Ethnologue: Areas: Europe

Azerbaijan

7,642,000 (1995). Formerly part of USSR. Capital: Baku. 33,400 square miles. Literacy rate 98%. Also includes Aghul 32, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 1,231, Southern Azerbaijani, Belorussian 4,782, Dargwa 863, Erzya 1,150, Western Farsi, Georgian 14,000, Karachay-Balkar 184, Lak 1,205, Osetin 2,315, Polish 1,264, Pontic, Rumanian 1,397, Russian 475,000, Rutul 111, Tabassaran 279, Tatar 31,787, Turkish 18,000, Ukrainian 32,000. Data accuracy estimate: B. Muslim, Jewish. The number of languages listed for Azerbaijan is 13.

ARMENIAN (HAIEREN, SOMKHURI, ERMENICE, ARMJANSKI) [ARM] 6,836,000 in all countries. Nagorno-Karabakh region. Also in Armenia, many countries. Indo-European, Armenian. Dialect: WESTERN ARMENIAN. Christian, Monophysite. Bible 1853-1978. NT 1825-1991. Bible portions 1840-1950.

AVAR (AVARO, DAGESTANI) [AVR] 44,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census); 601,000 in all countries. Northwest, Zaqatala and Balakan regions. North Caucasian, Northeast, Avaro-Andi-Dido, Avar. Dialect: ZAQATALA (ZAKATALY, CHAR). Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1979-1996. Work in progress.

AZERBAIJANI, NORTH (AZERBAIJAN, AZERI TURK, AZERBAYDZHANI) [AZE] 6,069,453 in Azerbaijan; 308,000 in Georgia; 336,000 in Russia; 90,000 in Kazakhstan; 44,000 in Uzbekistan; 33,000 in Turkmenistan; 17,207 in Kyrghyzstan; 7,059,000 in all countries. In the republics of the former USSR, 98% speak it as mother tongue, 4,000,000 are monolingual (1989 census). Azerbaijan, and southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasian Mts. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Dialects: QUBA, DERBEND, BAKU, SHAMAKHI, SALYAN, LENKARAN, QAZAKH, AIRYM, BORCALA, TEREKEME, QYZYLBASH, NUKHA, ZAQATALA (MUGALY), QABALA, YEREVAN, NAKHCHIVAN, ORDUBAD, GANJA, SHUSHA (KARABAKH), KARAPAPAK. High literacy rate. Official script is Roman. Cyrillic script is widely used in Azerbaijan. Used in schools, publications, radio, television. Dialect differences are slight. Everyone is familiar with the standardized written and spoken forms. The Qazakh dialect is not especially related to the Kazakh language. Significant differences from South Azerbaijani in phonology, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. Grammars. Dictionaries. Taught as a second language in Russian language schools. National language. Shi'a Muslim, Sunni Muslim (Akiner). Braille code available. Bible 1891. NT 1878-1995. Bible portions 1842-1891.

BUDUKH (BUDUX, BUDUG, BUKUKHI, BUDUGI) [BDK] 2,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Quba region. North Caucasian, Northeast, Lezgian. Dialects: BUDUKH, YERGYUCH. Used in everyday family communication. Traditional territory and way of life. Not a written language. Azerbaijani is used as the literary language. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

JUDEO-TAT (JUDEO-TATIC, JEWISH TATI, BIK, DZHUHURIC, JUWRI, JUHURI) [TAT] 24,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census); 40,000 in Israel (1994); 7,000 in Russia (1989); 71,000 in all countries. Northeast, especially Quba region. Also in Russia. None in Iran. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tati. Jewish. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

KHINALUGH (KHINALUG, XINALUG, KHINALUGI) [KJJ] 1,500. Quba. North Caucasian, Northeast, Lezgian. The most divergent Lezgian language. Used in everyday family communication. Traditional territory and way of life. Not a written language. Azerbaijani is used as the literary language. Muslim. Survey needed.

KRYTS (KRYZ, KRYC, KRYZY, KATSY, DZEK, DZHEK, DZHEKI) [KRY] 6,000 (1975 SIL). Quba. North Caucasian, Northeast, Lezgian. Dialects: KRYTS, DZHEK, XAPUT (KHAPUT), YERGYUDZH, ALYK. Used in daily family communication. Traditional territory and way of life. Not a written language. Azerbaijani is used as the literary language. Dialects are quite distinct; perhaps separate languages. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

KURMANJI (NORTHERN KURDISH, KERMANJI, KIRMANJI, KIRDASI, KIRMÂNCHA, BÂHDINÂNI) [KUR] 20,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census); 7,000,000 to 8,000,000 in all countries. Southwest. Also in Turkey, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, France, Austria, USA, many countries. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Muslim. NT 1872. Bible portions 1856-1993. Work in progress.

LEZGI (LEZGIAN, LEZGHI, LEZGIN, KIURINSTY) [LEZ] 171,400 in Azerbaijan (1996); 451,000 in all countries. Near the northeastern border with Russia and on the southern slopes of the main Caucasus chain. Also in Russia, other republics of the former USSR, Turkey. North Caucasian, Northeast, Lezgian. Dialect: QUBA. Quba is considerably different from the standard dialect. Muslim. Bible portions 1990-1996. Work in progress.

TALYSH (TALISH, TALESH, TALYSHI) [TLY] 130,000 in Azerbaijan (1982 estimate); 112,000 in Iran (1993); 242,000 in all countries. Along the Caspian coast south of the Viliazh-Chai River. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Dialects: ASTARIN, LENKORAN, LERIK, MASSALIN. Northern Talyshi is in Azerbaijan and Iran. Dialects in Azerbaijan are close. Close to Harzani. Grammar written. Azerbaijani is used as literary language. Speakers are bilingual in Azerbaijani. Shi'a Muslim. Survey needed.

TAT, MUSLIM (MUSSULMAN TATI, MUSLIM TAT, TATI) [TTT] 22,000 in Azerbaijan (1979 census); 30,000 in all countries (1994 UBS). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tati. Difficult intelligibility with Judeo-Tat. Muslim Tat is not written; they use Azerbaijani as a literary language. There may also be a Christian dialect. Different from Takestani of Iran. Shi'a Muslim. Work in progress.

TSAKHUR (TSAXUR, CAXUR, TSAKHURY) [TKR] 13,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census); 7,000 in Russia; 73 in Uzbekistan; 20,000 in all countries (1993 UBS). Northwest. North Caucasian, Northeast, Lezgian. Muslim. Work in progress.

UDI (UDIN, UTI) [UDI] 4,200 in Azerbaijan (Nic) (1995); more than 4,000 in Russia (1995); 20 in Turkmenistan (1995); 8,800 in all countries. Qabala, Nic and Mirzabeyli villages, and Oghuz, Oghuz town. Most Udi are reported to have left Oghuz. Also in eastern Georgia (Oktomberi village). North Caucasian, Northeast, Lezgian. Dialects: OGHUZ (VARTASHEN), NIDZH (NIC, NIZH), OKTOMBERI. Dialects are inherently intelligible, but to what degree is not known. Oktomberi is reported to be more different from Nic Udi than Oghuz Udi is. Udi is used for intragroup communication. One of the most divergent of the Lesgian languages. Not an officially written language. Russian and sometimes Azerbaijani used as literary languages; in some areas they use Armenian or Georgian. In Nic the children attend Russian language schools. Up to 1954 schooling was in Azerbaijani. A new cyrillic orthography with primers and folk tales has been prepared for publication. Grammars. Dictionary. Deciduous forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists: horticulture; animal husbandry: hogs, cattle. Christian. Bible portions 1902. Survey needed.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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