Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

Malaysia, Sabah

1,002,608 (1980). Literacy rate 58%. Information mainly from SIL, Wurm and Hattori 1981. Data accuracy estimate: A1, A2. The number of languages listed for Malaysia, Sabah is 54.

ABAI SUNGAI [ABF] 500 (1982 SIL). Lower reaches of the Kinabatangan River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic. Distinct from other Paitanic languages (Upper Kinabatangan, Tombonuwo). Low comprehension of Bahasa Malaysia, although people claim to be switching. Second language is Sabah Malay. 1 school. Access by boat from Sandakan. Fishermen. Muslim. Survey needed.

BAJAU, WEST COAST (LAND BAJAW, WEST COAST BAJAO) [BDR] 40,000 (1982 SIL); 50,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 97,124 total Bajau and Sama in Sabah (1980 census). Kuala Penyu to Kudat, northern and some eastern areas, west coast of Sabah. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Dialects: WEST COAST BAJAU, PITAS BAJAU, SANDAKAN BAJAU, KOTA BELUD, KAWANG, PUTATAN. Diversified in structure more than other Borneo languages. Related to, but a distinct language from Sama (East Coast Bajau) groups of Malaysia and Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau (K. Pallesen SIL 1977). 60% intelligibility of Sama. High educational level. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than one language. Fishermen, agriculturalists: rice, fruit, vegetables; animal husbandry: chickens, goats, water buffaloes, ponies. Muslim.

BANJAR (BANJARESE, BANDJARESE, BANJAR MALAY) [BJN] 3,000,000 in all countries (1993 J. Collins); 2,100,000 in Kalimantan, Indonesia (1993 Johnstone). Tawau. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Needs intelligibility testing with Malay and Indonesian. Separated from Brunei-Kedayan for at least 400 years. Muslim. Survey needed.

BAUKAN (BAUKAN MURUT) [BNB] 1,800 to 2,100 or more (1985 SIL), including 300 or more Tengara. Keningau and Kinabatangan districts around the headwaters of the Sook and Kinabatangan rivers. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Northern. Dialects: BAUKAN (BAOKAN, BOKAN, BOKEN, BOKUN, BUKUN, BOKON, ULUN-NO-BOKON, ULUN-NO-BOKAN, PINGAS), KOKOROTON MURUT, TENGARA (TUNGARA, TINGARA, TENGGARAQ, TANGARA', TANGGARAQ, KINABATANGAN MURUT). Closely related to Keningau Murut, Timugon, and Tagal. Tengara is accessible by logging roads. Christian, traditional religion. Work in progress.

BISAYA, SABAH (BASAYA, BESAYA, BISAIA, BISAYAH, JILAMA BAWANG, JILAMA SUNGAI) [BSY] 10,000 to 12,000 (1985 SIL). On the coast north of and around Brunei Bay, mainly in west Beaufort along Padas River, south of Weston, and south Kuala Penyu districts to coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya. 58% lexical similarity with Sarawak Bisaya, 57% to 59% with Brunei Bisaya ('Dusun'). Both North and South Bisaya are in Sabah (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 90% intelligibility with Tatana, but they have negative attitudes toward Tatana and Coastal Kadazan. Most villages accessible by road. Most people are educated to primary level, not many to secondary. Muslim. Survey needed.

BONGGI (BANGGI, BANGAY, BANGGI DUSUN) [BDG] 1,400 (1990 UBS). Banggi Island in Kudat District, 15 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Closest to Molbog of the Philippines, although not very close. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

BRUNEI (BRUNEI-KADAIAN, ORANG BUKIT) [KXD] 54,000 in Malaysia (46,500 in Sabah, 7,500 in Sarawak); 250,000 in Brunei; 304,000 in all countries (1984 SIL. Includes 255,000 Brunei, 49,000 Kedayan. Upper Balait and Tutau Rivers, northern coast, 4th and 5th Divisions, Sarawak; Sabah in Beaufort, Kuala Penyu, Labuan, Labuk-Sugut, Papar, Sipitang, Sandakan, and Tenom Districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Dialects: BRUNEI, KADAIAN (KADAYAN, KADIAN, KADIEN, KADYAN, KARAYAN, KEDYAN, KEDAYAN, KEDIEN, KERAYAN). 73% to 80% lexical similarity with Standard Malay. Dialect variations are regional, not ethnic. Agriculturalists (Kedayan), fishermen (Brunei). Muslim. Survey needed.

BUGIS (BUGINESE) [BPR] 3,500,000 in all countries, including most in Sulawesi, Indonesia (1991 SIL). Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Bugis. Muslim. Bible 1900, in press (1995), out of print. NT 1888. Bible portions 1863-1994.

CHAVACANO [CBK] (280,000 in Philippines). One village in Semporna. Creole, Spanish based. NT 1981. Bible portions 1977.

DUMPAS (DOOMPAS) [DMV] 500 to 1,000 (1985 SIL). Perancangan village in Labuk-Sugut District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Unclassified. May be Paitanic. Language dying out because of intermarriage with other groups. Comprehension of Tombonuo 87%, Eastern Kadazan 57%, Coastal Kadazan 44%. Low educational level in village; young people going away to school. Access by boat from Beluran. Survey needed.

DUSUN, CENTRAL (DUSUN, DUSAN, DUSUM, DUSUR, KADAYAN, KEDAYAN, KADASAN, CENTRAL KADAZAN) [DTP] 140,500 (1991 SIL); including 50,000 in Ranau (1989 UBS); 70,000 in Bundu (1990 UBS); 500 (?) in Kuala Monsok Dusun (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Beaufort, Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Kota Marudu, Kinabatangan, Keningau, Labuk-Sugut, Penampang, Papar, Ranau, Tambunan, Tenom, Tuaran, and Tawau districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central. Dialects: DUSUN SINULIHAN (SINULIHAN), KADAZAN-TAGARO (TAGARO), KIUNDU, PAHU', SOKID, TINDAL, MENGGATAL (KIULU, TELIPOK), RANAU, BUNDU (TAGINAMBUR), BEAUFORT, LUBA, KUALA MONSOK DUSUN. Ranau dialect is different from Ranau in Sumatra, Indonesia. Dictionary. Bible 1990. NT 1971-1975. Bible portions 1956-1984.

DUSUN, SUGUT (DUSUN, SUGUT, SUGUT KADAZAN, KADAYAN, TANGGAL, TILAU-ILAU) [KZS] 8,000 to 9,000 (1985 SIL). Headwaters of the Sugut River, Labuk-Sugut District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central. Dialects: TINAGAS, TALANTANG. Comprehension testing needed with Central Dusun, Minokok, and Kimaragang. Accessible by road from Ranau District, some only by river. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Survey needed.

DUSUN, TAMBUNAN (TAMBUNAN) [KZT] Throughout Tambunan District and parts of Keningau. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central. Intelligibility and attitude evaluation needed with Central Dusun. Many villages accessible by road. Some villages have minimal schooling, but many people are highly educated. Agriculturalists: rice. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Survey needed.

DUSUN, TEMPASUK (TINDAL, KEDAMAIAN DUSUN, TAMPASUK, TAMPASSUK, TAMPASOK, TEMPASOK) [TDU] 6,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Area around Tempasuk village, Kota Belud. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central. Intelligibility testing needed with Central Dusun. Survey needed.

GANA (GANAQ, GANA', MINANSUT, KENINGAU DUSUN) [GNQ] 2,000 (1985 SIL). Minusut and Kuangoh, Keningau District along the Baiaya River, a tributary of the Pegalan River, north of Keningau town. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comprehension of Standard Malay is reasonably high among the young and middle-aged. Sabah Malay and Central Dusun are also used. People seldom use Gana. Christian, traditional religion. Survey needed.

IDA'AN (ERAANS, BULUD UPI, IDAAN, IDAHAN, IDAN, IDAYAN) [DBJ] 6,000 (1987 SIL), including 1,500 Begahak. East coast of Sabah, Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Ida'an. Dialects: BEGAK (BEGAHAK, BAGAHAK), SUBPAN (SUPAN, SUNGAI), IDA'AN. Not closely related to other languages. Ida'an, Sungai: Muslim; Begak: Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

ILANUN (ILLANUN, ILLANOAN, ILLANOON, IRANON MARANAO, IRANUM, IRANUN, LANOON, YLANOS, LANUN, ILLANOS) [ILL] 6,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). 17 villages around Lahad Datu and Kota Belud districts; also reported to be in Kudat and Marudu. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon. Most closely related to Maranao of the Philippines (85% intelligibility). Related to, but distinct from, Iranun and Magindanao of the Philippines. They claim to have come from Mindanao, Philippines in 1850. Distinct from Lahanan (Lanun) of Sarawak. Fishermen; agriculturalists: rice, fruit trees. Muslim. Survey needed.

JAVANESE (JAWA) [JAN] 300,000 in Sabah (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 75,225,800 in all countries. Also in Indonesia, Singapore. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Javanese. Several dialects in Sabah. Typology: SVO. Muslim. Bible 1854-1994. NT 1829-1981. Bible portions 1852-1954.

KADAZAN, COASTAL (PENAMPANG KADAZAN, PAPAR KADAZAN, MEMBAKUT KADAZAN) [KZJ] 60,000 (1986 SIL). West coast of Sabah, Penampang and Papar districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Dictionary. Typology: VSO. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.

KADAZAN, KLIAS RIVER [KQT] 1,000 (1984 SIL). Klias River area, Beaufort District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Bilingual testing needed with Tatana. Access by road and foot. Schools through 6th grade; some attend secondary outside of area. 77% lexical similarity with Tatana, low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan. Agriculturalists. Survey needed.

KADAZAN, LABUK-KINABATANGAN (EASTERN KADAZAN, LABUK KADAZAN, SOGILITAN, TINDAKON, TOMPULUNG) [DTB] 21,000 to 24,000 including 14,000 to 16,000 (1987 SIL); 7,000 to 8,000 Sungai (1982 SIL). Northeast Sabah, Sandakan, Labuk-Sugut, and Kinabatangan districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern. Dialects: MANGKAAK (MANGKAHAK, MANGKOK, MANGKAK), SUKANG, LABUK, LAMAG SUNGAI (SUNGEI). Typology: VSO, prepositions, genitives after nouns, question word initial, non-tonal. Christian, traditional religion, a few Muslim. NT 1996. Bible portions 1976-1984.

KALABAKAN (KALABAKAN MURUT, TAWAU MURUT, TIDUNG) [KVE] 1,500 to 2,000 (1989 SIL). Tawau District along the Kalabakan River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

KENINGAU MURUT (CENTRAL MURUT) [KXI] 4,000 to 5,200 (1982 SIL), including 1,000 to 1,200 Dusun Murut (1985 SIL); 34,282 in all countries all Murut in Sabah (1980 census). Keningau District within a 10-mile radius to the north of Keningau town along the Pegalan River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Dialects: NABAY (NABAI, NEBEE, DABAY, DABAI, RABAY, RABAI), AMBUAL, DUSUN MURUT. Closely related to Baukan and Timugon. No one under 20 uses Nabay as first language. Survey needed.

KIMARAGANG (KIMARAGAN, KIMARAGANGAN, MARAGANG, MARIGANG) [KQR] 10,000 (1987 SIL), including 6,000 Tandek, 2,000 Sonsogon. Kota Marudu and Pitas districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Dialects: TANDEK (GARO), PITAS KIMARAGANG, SANDAYO, SONSOGON. Dandun is somewhat different. Intelligibility of Sandayo with other dialects needs testing. Good roads in dry season. Agriculturalists: paddy rice, cocoa, cash crops. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Work in progress.

KINABATANGAN, UPPER [DMG] 5,300 to 6,400 (1987 SIL), including 500 Dusun Segama and 800 to 900 Sinabu' (1985 SIL). Primarily the upper reaches of the Kinabatangan River, also Lahad Datu and Sandakan districts, Maligatan, Minusu, and Tongud. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan. Dialects: KALABUAN (KOLOBUAN), MAKIANG, DUSUN SEGAMA (SAGA-I, SOGHAI, SEGAI), SINABU' (SINABU). All dialects have over 90% lexical similarity, except Makiang and Sinabu' with 80%, 87% intelligibility. Primary schools. Access by road. Special literacy materials may be needed for Dusun Segama as a bridge to Upper Kinabatangan. Agriculturalists, rattan gatherers, lumbermen. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1984-1993. Work in progress.

KOTA MARUDU TALANTANG [GRM] 800 to 1,000 (1985 SIL). Kota Marudu District, in Talantang 1 and Talantang 2. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Speakers are bilingual in Kimaragang. Accessible by road from Kota Marudu. Agriculturalists: wet rice. Christian, Muslim.

KOTA MARUDU TINAGAS [KTR] 1,250 (1985 SIL). Southern Kota Marudu and Parong, a migrant village in northern Kota Marudu. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central. Difficult access to southern Kota Marudu by foot. Intelligibility testing needed with Central Kadazan (Ranau), Kimaragang, Sugut, Talantang. Survey needed.

KUIJAU (KIJAU, KUJAU, KWIJAU, MINANSUT, KULIOW, KUIYOW, KURIYO, KOIJOE, MENINDAL, TINDAL, MENINDAQ, TIDUNG, HILL DUSUN) [DKR] 5,000 to 6,000 (1985 SIL). Keningau District to the west and north of Keningau town within a 12-mile radius. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. The second language used is Central Dusun or Sabah Malay. Comprehension of Standard Malay is reasonably high among the young and middle-aged. Survey needed.

LOBU, LANAS [RUU] 2,800 including 2,000 in Lobu, 800 in Rumanau (1986 SIL). Lobu in Keningau District near Lanas, Rumanau in Masaum, Mangkawagu, Minusu, Kinabatangan District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan. Dialects: LOBU, RUMANAU (RUMANAU ALAB, ROMANAU, ROOMARROWS). Primary schools. Access by road and foot. Agriculturalists. Survey needed.

LOBU, TAMPIAS [LOW] 1,800 (1985 SIL). 3 villages in Ranau around Tampias. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan. 73% lexical similarity with Lanas Lobu. High intelligibility with Upper Kinabatangan. High bilingualism in Central Dusun. Access by road and foot. Primary school. Plantation agriculturalists.

LOTUD (LATOD, LATUD, SUANG LOTUD, TUARAN DUSUN) [DTR] 5,000 (1985 SIL). Tuaran District, just north of Kota Kinabalu, a 10-mile radius around Tuaran town. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Access by road. Agriculturalists: rice. Traditional religion, Christian, some Muslim. Bible portions 1992. Survey needed.

MALAY, COCOS ISLANDS (COCOS, KOKOS, KUKUS) [COA] 3,000 in Sabah (1975 SIL); 495 in Cocos Islands (1987); 558 on Christmas Island (1987); 4,000 in all countries. Tawau and Lahad Datu. From the Cocos Islands (Keeling Islands), an Australian territory. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. Intelligibility testing needed with Standard Malay and Indonesian. Muslim, traditional religion. Survey needed.

MALAY, SABAH (BAZAAR MALAY, PASAR MALAY) [MSI] Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sundic, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay. A few mother tongue speakers in urban areas, especially children of parents who have different mother tongues. Used mainly as a contact language, so it is not yet fully developed. Speakers shift to various other languages they know to fill in expressions in domains where Sabah Malay is lacking. For at least this reason, if the only form of Malay a person knows is Sabah Malay, he will have difficulty understanding Standard Malay in other domains. 'Bazaar Malay' is used to refer to many regional non-standard varieties of Malay. Dictionary. Trade language of Sabah. Typology: SVO. Agriculturalists: wet and dry rice, rubber, fruits, vegetables; fishermen; shopkeepers; small traders. Survey needed.

MAPUN (SAMA MAPUN, JAMA MAPUN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAGAYANON, BAJAU KAGAYAN, ORANG CAGAYAN, KAGAYAN) [SJM] (15,000 in the Philippines; 1981 SIL). East coast of Sabah. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Muslim. Bible portions 1979-1985. Work in progress.

MINOKOK [MQQ] 2,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Headwaters of Kinabatangan River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central. Closest to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan and Kimaragang. Accessible by road. Survey needed.

MOLBOG [PWM] 5,640 in all countries (1991 SIL). Banggi Island. Mainly in Philippines. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Quezon Palawano (Central) 69% lexical similarity; Brooke's Point Palawano 27% intelligibility; South Palawano 55% intelligibility. Muslim. Bible portions 1977. Work in progress.

PALUAN [PLZ] 4,000 to 5,000 (1990 SIL), including 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan. Sabah, Tenom, Keningau, and Pensiangan districts along some tributaries of the Padas River, and along the Dalit, Keramatoi, Nabawan, Pamentarian, and Mesopo rivers, and the lower Sook River valley, and the headwaters of the Talankai and Sapulut rivers. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Dialects: PALUAN (PELUAN), DALIT MURUT, SOOK MURUT, TAKAPAN, MAKAHEELIGA (MAKIALIGA), PANDEWAN (PANDEWAN MURUT). Closest to Tagal Murut. Speakers use Tagal or Sabah Malay as second language, and are fluent in Tagal. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

PAPAR (BAJAU BUKIT) [DPP] 600 to 800 (1985 SIL). Kuala Penyu District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. High comprehension of Malay and Tatana. Much intermarriage with Tatana, Bisaya, Bajau, Brunei Kedayan speakers. Access by road from Kuala Penyu. Most people complete Grade 6 and many attend secondary school. Muslim. Survey needed.

RUNGUS (DUSUN DAYAK, MELOBONG RUNGUS, MEMAGUN, MEMOGUN, MOMOGUN, ROONGAS, RUNGUS DUSUN) [DRG] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Kudat, Pitas, and Labuk-Sugut districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Dialects: NULU, GONSOMON, RUNGUS. Dictionary. NT 1981. Bible portions 1961-1966. Work in progress.

SAMA, BALANGINGI (BALANGINGI BAJAU, BAANGINGI', NORTHERN SINAMA, BALANIAN, BALAGNINI, BALANINI, BALIGNINI, BINADAN, BANADAN) [SSE] 30,000 in all East Coast Bajau (Sama), including Kagayan (Sama Mapun) and Southern Sama (1977 K. Pallesen SIL). East coast of Sabah. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Muslim. Bible portions 1981-1982.

SAMA, CENTRAL (SIASI SAMA, CENTRAL SINAMA, SAMAL, SINAMA) [SML] 100,000 in all countries (1977 Pallesen SIL). Coastal Sabah, eastern Malaysia. Also Sulu Province, Philippines. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Muslim. NT 1987. Bible portions 1966-1974.

SAMA, SOUTHERN (SAMA SIBUTU', SOUTHERN BAJAU) [SIT] 20,000 or more in Sabah; 30,000 or more in Philippines; 50,000 to 100,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). East coast of Sabah. Also southern Sulu, Philippines. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Dialects: BAJAU BANARAN, BAJAU DARAT, BAJAU LAUT (MANDELAUT, PALA'AU, SAMA LAUT, SAMA MANDELAUT, SAMA PALA'AU, SEA BAJAU, SEA GYPSIES), BAJAU SEMPORNA (BAJAU ASLI, KUBANG, SAMA KUBANG), LAMINUSA (LAMINUSA SINAMA), SIBUTU (SIBUTUQ, SAMA SIBUTU, SAMAH-SAMAH, SAMAH LUMBUH), SIMUNUL (SAMA SIMUNUL), SIKUBUNG (KUBUNG, SAMA KUBUNG), SAMA (A'A SAMA, SAMA', SAMAH, SAMAL, SAMAR), UBIAN (OBIAN, SAMA UBIAN, TAU UBIAN). Muslim. Bible portions 1979-1981. Work in progress.

SELUNGAI MURUT [SLG] 300 in Sabah (1990 SIL); 800 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Pensiangan District, 1 village, along the Sapulut River from the confluence with the Pensiangan River south to the Indonesian border. Also along the upper reaches of the Sembakung River in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut.

SEMBAKUNG MURUT (SIMBAKONG, SEMBAKOENG, SEMBAKONG, TIDONG, TIDOENG, TIDUNG, TINGGALAN, TINGGALUM, TINGALUN) [SMA] 5,000 in all countries (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Along the Sembakung River in northern Kalimantan, Indonesia, from the mouth upstream possibly as far as Sabah. Mainly Indonesia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

SERUDUNG MURUT (SERUDONG, TAWAU MURUT, TIDUNG) [SRK] 1,000 (1989 SIL). Tawau District along the Serudung River and one village 12 miles from Tawau town. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

TAGAL MURUT [MVV] 28,000 to 48,000 in Sabah, Malaysia (1987 SIL); 2,000 Alumbis in Kalimantan (1987 SIL); 30,000 to 50,000 in all countries (1991 SIL). Pensiangan, Keningau, Tenom, Sipitang districts over the whole southwestern portion of Sabah, south into Kalimantan, Indonesia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Dialects: RUNDUM (ARUNDUM), TAGAL (TAGGAL, TAGUL, TAGOL, NORTH BORNEO MURUT, SABAH MURUT), SUMAMBU (SEMEMBU, SEMAMBU, SUMAMBUQ), TOLOKOSON (TELEKOSON), SAPULOT MURUT (SAPULUT MURUT), PENSIANGAN MURUT (PENTJANGAN, LAGUNAN MURUT), SALALIR (SADALIR, SEDÁLIR, SARALIR), ALUMBIS (LUMBIS, LOEMBIS), TAWAN, TOMANI (TUMANIQ), MALIGAN (MAULIGAN, MELIGAN, BOL MURUT, BOLE MURUT). Those who have been to school can use Sabah Malay for routine topics. Closest to Paluan. 20% literate in Bahasa Malaysia. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1984-1991. Bible portions 1965-1990.

TATANA (TATANA', TATANAQ) [TXX] 5,500 (1982 SIL). Kuala Penyu District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya. Christian, traditional religion. Work in progress.

TAUSUG (TAW SUG, SULU, SULUK, SOOLOO, TAUSOG, TAOSUG, MORO JOLOANO, JOLOANO SULU) [TSG] 110,000 in Sabah, Malaysia (1982 SIL); 12,000 in Kalimantan (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 330,000 in the Philippines (1975 census); 492,000 in all countries (1981 Parshall). Sempurna, Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Labuk-Sugut, Kudat districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Immigrants from the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. Known as 'Suluk' in Sabah. They use a Malay-Arabic script. Agriculturalists: dry and wet rice, maize, millet, cassava, yam, bananas, fruit, coconuts; fishermen; animal husbandry: goats, cattle, water buffaloes, chickens, geese, ducks. Muslim. NT 1985. Bible portions 1918-1993.

TEBILUNG (TABILONG, TOBILANG, TOBILUNG) [TGB] 2,000 or more (1984 SIL). Kota Marudu District, on the road from Kota Belud to Kudat, and in Kota Belud. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Low intelligibility with Central Kadazan, Kimaragang. Mostly near good roads. Traditional religion, Christian.

TIDONG (CAMUCONES, NONUKAN, TEDONG, TIDOENG, TIDONG, TIRAN, TIRONES, TIROON, ZEDONG) [TID] 9,800 in Sabah (1982 SIL); 25,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sabah, Labuk-Sugut, Sandakan, and Tawau Districts. Population center is along northeast coast of Kalimantan, Indonesia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong. Dialects: TARAKAN (TERAKAN), SESAYAP (SESAJAP).

TIMUGON MURUT (TIMUGON, TIMOGUN, TIMIGAN, TIMIGUN, TIMOGON, TUMUGUN, TEMOGUN, TENOM MURUT) [TIH] 7,200 to 8,700 (1982 SIL), including 1,200 to 1,700 in Beaufort Murut (1982 SIL). Tenom District along the Padas River from Melalap to Batu, and Beaufort District along the Bukau and lower Padas rivers. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Dialects: KAPAGALAN, POROS, BEAUFORT MURUT (BINTA'), TIMUGON, SANDIWAR (SANDEWAR), DABUGUS, LOWER MURUT, MURUT PADAASS, BUKAU (BUKOW). Bahasa Malaysia is widely understood. Muslim. Bible portions 1986-1990. Work in progress.

TOMBONUWO (TOMBONUO, TOMBONUVA, TAMBANUO, TAMBANUA, TAMBANUVA, TAMBANWAS, TAMBENUA, TAMBUNWAS, TEMBENUA, TUNBUMOHAS, TUMBUNWHA, PAITAN, SUNGAI, SUNGEI, LOBU) [TXA] 20,000 (1991 UBS), including 3,000 Lingkabau. Labuk-Sugut, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo, Northwest, Sabahan, Paitanic. Dialect: LINGKABAU SUGUT (LINKABAU). Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1987-1992. Work in progress.

WOLIO (BUTON, BUTUNG, BUTONESE) [WLO] (25,000 to 35,000 in Indonesia). Primarily Sulawesi, Indonesia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Muna-Buton, Buton. The name 'Buton' is often used generically outside southeast Sulawesi for people from southeast Sulawesi, or is confused with Bajau people as sailors. The varieties spoken in Sabah may be Cia-Cia, Tukangbesi, Indonesian Bajau, or some other. Muslim.

YAKAN (YACAN) [YKA] 5,000 to 10,000 in Sabah (1985); 60,000 to 70,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). Mainly in the Philippines. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Yakan. Mainly temporary workers. Muslim. NT 1984. Bible portions 1959-1966.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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