rio Preto and Marmelos. 2 villages. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Dialects: PARINTINTÍN, KAGWAHIV (KAWAIB), KARIPUNA JACI PARANÁ, MIALÁT, DIAHÓI (JAHUI, GIAHOI). Speakers are fairly bilingual. 15% literate. Boca Negra is a related ethnic group. Tenharim and Kagwahiv are nearly identical. Eru-eu-wau-wau (Uru-eu-wau-wau) and Morerebi may be dialects. The Tenharim consider the Diahói to be relatives; slight dialect difference. The Morerebi are a family group who have not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and do not want contact with outside culture. The Kayabí, Parintintín, Tenharim, Júma, Karipuna, and Diahói all call themselves 'Kagwahiva' (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). Grammar. Typology: SVO. Fishermen, gatherers, agriculturalists. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1971-1976.

TERÊNA (TERENO, ETELENA) [TEA] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul, in 20 villages and 2 cities. Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana. Many speak limited Portuguese. 80% literate in Portuguese, 20% in Terena. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: VOS. NT 1994. Bible portions 1948-1974.

TICUNA (TIKUNA, TUKÚNA) [TCA] 12,000 in Brazil; 5,000 in Peru; 4,000 in Colombia (1981 SIL); 21,000 total. West Amazonas. Language Isolate. NT 1986. Bible portions 1964-1975.

TINGUI-BOTÓ (TINGUI, CARAPATÓ, KARAPATÓ) [TGV] (800 in ethnic group; 1986 SIL). Alagoas. Unclassified. People are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

TORÁ (TORAZ) [TRZ] 40 out of an ethnic group of 120 (1990 YWAM). Amazonas, on the lower Rio Marmelos, tributary of the Rio Madeira. Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira. Nearly extinct.

TREMEMBÉ [TME] Ceará. Unclassified. Probably linguistically and culturally integrated. There may be no speakers left (1995). Nearly extinct.

TRIÓ (TIRIÓ, TIRIYÓ) [TRI] 329 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 800 in Surinam (1977 WIM); 1,130 in both countries. Pará, Rio Mapari. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio. Dialect: PIANOCOTÓ. Isolated. Pianokotó is probably extinct; no reports since 1957. NT 1979. Bible portions 1974.

TRUKÁ [TKA] Ethnic group: 1995 AMTB). Pernambuco, Bahía. Unclassified. People are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

TRUMAÍ [TPY] 78 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, source of Xingú River, villages along banks, Mato Grosso. Language Isolate. They are intermarrying with speakers of other languages. They trade extensively with other groups. Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial. Agriculturalists: manioc, peppers, beans. Survey needed.

TUBARÃO (AIKANÁ, WARI, UARI, CORUMBIARA, KOLUMBIARA) [TBA] 90 (1986 SIL). Rondônia. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Unclassified. Dialect: MASAKÁ (MASSACÁ). Work in progress.

TUCANO (TUKÁNA, TAKUNA, DAXSEA) [TUO] 2,631 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 2,000 in Colombia (1991 SIL); 5,000 total (1991 SIL). Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern. Dialects: YOHORAA (CURAUA), WASONA (UASONA). Used as a second language by many neighboring groups. Trade language. NT 1988. Bible portions 1967-1981.

TUKUMANFÉD [TKF] 50 or fewer (1959 D. Ribeiro). Rondônia, mouth of the Cacoal tributary of the Jiparaná. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Permanent contact reported in late 1950's. May now be linguistically extinct or known by a different name. Nearly extinct.

TUPARÍ [TUP] 56 or more (1986 SIL). Pororoca Post, Rondônia. Tupi, Tupari. There are reported to be others upstream on the Rio Branco. Tropical forest. Nearly extinct.

TUPINAMBÁ (OLD TUPÍ) [TPN] Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tupi (III). Modern descendent is Nhengatu. Extinct.

TUPINIKIN (TUPINAKI) [TPK] Ethnic group: 820 (1995 AMTB). Espirito Santo, Bahia. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tupi (III). People are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

TURIWÁRA (TURIUARA) [TWT] Ethnic group: possibly 30 (1995 SIL). Pará, live with the Tembé. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Tenetehara (IV). Extinct.

TUXÁ (TUSHA, TODELA) [TUD] Ethnic group: 900 (1995 AMTB). Bahía, Pernambuco. Language Isolate. Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial. People are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

TUXINÁWA (TUCHINAUA) [TUX] Acre. Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua. Extinct.

TUYUCA (TUYUKA, DOCHKAFUARA, DOKÁ-POARA) [TUE] 465 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 350 in Colombia (1995 SIL); 815 in both countries. Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara. Dialect: TSOLA. Second language is Tucano or Waimaha (Northern Barasano). Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

TXIKÃO (TXIKÂN, CHICAO, TUNULI, TONORE) [TXI] 146 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Carib, Northern, Northern Brazil. A separate language, similar to Arara of Pará. Bilingualism is limited. Agriculturalists: maize, manioc, cotton, urucu, gourds; hunter-gatherers, fishermen. Survey needed.

UAMUÉ (ATICUM, ATIKUM, HUAMUÊ) [UAM] Ethnic group: 3,900 (1995 AMTB). Pernambuco, vicinity of Floresta. Unclassified. Ethnic group now speaks only Portuguese. Extinct.

UMOTÍNA (UMUTINA, BARBADOS) [UMO] In the ethnic group: 160 (1993). Mato Grosso, along the Paraguay River. Macro-Ge, Bororo, Bororo Proper. The last speaker died in 1988. The people now speak Portuguese. Extinct.

URUBÚ-KAAPOR [URB] 500 (1988 SIL). Maranhão, 8 to 10 villages scattered over 2,800 sq. mi. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII). 6% literate. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SOV, OSV. NT 1986. Bible portions 1970-1976.

URUBÚ-KAAPOR SIGN LANGUAGE (URUBÚ SIGN LANGUAGE) [UKS] 7 first language users; 500 second language users (1968 J. Kakumasu SIL). Maranhão. Deaf sign language. The deaf are monolingual in sign language. About one out of every 75 persons is deaf. Urubu hearing children grow up knowing both the verbal and the sign systems. Typology: OSV. Survey needed.

URU-EU-UAU-UAU (URUEWAWAU, ERU-EU-WAU-WAU) [URZ] 100 (1995 AMTB). Rondônia. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Survey needed.

URU-PA-IN [URP] 200 (1995 SIL). Rondônia, Municipality of Ariquemes. Unclassified. No permanent contact. Survey needed.

WAIMAHA (WAIMAJA, "BARÁ", NORTHERN BARASANO, BARASANO) [BAO] 43 in Brazil (1973 RC); 600 in Colombia (1995 SIL); 650 total. Prelazia Rio Negro, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara. Bible portions 1975-1978. Work in progress.

WAIWAI (UAIUAI, UAIEUE, OUAYEONE) [WAW] 571 in Brazil (1995 AMTB); 886 to 1,058 in both countries (1986 SIL). Amazonas, Pará, Roraima. Also in Guyana. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai. Dialect: KATAWIAN (KATWENA, KATAWINA, CATAWIAN, CATAUIAN, PIANAKOTÓ, PARUCUTU, PARUKUTU, KATUENA, CACHUENA). Dialect or related language: Salumá. Voegelin and Voegelin treat Katawian as a separate language. Hunters, fishermen. NT 1984. Bible portions 1966-1976.

WAKONÁ [WAF] Ethnic group: 500 to 1,000 (1995 SIL). Alagoas. Unclassified. They may not live together as a group. Extinct.

WAPISHANA (WAPITXÂNA, WAPISIANA, VAPIDIANA) [WAP] 1,500 in Brazil including 64 Mawayana (1986 SIL); 9,000 in Guyana (1993 SIL); 10,500 total. Roraima. The Mawayana live with the Waiwai. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Wapishanan. Dialects: ATORAI (ATOR'TI, DAURI), AMARIBA, MAPIDIAN (MAOPITYAN, MAIOPITIAN, MAWAYANA, MAHUAYANA). People are somewhat bilingual. The dialect Atorai is not the same as Atroai (Atruahi). Amariba may be extinct. Bible portions 1975. Work in progress.

WASU (WAÇU) [WSU] Ethnic group: 1,024 (1995 AMTB). Alagoas. Unclassified. People are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

WAURÁ (UAURA, AURA) [WAU] 240 (1994 SIL). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran. Partially intelligible with Mehinacu. 5% to 15% literate. Work in progress.

WAYAMPI, AMAPARI ("OIAMPIPUCU", "OYAMPIPUKU") [OYM] 350 (1993 C Jensen SIL). Along tributaries of the upper Amapari River, west central Amapá. 8 villages. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII). Inherently intelligible with Oiapoque Wayampi, but language attitudes indicate the need for separate literature. Below 5% literate. Dictionary. Grammar. Levels of bilingualism in Portuguese are 0:63%, 1:21%, 2:13%, 3:2.5%, 4:.5%, 5:0%. Work in progress.

WAYAMPI, OIAPOQUE (OIAMPÍ, OYAMPÍ, WAYÃPI, WAYAPÍ, OYANPÍK, OYAPÍ, WAIAMPI, JARI) [OYA] 10 in Brazil (1986 A. Jensen SIL); 400 in French Guiana (1987 C. Jensen SIL); 410 in both countries. Northern Pará. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Oyampi (VIII). Inherently intelligible with Amapari Wayampi, but language attitudes indicate need for separate literature. Not intelligible with Emerillon. Typology: SOV. Work in progress.

WAYANA (OAYANA, OYANA, OIANA, UAIANA, WAYÂNA, UPURUI, ALUKUYANA) [WAY] 150 in Brazil; 600 in Surinam; 200 in French Guiana; 950 in all countries. Amapá, among the Apalaí. Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio. Dialects: RUCUYEN (ROUCOUYENNE), URUCUIANA (URUCENA). Partially intelligible with Apalaí. NT 1979. Bible portions 1970.

WAYORÓ (WAYURÚ, AYURÚ, AJURÚ, UAIORA, WAJARU) [WYR] 40 possibly (1986 SIL). Pororoca Post, Rondônia, Guapore River. Tupi, Tupari. Survey needed.

WIRAFÉD (WIROFÉD, UIRAFED) [WIR] Rondônia, on the Riosinho and Muquí tributaries of the Jiparaná. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Kawahib (VI). Permanent contact reported in late 1950's. Extinct.

XAKRIABÁ (CHAKRIABA, SHACRIABA, CHIKRIABA) [XKR] Ethnic group: 4,643 (1995 AMTB). Minas Gerais. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua. People are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

XAVÁNTE (AKUÊN, AKWEN, A'WE~, CHAVANTE, SHAVANTE, CRISCA, PUSCITI, TAPACUA) [XAV] 8,000 (1994 SIL). Mato Grosso, 60 villages. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua. 25% to 50% literate (most men, but few women). Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: OSV. Hunter-gatherers. Bible portions 1970-1993. Work in progress.

XERÉNTE (SHERENTÉ) [XER] 1,200 (1993 SIL). Tocantins, between the Rio do Sono and Rio Tocantins. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua. People are somewhat bilingual. Bible portions 1970-1990. Work in progress.

XETÁ (ARÉ, SETA, SHETA, CHETA) [XET] 3 speakers (1990 R. Dooley) out of an ethnic population of 100 to 250 (1986 SIL). Paraná, among the Kaingang. Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani (I). Nearly extinct.

XIPINÁWA (SHIPINAHUA) [XIP] Southern Amazonas and Acre. Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua. Both people and language are thought to be extinct.

XIRIÂNA [XIR] Tributaries of Demeni and Rio Negro, Amazonas, near Venezuela border. Arawakan, Unclassified. Distinct from the Yanomam language, Ninam (Xirianá). Isolated. Survey needed.

XOKLENG (AWEIKOMA, BUGRE, BOTOCUDOS) [XOK] 250 speakers (1975) out of ethnic group of 634 (1986 SIL). Santa Catarina, along tributary of the Itajaí River. Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern. A separate language. People are fairly bilingual. The name 'Bugre' is also used for Kaingang and Brazilian Guarani. The name 'Kaingang' is sometimes used for Xokleng. Typology: SOV.

YABAÂNA (JABAANA, YABARANA) [YBN] (90 in ethnic group; 1986 SIL). Amazonas, headwaters of the Marauiá and Cauaboris, tributaries of the left bank of Rio Negro. Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Unclassified. Distinct from Yabarana of Venezuela. People are monolingual in Portuguese. Extinct.

YAMINAHUA (YAMINÁWA, JAMINAWÁ, YAMANAWA) [YAA] 357 in Brazil (1986 SIL); 150 in Bolivia; 700 to 1,100 in Peru; 1,200 to 1,600 in all countries. Acre. Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua. Same dialect as Bolivia, and the same as, or close to, that of Peru. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

YANOMÁMI (WAICÁ, WAIKÁ, YANOAM, YANOMAM, YANOMAMÉ, SURARA, XURIMA, PARAHURI) [WCA] 9,000 (1994 SIL). Waicá post, Uraricuera River, Roraima, Toototobi post, Amazonas, Catrimani River, Roraima. Yanomam. Dialects: YANAMAM (PATIMITHERI, WAIKA), YANOMAM (NAOMAM, GUADEMA, WADEMA, WAREMA), YANOMAY (TOOTOTOBI), NANOMAM (KARIME), JAUARI (JOARI, YOARI, AICA). Distinct from but related to Yanomamö of Brazil and Venezuela. Monolingual. Semi-nomadic. Typology: SOV. Work in progress.

YANOMAMÖ (GUAICA, GUAHARIBO, YANOAMA, YANOMAMI, SHAMATARI, SHAMATHARI) [GUU] 1,500 to 2,000 in Brazil; 12,000 to 14,000 in Venezuela (1991 AP); 13,500 to 16,000 total. Amazonas, upper tributaries of Rio Negro. Yanomam. Dialects: EASTERN YANOMAMI (PARIMA), WESTERN YANOMAMI (PADAMO-ORINOCO). Related to, but distinct from Yanomami of Brazil. Monolingual. Isolated. NT 1984. Bible portions 1961-1968.

YARUMÁ (JARUMÁ, WAIKU) [YRM] Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin. May be extinct. Survey needed.

YAWALAPITÍ (JAULAPITI, YAULAPITI) [YAW] 140 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran. Related to but not intelligible with Waurá and Mehinaku. Many understand another language of the Xingú because they have lived in other villages. Fishermen, hunter-gatherers, swidden agriculturalists: manioc, maize. Survey needed.

YAWANAWA (IAUANAUÁ, JAWANAUA, YAHUANAHUA) [YWN] 310 (1994 SIL). Acre. 1 village of 100 people, with the remainder living along a river. Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua. Language use is vigorous. Portuguese is used only with outsiders.

YUHUP (MAKÚ-YAHUP, YËHUP, YAHUP, YAHUP MAKÚ, "MAKU") [YAB] 360 in Brazil (1995 MTB); 600 in both countries (1986 SIL). Amazonas, on a tributary of the Vaupés River. Also possibly in Colombia. Maku. Limited intelligibility with Hupdë South of the Hupdë. Isolated. Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Puinave. The name "Maku" is offensive. Typology: OSV. Work in progress.

YURUTI (JURUTI, JURUTI-TAPUIA, LURUTY-TAPUYA, JURITI, YURITI, YURITI-TAPUIA, WAYHARA, PATSOKA) [YUI] 50 in Brazil (1991 SIL); 200 to 250 in Colombia (1991 R. Kinch SIL); 250 to 300 total. Iauarete, Amazonas. Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara. Bible portions 1985. Work in progress.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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