3,427,000 (1995). Formerly part of USSR. Capital: Erevan. 11,306 square miles. Literacy rate 99%. Also includes Georgian 1,314, Greek 4,700, Karachay-Balkar 800, Russian 70,000, Ukrainian 8,000. Data accuracy estimate: B. The number of languages listed for Armenia is 6.
ARMENIAN (HAIEREN, SOMKHURI, ENA, ERMENICE, ERMENI DILI, ARMJANSKI YAZYK) [ARM] 3,197,000 in Armenia (1993 Johnstone); 448,000 in Georgia; 19,000 in Kazakhstan; 3,285 in Kyrghyzstan; 532,000 in Russia; 6,000 in Tajikistan; 32,000 in Turkmenistan; 50,000 in Uzbekistan; 1,100,000 in USA; 234,600 in Lebanon; 170,800 in Iran; 100,000 in Egypt; 320,000 in Syria (1993); 40,000 in Turkey; 70,000 in France; 60,000 in Iraq; 8,000 in Jordan; 3,000 in Israel; 2,740 in Cyprus; 560 in India; 20,000 in Greece; 2,265 in Canada (1961); 27,000 in Bulgaria; 900 in Honduras; 6,836,000 in all countries. Of those in the former USSR, 91% speak it as mother tongue (1979 census). Also scattered through the Caucasus. Indo-European, Armenian. Dialects: EASTERN ARMENIAN, EREVAN (ERIWAN), TBILISI (TIFLIS), KARABAGH, SHAMAKHI (SCHAMACHI), ASTRAKHAN (ASTRACHAN), DZHULFA (DSCHUGHA, DSCHULFA), AGULIS, KHVOY-SALMST (CHOI-SALMST), URMIA-MARAGHEH (URMIA-MARAGHA), ARTVIN (ARTWIN), KARIN (ERZURUM, ERZERUM), MUS (MUSCH), VAN (WAN), TIGRANAKERT (DIYARBAKIR, DIARBEKIR), KHARBERD (CHARBERD, ERZINCAN, ERZENKA), SHABIN-KARAHISSAR (SCHABIN-KARAHISSAR), TRABZON (TRAPEZUNT), HAMSHEN (HAMSCHEN), MALATYA (MALATIA), KILIKIEN, SYRIA (SYRIEN), ARABKIR, AKN, SEBASTE, EWDOKIA (TOKAT), SMYRNA (IZMIR), NORTH KOMEDIA, CONSTANTINOPLE (KONSTANTINOPEL, ISTANBUL), RODOSTO, CRIMEA (KRIM), ASHKHARIK. Eastern Armenian (Ashkharik) spoken in Armenia, Turkey, Iran. All dialects in all countries usually reported to be inherently intelligible. Unique alphabet. About 30% of Armenians in Armenia speak Russian as second language. National language. Typology: SVO. National Armenian Christian Church. Braille code available. Bible 1883-1994. NT 1834-1976. Bible portions 1831-1991.
ARMENIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [AEN] Deaf sign language. Survey needed.
ASSYRIAN NEO-ARAMAIC (AISORSKI) [AII] 5,000 in Armenia; 8,000 in Georgia; 10,000 in Russia (1993); 30,000 in Iraq; 10,000 to 20,000 in Iran; 30,000 in Syria (1995); 200,000 in all countries. Erevan and scattered throughout Transcaucasia. Also in Cyprus, Germany, USA, Australia, South America, and elsewhere. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Most speakers are elderly now, many use Russian as primary language. Has status as a literary language. 'Aisor' is the Russian name for the people. The Assyrian and Chaldean separated denominationally during the 16th century. Close linguistically to other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Syriac script is used. Christian (Nestorian). Bible 1852-1911. NT 1846-1864. Bible portions 1840-1993. Work in progress.
AZERBAIJANI, NORTH (AZERBAIJAN, AZERI TURK, TURKLER, AZERBAYDZHANI) [AZE] 161,000 in Armenia (1993 Johnstone); 308,000 in Georgia; 90,000 in Kazakhstan; 17,207 in Kyrghyzstan; 336,000 in Russia; 33,000 in Turkmenistan; 44,000 in Uzbekistan; 6,069,453 in Azerbaijan; 7,059,000 in all countries. In republics of the former USSR, 98% speak it as mother tongue, 4,000,000 are monolingual (1989 census). In southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast and beyond the Caucasian Mts. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Dialects: KUBA, DERBENT, BAKU, SEMAKHA, SALIANY, LENKORAN, KAZAKH, AIRYM, BORCALA, TEREKEME, KYZYLBASH, NUKHA, ZAKATALY (MUGALY), KUTKASEN, EREVAN, NAKHICHEVAN, ORDUBAD, KIROVABAD, SUSA (KARABAKH), KARAPAPAK. High literacy rate. Cyrillic script is used in Azerbaijan. Used in schools, publications, radio. Significant differences from South Azerbaijani in phonology, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. Shi'a Muslim. Braille code available. Bible 1891. NT 1878-1995. Bible portions 1842-1891.
KURMANJI (NORTHERN KURDISH, KERMANJI, KIRMANJI) [KUR] 58,000 in Armenia, including Yezid (1993 Johnstone), 84% speak it as mother tongue (1979); 7,000,000 to 8,000,000 in all countries (1987 estimate). Also in Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia; mainly in Turkey, and scattered regions in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Belgium, Germany. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Has literary status. Cyrillic script. Kurmanji is northern, Kurdi is southern. They are distinct languages. Kurdish schools, texts, press, radio station broadcasting in Kurmanji. Language of wider communication. Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Christian. NT 1872. Bible portions 1856-1993. Work in progress.
LOMAVREN (ARMENIAN BOSHA, ARMENIAN BOSA, BOSHA, BOSA) [RMI] Armenia, southern Caucasus, Azerbaijan, and Syria. Indo-European, Armenian. Gramatically restructured to be like Armenian with phonology and lexicon also influenced by Armenian. A Gypsy language. Survey needed.
Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.
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