Ethnologue: Areas: Europe


3,521,000 (1995). People's Socialist Republic of Albania. Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë. Literacy rate 85% (1991 National Geographic). Data accuracy estimate: B. Secular, Muslim, Christian. Blind population 2,000. The number of languages listed for Albania is 6.

ALBANIAN, GHEG (GEG, GHEG, SHQIPNI, GUEGUE) [ALS] 300,000 in Albania; 1,372,750 in Yugoslavia (1992); 242,250 in Macedonia (1992); 1,000 in Bulgaria; 17,382 in USA (1970 census); 2,000,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Northern Albania. Also in Romania. Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg. Dialects: MANDRICA, SHIP (KOSOVE), SCUTARI, ELBASAN-TIRANA. Speakers may be bilingual in Standard Albanian. Predominantly Muslim except in the northwest around Scutari and the Mirdita, which are RC. NT 1869-1872. Bible portions 1866-1978. Work in progress.

ALBANIAN, TOSK (TOSK, ARNAUT, SHKIP, SHQIP, SKCHIP, SHQIPERË, ZHGABE) [ALN] 2,900,000 in Albania (1989); 3,202,000 in Albania including Gheg (1989), 98% of the population (1989); 15,000 speakers out of 61,000 in the ethnic group in Turkey (1980 estimate); 5,000 in Ukraine; 3,000 in Belgium (1993); 25,000 in Germany; 29 in Canada (1974); 3,000,000 in all countries Tosk; 5,000,000 total including all Albanian languages (L. Newmark). Mainly south Albania to the Shkumbi River. Also in USA (mostly Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Chicago) and Egypt. Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk. Dialects: ARBANASI (ZADAR), SREM (SYRMIA), CAMERIJA, KORCA. Reported to be inherently unintelligible with Gheg Albanian and partially intelligible with Arvanitika Albanian of Greece. Not intelligible with Arbëreshë of Italy. Tosk has been the basis for the official dialect for Standard Albanian since 1945. It is used in schools. National language. Typology: SVO. Muslim, Christian (Orthodox). Bible 1993. NT 1827-1913. Bible portions 1824-1914.

GREEK [GRK] 60,000 in Albania, 1.8% of the population (1989); 12,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). South. Also Greece, Turkey, Egypt, Cyprus, Corsica, Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, USA, Canada, Australia. Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Bible 1840-1994. NT 1638-1989. Bible portions 1547-1949.

MACEDONIAN (SLAVIC, MACEDONIAN SLAVIC) [MKJ] 30,000 in Albania (1995 Johnstone); 2,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Also in Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, Canada. Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern. Called 'Slavic' in Greece. Bible 1988. NT 1967-1976. Bible portions 1952-1959.

ROMANIAN, MACEDO (MACEDO-RUMANIAN, ARUMANIAN, ARUMUN, AROMUNIAN, ARMINA, VLACH) [RUP] 60,000 in Albania (1993 Johnstone); 50,000 in Greece (1973 Byrd). Also in Bulgaria, southern Yugoslavia, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern, South. Structurally a distinct language from Romanian (F. Agard). Inherent intelligibility with Romanian is very low. It split from the other three Romanian languages between 500 and 1000 A.D. 'Armini' refers to the people. Bible portions 1881-1889. Survey needed.

ROMANI, VLACH [RMY] 60,000 in Albania (1991); 1,500,000 in all countries (1986 estimate). Also in Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Greece, Poland, Slovakia, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Norway, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, USA, Ukraine, England. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax. Dialect: SOUTHERN VLACH ROMANI. A Gypsy language. Christian. NT 1984-1995. Bible portions 1930-1986.

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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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