Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

Indonesia, Irian Jaya

1,641,000 (1995). Information mainly from Wurm and Hattori 1981, SIL. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. The number of languages listed for Indonesia, Irian Jaya is 257. Of those, 256 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

ABUN (YIMBUN, A NDEN) [KGR] 3,000 (1995 SIL). North coast and interior of central Bird's Head, north and south of Tamberau ranges. Sorong Kabupaten, Ayamaru, Sausapor, and Moraid kecamatans. About 20 villages. West Papuan, Bird's Head, North-Central Bird's Head, North Bird's Head. Dialects: ABUN TAT (KARON PANTAI), ABUN JI (MADIK), ABUN JE. Speakers are 5% to 15% literate in Abun. Bible portions 1991-1995. Work in progress.

AGHU (DYAIR, DJAIR) [AHH] 3,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area along the Digul River west of the Mandobo language, Merauke Kabupaten, Jair Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu, Aghu. Distinct from Aghu of Australia. Survey needed.

AIRORAN (AERORAN, ADORA, IRIEMKENA) [AIR] 400 (1991 SIL). North coast area on the lower Apawar River, extending west to the Mamberamo River and along Lake Rombebai. Subu, Motobiak, Isirania and other villages, Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hilir and Pantai Barat kecamatans. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba.

AMBAI (AMBAI-MENAWI) [AMK] 9,000 to 10,000 (1991 SIL). On Ambai Island in Cenderawasih Bay, south of Serui Island, along the south coast of Serui Island from 136.20' to 136.45', Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Yapen Selatan and Yapen Timur kecamatans. 10 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Dialects: RANDAWAYA, AMBAI (WADAPI-LAUT), MANAWI. Closely related to Serui-Laut (77% lexical similarity), Ansus, Woi, Pom, Wabo, Wandamen (71%), Marau, Papuma, Munggui, Kurudu. Children are bilingual in Indonesian. Speakers are 50% to 75% literate in Indonesian. Typology: Serial verbs, complex directional demonstrative system. Bible portions 1994. Work in progress.

ANSUS [AND] 4,600 (1987 SIL). Miosnum Island and the south coast of Serui Island, from 135.35' to 135.50', Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Yapen Barat Kecamatan, Ansus, Kairawi, Aibondeni, and Yenusi villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. 82% lexical similarity with Marau Papuma, 77% with Wandamen. Survey needed.

ANUS [AUQ] 100 (1975 SIL). Island off north coast east of the Tor River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

ARANDAI (YABAN, JABAN, DOMBANO, SEBYAR) [JBJ] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Southern Bird's Head, east and west of the Wariaga River and around the Sebyar (Timoforo) River, Manokwari Kabupaten, Bintuni Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Eastern. Dialects: KEMBERANO (TOMU), DOMBANO (ARANDAI). Kemberano and Dombano appear to have 71% lexical similarity with each other in preliminary word lists; probably 2 separate languages. Related to Kampong Baru. Survey needed.

ARGUNI (ARGOENI) [AGF] 200 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula on an island in the Maccluer Gulf. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Survey needed.

AS [ASZ] 250 (1988 SIL). West Bird's Head, north coast, villages of Asbakin (main center), Maklaumkarta, and Mega. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Reported to originate from Gag Island, west of Waigeo Island. 60% lexical similarity with some dialects on Misool Island. Speakers can speak Moi or Indonesian as second language. Survey needed.

ASMAT, CASUARINA COAST (KAWEINAG) [ASC] 9,000 (1991 SIL), including 5,200 in Matia and 3,400 in Sapan. Casuarina coast from the Ewta River in the north to the Kuti River in the south, inland as far as 25 km from the coast in some places. Merauke Kabupaten, Pantai Kasuari Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Dialects: MATIA, SAPAN (SAFAN). Work in progress.

ASMAT, CENTRAL (MANOWEE, JAS, YAS) [AST] 7,000 in Central Asmat (1972 Roesler); 50,000 all Asmat (1987 Roesler TEAM). On the south coast from the Owap River in the northwest to the Farec River in the southwest, inland toward the foothills to 210 kilometers from the coast in some areas. Merauke Kabupaten, Sawa-Erma, Agats, Atsy, and Pantai Kasuari kecamatans. Between the Kamoro and Sawi languages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Dialects: SIMAI (SIMAY), MISMAN, AJAM (AYAM). North Asmat is the most distinct dialect. Related to the Sempan language north of the rivers. Close to Kamoro and Citak. Many are becoming bilingual in Indonesian; some in neighboring languages. Traditional religion. NT 1985. Bible portions 1966-1976.

ASMAT, NORTH (KEENOK) [NKS] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Near the headwaters of the Paterle Cocq River to the west, to the Unir River to the east, to the foothills in some places, Merauke Kabupaten, Sawa-Erma Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Survey needed.

ASMAT, YAOSAKOR (YAOSAKOR) [ASY] 2,000 (1991 SIL). South coast along the Sirac River, Merauke Kabupaten, Agats and Atsy kecamatans. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. NT 1995.

ATOHWAIM (KAUGAT) [AQM] 1,000 (1987 SIL). South coast on the Cook and Kronkel rivers, between the Sawi and Kaygir languages. Merauke Kabupaten, Pantai Kasuari Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Kayagar. About 50% bilingual in Indonesian, Sawi, or Kaygir. Survey needed.

AUYE (AUWJE) [AUU] 350 (1995 SIL). Central Highlands, Siriwo River, mountains southeast of Cenderawasih Bay. Paniai Kabupaten, Napan Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni. Related to Ekari, but a distinct language. Distinct from Awyi (Awye) in Taikat group. Speakers are 5% to 15% literate in Auye. Mountain slope. Work in progress.

AWERA [AWR] 100 approximately (1987 SIL). Village at the mouth of the Wapoga River, east side of Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Waropen Bawah Kecamatan. Same community with 100 Ansus-speaking people. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Awera. Awera is used in home and interaction with other Awera. Ansus and Indonesian are used widely in the community. Survey needed.

AWYI (AWYE, AWJE, AWJI, NYAO, NJAO) [AUW] 400 (1978 SIL). Northeast near Papua New Guinea border, just south of Jayapura, Jayapura Kabupaten, Arso Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Taikat. Distinct from Auye in Ekari-Wolani-Moni group. Survey needed.

AWYU, MIARO (MIARO, PISA) [PSA] 3,500 (1987 SIL). South coast area, southwest of Wildeman River and east of Kampong River, inland from Pirimapun. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Closely related to Siagha-Yenimu. A separate language from Nohon Awyu. Work in progress.

AWYU, NOHON (AUYU, AWYA, AWJU, AJAU, AVIO, NOHON) [AWJ] 18,000 (1987 SIL). South coast east of Bipim, northwest of Yaqay, west of Tanamerah, southwest of Boma. Merauke Kabupaten; Edera, Pantai Kasuari, Kouh, Mandobo, Asgon, and Kepi kecamatans. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. A separate language from Miaro Awyu. About 9 dialects. Many becoming bilingual in Indonesian. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

BAGUSA (TRIMURIS, DAMBOI-RAMBOI, KOASSA) [BQB] 300 (1987 SIL). East of Mamberamo, south of Lake Rombebai, north of Kauwerawec language. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba. Tropical forest. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion.

BAHAM (PATIMUNI) [BDW] 1,100 (1987 SIL). West Bomberai Peninsula east of the Iha language. Fakfak Kabupaten, Kaimana, Fakfak, and Kokas kecamatans. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper. Close to Iha. Survey needed.

BAPU [BPO] 2,000 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). North coast area along the west bank of the lower Mamberamo River. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hilir Kecamatan. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Survey needed.

BARAPASI (BAROPASI) [BRP] 2,500 (1995 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay just east of the Waropen language, along the Barapasi River and its tributaries. Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Waropen Atas Kecamatan. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Dialects: SIPISI, MARIKAI. Speakers are 15% to 25% literate in Indonesian. Work in progress.

BASO [BSA] 175 (1983 SIL). Lakes Plain area on small river north of the Idenburg River just west and north of Dabra. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hulu Kecamatan. Unclassified. Survey needed.

BAUZI (BAUDI, BAURI, BAUDJI, BAUDZI) [PAU] 1,500 (1991 SIL). Around Lake Holmes near the mid Mamberamo River, Danau Bira area, northeast, Kasonoweja north of Kustera. Jayapura and Yapen Waropen kabupatens, Mamberamo Tengah and Waropen Atas kecamatans; Vakiadi, Noiadi, Danau Bira, Solom, Kustera, Neao, Itaba villages. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Dialects: GESDA DAE, NEAO, AUMENEFA. Closest to Tunggare. Gesda Dae may be a separate language. Eritai is speakers' second language. Speakers are 10% to 25% literate in Bauzi. Levels of bilingualism in Eritai are 0:90%, 1:5%, 2:5%, 3:0%, 4:0%, 5:0%. Bible portions 1983-1994. Work in progress.

BEDOANAS [BED] 250 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northwest coast, Bomberai Peninsula, Fakfak Kabupaten, Kokas Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai. Survey needed.

BERIK (BERRIK, BERICK, UPPER TOR) [BER] 1,200 (1994 SIL). North coast area along the mid and upper Tor River, inland from Sarmi. Jayapura Kabupaten, Tor Atas Kecamatan; Bora Bora, Waf, Doronta, Beu, Togonfo, Dangken, Kondirjan, Somanente, Tenwer, Sewan, Safrontani, and Taminambor villages. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. Formerly the trade language of the Tor area. Close to. Levels of bilingualism in Irianese Malay are 0:10%, 1:30%, 2:25%, 3:20%, 4:10%, 5:5%. Traditional religion, Christian Mander and Kwesten. lexical similarity with Keder. NT 1993. Bible portions 1979-1986.

BETAF [BFE] 400 (1973 R. Sterner SIL). North coast area east of Sarmi, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Unclassified. Survey needed.

BIAK (BIAK-NUMFOR, NOEFOOR, MAFOOR, MEFOOR, NUFOOR, MAFOORSCH, MYFOORSCH) [BHW] 40,000 native speakers, quite a few thousand second language users (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 100,000 (1991 UBS). Islands of Biak and Numfor to the north and on numerous small islands east and west of the Bird's Head, including Mapia Island. Biak Numfor Kabupaten. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Dialects: ARIOM, BO'O, DWAR, FAIRI, JENURES, KORIM, MANDUSIR, MOFU, OPIF, PADOA, PENASIFU, SAMBERI, SAMPORI (MOKMER), SOR, SORENDIDORI, SUNDEI, WARI, WADIBU, SORIDO, BOSNIK, KORIDO, WARSA, WARDO, KAMER, MAPIA, MIOS NUM, RUMBERPON, MONOARFU, VOGELKOP. Some consider Biak and Numfor to be two languages. Christian. NT 1990. Bible portions 1870-1980.

BIKSI (INISINE, BIAKSI) [BDX] 200 in Irian Jaya (1978 SIL); 200 in Papua New Guinea (1992 SIL); 400 in both countries. Headwaters of Upper Sepik, Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Kiwirok Kecamatan. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Biksi. Survey needed.

BIRITAI (ATI, ALIKI) [BQQ] 250 (1988 SIL). Lakes Plain just north of mid Rouffaer River, village of Biri. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Typology: SOV, tonal.

BONERIF (BENERAF) [BNV] 4 (1994 Westrum SIL). North coast area on east side of the upper Tor River, north of Mander and south of Berik and Kwesten languages, village of Beneraf. Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. Speakers intermarry with the Berik and use Berik as second language. Nearly extinct.

BONGGO (ARMOPA, BGU, BOGU, BONGO) [BPG] 432 (1975 SIL). Northeast coast east of Sarmi and west of Demta near Betaf; villages of Taronta, Tarawasi, Armopa. Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

BURATE [BTI] 100 approximately (1987 SIL). Near mouth of the Wapoga River, Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Waropen Bawah Kecamatan. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Semi-nomadic.

BURMESO (TAURAP, BOROMESO, BORUMESSO, MONAU, MONAO, MANAU) [BZU] 159 or more (1975 SIL). Burmeso village and isolated houses along nearby rivers, mid Mamberamo River northeast of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes). Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah Kecamatan. Language Isolate. Language use is vigorous. Survey needed.

BURUWAI (ASIENARA, ASIANARA, KARUFA, MADIDWANA, SABAKOR) [ASI] 700 (1978 SIL). South Bomberai Peninsula along the southwest part of Kamrau Bay, Fakfak Kabupaten, Kaimana Kecamatan; Yarona, Kuna, Esania, Marobia, Guriasa, Tairi, Hia, and Gaka villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro.

BUSAMI [BSM] 700 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). South and north coast, Serui Island near 136', villages of Kamanap, Masiaroti, Kaonda. Yapen Waropen Kabupaten, Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan kecamatans. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Three dialects. 71% lexical similarity with Ansus, 63% with Serui-Laut. Survey needed.

CITAK (CICAK, TJITAK, TJITJAK, KAUNAK, AMAT DARAT) [TXT] 8,000 (1985 M. Stringer TEAM). South coast area, west of the upper Digul River, north of Awyu, east of Asmat, Senggo and north, 19 villages. Merauke Kabupaten, Citak-Mitak Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Dialects: SENGGO, KOMASMA, BUBIS, ESAUN, PIRABANAK, VAKAM, TIAU. A closely related language to Asmat. Language use vigorous. Many becoming bilingual in Indonesian. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:90%, 1:10%, 2:0%, 3:0%, 4:0%, 5:0%. NT 1995. Bible portions 1979-1989.

CITAK, TAMNIM (TAMNIM, ASMAT DARAT) [TML] 290 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Near Senggo, villages of Tamnim, Epem, Zinak, Wowi. Merauke Kabupaten, Citak-Mitak Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Language use vigorous. May be linguistically closer to Asmat, but the speakers want to be called Citak, not Asmat.

DABE (MANGAMBILIS) [DBE] 200 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Upper Tor River area, north coast east of Sarmi, village of Dabe. Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. Survey needed.

DABRA (BOK, TARIA) [DBA] 100 (1978 SIL). Lakes Plain, lower Idenburg River above Mamberamo. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hulu Kecamatan. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, East Lakes Plain. Survey needed.

DAMAL (UHUNDUNI, AMUNG, AMUNG KAL, AMUNGME, AMUY, ENGGIPILOE, HAMUNG, OEHOENDOENI) [UHN] 14,000 (1991 UBS). Central highlands west of the Western Dani, east of Ekari, southeast of the source of the Kemandoga River, all around Puncak Jaya, northern and southern Carstens Mts. Paniai Kabupaten, Ilaga and Beoga kecamatans. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Uhunduni. Dialects: DAMAL, AMUNG, ENGGIPILU. Related to Ekari, Moni, Wolani. Typology: Tonal. NT 1988. Bible portions 1973-1992.

DANI, LOWER GRAND VALLEY [DNI] 20,000 (1996). Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley and upper gorge. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani. Dialects: LOWER GRAND VALLEY HITIGIMA (DANI-KURIMA, KURIMA), UPPER BELE, LOWER BELE, LOWER KIMBIN (KIBIN), UPPER PYRAMID. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1989-1994. Bible portions 1970.

DANI, MID GRAND VALLEY (TULEM, CENTRAL GRAND VALLEY DANI, BALIEM VALLEY DANI) [DNT] 50,000 (1990 UBS). Baliem Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani. Agriculturalists: sweet potatoes; animal husbandry: pigs. NT 1990. Bible portions 1995.

DANI, UPPER GRAND VALLEY [DNA] 20,000 (1996). Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley and upper gorge. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1992. Bible portions 1994.

DANI, WESTERN (DANI BARAT, ILAGA WESTERN DANI, LANI, LAANY, OERINGOEP, TIMORINI) [DNW] 180,000 (1993 census). Central highlands, west of Baliem Grand Valley and east from upper Kemandoga Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani. Dialects: WESTERN DANI OF PYRAMID, WESTERN DANI OF BOKONDINI. 10% semi-literate in Indonesian. Many other dialects are not as distinct as those listed. NT 1981. Bible portions 1966.

DAO [DAZ] 250 (1991 SIL). West central highlands, Paniai kabupaten, Napan Kecamatan, east of Cenderawasih Bay along the Dao River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni. Survey needed.

DEM (LEM, NDEM) [DEM] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Western highlands along upper Rouffaer River north of Damal, northeast of Western Dani. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dem.

DEMISA [DEI] 500 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). First language in Desawa and Muyere villages along the coast in Waropen Bawah District, and Botawa village in the interior along the Wonoi River. Reported to be the lingua franca of most of the eastern side of Cenderawasih Bay, and of semi-nomadic people in interior Waropen Bawah. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Trade language.

DEMTA (MURIS) [DMY] 836 (1975 SIL). North coast west of Tanamerah Bay, villages of Demta, Muris Besar, Muris Kecil, Ambora, Yougafsa. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani. Survey needed.

DOUTAI (TAORI-SO, TAORI, TOLITAI) [TDS] 335 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Lakes Plain area at Toli-Dou village, west and south of Taiyeve. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East.

DUBU [DMU] 130 (1978 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, south of Waris, east of Emumu, north of Towei languages, villages of Affi, Dobu, Yambe. Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Western. Survey needed.

DURIANKERE (ESARO, SAILEN, DURIANKARI) [DBN] 100 (1988 SIL). On a small island in the Raja Ampat Islands in the strait between Salawati Island and the west end of Bird's Head. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Inanwatan. Reported that the only speakers are elderly. Survey needed.

DUSNER (DUSNIR) [DSN] 6 (1978 SIL). Around the town of Dusner, west coast of Cenderawasih Bay, Wandamen Bay area. Only one village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Nearly extinct.

DUVLE (DUVELE, WIRI, DUVDE, DUVRE) [DUV] 800 to 1,000 (1996 UFM). Lakes Plain area south of Van Daalen River and north of Mulia, Paniai. Eastern dialect along Dagai River, western dialect along Fedide and Wedi rivers. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, Duvle. Dialects: EASTERN DUVLE, WESTERN DUVLE. Closest to Taori-Kaiy. Little difference between dialects. Vigorous language use. Wano is the trade language. Work in progress.

EDOPI (ELOPI, DOU, DOUFOU) [DBF] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Around the juncture of the Tariku (Dou) and Muyabu (Fou) rivers. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central. Speakers are less than 5% literate in Edopi or Indonesian. Typology: SOV, tonal. Work in progress.

EIPOMEK (EIPO, T-VALLEY) [EIP] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern highlands area, Eipo River, east of Nalca. Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. 80% lexical similarity with Una.

EKARI (KAPAUKU, EKAGI, MEE MANA, TAPIRO) [EKG] 100,000 (1985 Marion Doble CMA). West central highlands, Paniai, 135.25-137 E, 3.25-4.10 S. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni. Dialects: SIMORI, YABI (JABI), MAPIYA-KEGATA. Closest to Wolani. Slight dialect difference with Mapiya-Kegata. They call themselves 'Me'. The Moni call them 'Ekari'. 'Kapauku' is used for them by their southern neighbors. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:10%, 1:40%, 2:20%, 3:15%, 4:10%, 5:5%. Rugged mountain chains, deep valleys. Altitude: 1,500 meters. NT 1963-1985. Bible portions 1955-1959.

EMUMU (KIAMEROP) [ENR] 1,100 (1987 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, 11 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Eastern. Survey needed.

ERITAI (EDITODE EDAI, ERAI, ERI, BARUA, BABURIWA, BABIRUWA, BABRUWA, BABRUA, ALIKI, HAYA) [BAD] 400 to 450 (1987 D. L. Martin RBMU). West of the Mamberamo River, Lakes Plain area in low mountains just south of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes), around the Kustera airstrip, to the villages of Erai to the east, Kustera, and Haya to the south. Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah and Mamberamo Hulu kecamatans. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Language use is vigorous. The dialect in Obogwi village is close but not the same. 76% lexical similarity with Obokuitai, 50% with Sikaritai. Also related to Kaiy, Doutai, Biritai. Some people at Kustera are bilingual in Bauzi, but not those in other villages. Typology: SOV, tonal.

EROKWANAS [ERW] 250 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula, north of Baham language. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai. Survey needed.

FAYU (FAYU, SEHUDATE) [FAU] 400 (1991 SIL). West of juncture of Tariku (Dou) and Muyabu (Fou) rivers, west of the Kirikiri language. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. 4 nomadic groups. Work in progress.

FOAU [FLH] 232 (1975 SIL). Foa and Mudiay village, east Lakes Plain area just north of lower Idenburg River. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, East Lakes Plain. Closely related to Dabra and Taworta. Survey needed.

FOYA (FOJA) [FJA] 50 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Upper Bu River, upper Tor River area. Trans-New Guinea, Northern. People now speak Mander. Nearly extinct.

GRESI (GRESIK) [GRS] 2,500 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, southeast of Genyem, in villages of Hawe, Bring, Tabangkwari, Yansu, Ibub, Sunna, Klaysu, Nembugnesi. Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran. 80% lexical similarity with Kemtuik. Speakers are bilingual in Indonesian.

HATAM (HATTAM, ATAM, TINAM, MIRIEI, MOI, ADIHUP, URAN, BORAI, MANSIM) [HAD] 16,000 (1993 TEAM). Eastern Bird's Head, northeast of Manikion, south and southwest of Manokwari, between Sentani and Depapre. Manokwari Kabupaten; Warmare, Ransiki, and Oransbari kecamatans. West Papuan, Hattam. Dialects: MOI (MOIRE), TINAM, MIRIEI, ADIHUP, URAN. Mountain slope. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1993.

HUPLA (SOBA) [HAP] 3,000 or more (1982 RBMU). Central highlands area near east side of Baliem gorge. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani. Closely related to Lower Grand Valley Dani. NT 1994.

IAU (FOI, URUNDI, URURI, YAU, TURU, IAW) [TMU] 1,000 to 1,200 (1991 SIL). Waropen, Paniai, Mulia, Lakes Plain area between Rouffaer and upper Van Daalen rivers, villages of Barere, Fawi, and Taiyai. Poi dialect on Rouffaer River, Turu dialect on Van Daalen River. 2 villages in each of the three dialects. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central. Dialects: POI, TURU, IAU. Closely related to Edopi. Distinct from Turu (Yawa). Speakers are 5% to 15% literate in Iau. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:98%, 1:2%, 2:0%, 3:0%, 4:0%, 5:0%. Bible portions 1985-1993. Work in progress.

IHA (KAPAUR) [IHP] 5,500 (1987 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula, far west end around Fak Fak and north. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper. Closely related to Baham.

IRARUTU (IRAHUTU, IRUTU, KASIRA, ARGUNI BAY, KAITERO) [IRH] 4,000 (1987 SIL). East Bomberai Peninsula southwest from Arguni Bay north to Bintuni Bay, 44 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Unclassified. Dialects: FUNIARA, AROBA, YARU, TUGRAMA, TOMAGE, WERAFUTA, WARMNU. Speakers are 15% to 25% literate in Indonesian. Tropical forest. Coastal swamp. Fishermen. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

IRESIM [IRE] 100 (1977 Lincoln). South Cenderawasih Bay, west of Nabire and around Yamur Lake. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Iresim. Survey needed.

ISIRAWA (SAWERI, SABERI, OKWASAR) [SRL] 2,000 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Jayapura, north coast, around Sarmi and to the west, the villages of Mararena, Kamenawari, Amsira, Siaratesa, Perkami, Martewar, Arsania, Nietontori, and Arabais. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Isirawa. Dialects: WESTERN ISIRAWA, EASTERN ISIRAWA. Close to Kwerba. The dialects are very close. Language use is vigorous. Speakers are 5% to 15% literate in Isirawa. Trade language. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:0%, 1:30%, 2:40%, 3:30%, 4:0%, 5:0%. Bible portions 1977-1992. Work in progress.

ITIK (ITTIK, BETEF, ITTIK-TOR) [ITX] 100 (1978 SIL). North coast east of Tor River, inland from Kwesten language along upper Biri River. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. Dialects: ITTIK, ITTIK-TOR. Ethnic group: Borto. Survey needed.

IWUR (IWOER) [IWO] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Border area in valley of Iwur River, Ok Iwur and east to Ok Denom. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland. Survey needed.

KABURI [UKA] 600 (1986 Gravelle SIL). Southern Bird's Head, east of Kemberano and Arandai languages, north of Kokoda and Fakfak, Manokwari Kabupaten, Merdei, Inanwatan Kecamatans. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Western. Survey needed.

KAIS (AISO, ATORI, MINTAMANI, KAMPUNG BARU) [KZM] 700 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). South Bird's Head area inland along Kais River, 8 villages. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Western. Survey needed.

KAIY (TAORI-KAIY, TAORI-KEI, KAI, TODI) [TCQ] 250 (1991). Lakes Plain area around airstrip of Kaiy on lower Rouffaer River, villages of Kaiy and Kokou. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Linguistically between Doutai and Sikaritai. Also related to Eritai, Biritai, Duvle.

KALABRA (BERAUR) [KZZ] 2,100 (1975). West Bird's Head, south of Madik language, east of Moi. West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head. Closest to Tehit. Survey needed.

KAMBERATARO (DERA, MANGGUAR, DRA) [KBV] 1,000 in Irian Jaya (1987 SIL); 687 in Papua New Guinea; 1,700 in all countries. Northeast Irian Jaya, south of Jayapura, near Waris; 13 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Senagi.

KAMBERAU (KAMRAU, IRIA) [IRX] 1,570 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Southeast Bomberai Peninsula around Kamrau Bay, villages of Ubia-Seramuku, Bahomia, Waho, Wamoma, Inari, Tanggaromi, Koi, Wamesa, Coa. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Closely related to Buruwai.

KAMORO (KAMORA, MIMIKA, LAKAHIA, NAGRAMADU, UMARI, MUKAMUGA, NEFERIPI, NEFARPI, NAFARPI, KAOKONAU) [KGQ] 8,000 (1987 SIL). South coast from Etna Bay to Mukamuga River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Dialects: TARYA, YAMUR. Four other dialects. Many becoming bilingual in Indonesian. Distinct from Yeretuar (Umari). Survey needed.

KANUM (ENKELEMBU) [KCD] 320 in all countries (1975 Wurm). South coast border area, east of Merauke, bordering Southeast Marind on the east. Also in Papua New Guinea. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. 4 separate languages.

KAPORI (KAPAURI) [KHP] 60 (1978 SIL). Village of Pagai on north bank of upper Idenburg River. Trans-New Guinea, Kaure.

KARAS [KGV] 200 (1978 SIL). Karas Island, off southwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula, southeast from Fak Fak. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, West Bomberai, Karas. Related to Baham and Iha. Survey needed.

KARON DORI (MAIYACH, MEON) [KGW] 5,000 (1987 SIL). Central Bird's Head north of Brat, villages of Pef, Asses, Sunopi, Siakwa. West Papuan, Bird's Head, North-Central Bird's Head, Central Bird's Head. Closely related to Mai Brat. Survey needed.

KAURE (KAUREH) [BPP] 450 (1995 SIL). Southwest of Lake Sentani along Nawa River, in villages of Lereh, Harna, Wes, Masta, Aurina. Trans-New Guinea, Kaure, Kaure Proper. Typology: SOV. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

KAUWERAWEC (KAUWERAWETJ) [QKX] 400 or more (1987 SIL). East of mid Mamberamo, north of Kasonaweja. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba. Tropical forest. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion.

KAUWOL (KAWOL, KAVWOL) [KYW] 500 in all countries (1971 Wurm). Upper Kauwol Valley, on both sides of Irian Jaya-Papua New Guinea border. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Closely related to Faiwol. Setaman is a related language.

KAWE [KGB] 300 (1978 SIL). West end of Waigeo Island off west coast of Bird's Head, Raja Ampat Islands, villages of Salio, Selepele, Bianci, Menyefun. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Related dialects or languages: Maya, Maden, Palamul, Matbat.

KAYGIR (KAYAGAR, KAJAGAR) [KYT] 10,000 (1993 RBMU). South coast near Pirimapun and Sawi, Merauke area. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Kayagar. 10% semi-literate in Indonesian.

KAYUPULAU (KAJUPULAU) [KZU] 573 (1978 SIL). Island villages of Kayubatu and Kayupulau in Jayapura harbor. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. May be a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa). Survey needed.

KEDER [KDY] 200 to 600 (1973 SIL). North coast east of Tor River mouth. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. 45% lexical similarity with Berik. Survey needed.

KEMBERANO (KALITAMI) [BZP] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Southern Bird's Head along the coast, east of Komundan River, south of Arandai language. Several villages also northwest Bomberai Peninsula, south from Kalitami across Bintuni Bay. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Eastern. Dialects: BARAU, WERIAGAR. Survey needed.

KEMBRA [XKW] 30 (1991 SIL). Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Okbibab Kecamatan, east of the Sogber River. Unclassified. Nearly extinct.

KEMTUIK (KEMTUK, KAMTUK) [KMT] 2,500 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, villages of Mamdayawang, Meikari, Merem, Yanim, Braso, Aib, Sabransamon, Mamda, Sabeyap, Sabeyap Kecil, Sekorup, aimke, Sabron Yaru. East of Gresi language. Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran. Speakers are bilingual in Indonesian. Kemtuik and Gresi are 80% lexically similar. Speakers are 25% to 50% literate in Kembuik and Indonesian. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

KETENGBAN (KUPEL, OKTENGBAN) [KIN] 10,000 (1996 Sims SIL). Scattered slopes in eastern highlands area east of Eipomek and west of Ngalum language near Papua New Guinea border. Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Dialects: OKBAP, OMBAN, BIME, ONYA. Speakers are 15% to 30% literate in Ketengban. Tropical forest. Hunter-gatherers; gardeners. Bible portions 1985-1995. Work in progress.

KIMAGHAMA (KALADDARSCH, TERI-KALWASCH) [KIG] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Frederik Hendrik Island west of southeast Irian Jaya. Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Survey needed.

KIMKI (AIPKI, KIMGI, SUKUBATOM, SUKUBATONG) [SBT] 350 or fewer (1978 UFM). Border area where Sepik River enters Irian Jaya. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Biksi. May be inherently intelligible with Biksi.

KIRIKIRI (KIRIRA) [KIY] 250 (1982 SIL). West of juncture of the Tariku (Dou) and Muyabu (Fou) rivers, villages at Dofu airstrip and Kliki River, Paniai. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Dialects: KIRIKIRI, FAIA. Speakers are less than 5% literate in Kirikiri or Indonesian. Typology: SOV, tonal. Lowland swamps. Hunter-gatherers, sago. Work in progress.

KOFEI [KPI] 100 approximately (1987 SIL). East side of Geelvink Bay, recently moved to Sauri-Sirami village. There may be more living semi-nomadically in the interior. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay.

KOKODA (SAMALEK, ODERAGO, KOMUDAGO, NEBES) [QKW] 3,700 (1991 SIL). Bird's Head, south coast on Maccluer Gulf, east of Inanwatan and west of Tarof languages. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Central. Dialects: KASUWERI, NEGRI BESAR, UDAGAGA. Kasuweri 86% lexical similarity with Tarof, Negri Besar 82% with Tarof, Kasuweri 77% with Negri Besar, Kasuweri 73% with Udagaga 73%, Negeri Besar 83% with Udagaga 83%, 49% with Kemberano, 35% with Arandai. Survey needed.

KOMBAI (KOMBOY) [KGU] 5,000 including 4,000 Kombai (1991 SIL), 1,000 Wanggom (1978 SIL). South coast area east of Senggo around Boma. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Dialects: WANGGOM (WANGGO, WANGOM), CENTRAL KOMBAI, TAYAN. Closely related to Wambon, Kaeti. Work in progress.

KONDA (OGIT) [KND] 500 or more (1988 SIL). Southwest Bird's Head along lower Waromge River south of Teminabuan, villages of Konda and Teminabuan District. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Konda-Yahadian. Survey needed.

KONERAW [KDW] 300 (1978 SIL). South coast of Frederik Hendrik Island. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Mombum. Survey needed.

KOPKA [OPK] 250 (1988 Kroneman and Peckham SIL). Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela, Jayawijaya Kabupaten, Kurima Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Kopka. Survey needed.

KOROWAI [KHE] 2,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area, north of Boma, east of Senggo. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Unclassified. Survey needed.

KORUPUN-SELA (KORAPUN, KIMYAL OF KORUPUN) [KPQ] 8,000 (1996 E. Young). Eastern highlands on upper reaches of Erok River, southwest of Nalca, east of Yali of Ninia, Jayawijaya District, Kurima region. Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western. Dialects: KORUPUN (DURAM), DAGI, SISIBNA (GOBUGDUA), DEIBULA, SELA. Related to Nalca. Levels of bilingualism in Nipsan are 0:98%, l:0%, 2:0%, 3:0%, 4:1.5%, 5:.5%. Bible portions 1980-1985. Work in progress.

KOSADLE (KOSARE) [KIQ] 250 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Hulu Atas just west of juncture of Nawa and Idenburg Rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Kaure, Kaure Proper. Survey needed.

KOTOGÜT (KOTOGÜT, TSOKWAMBO, TSAKWAMBO) [KVZ] 500 (1991 SIL). South coast area on upper Digul River north of Kaeti language. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu, Aghu. Dialects or related languages: Mapi, Ederah, Kia, Upper Digul, Upper Kaeme. Survey needed.

KOWIAI (KOIWAI, KAIWAI, KUIWAI, AIDUMA, KAYUMERAH, KAJUMERAH) [KWH] 600 (1984 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula; southwest coast at Kaimana and in Kamrau Bay on several islands, villages of Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, Waikala, Kayumerah. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai. Dialects: ADI, NAMATOTA (NAMATOTE). Close to Uruangnirin, Onin, and Sekar. Blust says this appears to be Central Malayo-Polynesian. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian, Irianese Malay for Indonesian: 0:0%, 1:0%, 2:60%, 3:34%, 4:5%, 5:1%; Irianese Malay: 0:0%, 1:0%, 2:1%, 3:99%, 4:0%, 5:0%. Mountain slope, limestone karst, coral islands. Fishermen. Altitude: 0 to 20 feet. Muslim.

KURUDU [KJR] 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Kurudu Island between eastern tip of Serui Island and mainland of Irian Jaya to east, villages of Kurudu, Kaipuri, Poiwai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group. 71% lexical similarity with Woriasi, 46% with Western Serui. Vigorous language use.

KUWANI [XKU] 1,000 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). South Bird's Head. West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head. Related to Moraid. Unconfirmed. Survey needed.

KWANSU (KWANSU-BONGGRANG, KUANGSU-BONGGRANG, KWANGSU-BONGGRANG) [KJA] 350 (1977 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, just north of Gresi language. Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran. 60% lexical similarity with Kemtuik. Speakers bilingual in Indonesian.

KWERBA (AIRMATI, NAIBEDJ, TEKUTAMESO) [KWE] 2,500 (1996 SIL). Upper Tor River area, northeast, headwaters of Apawar River inland from Sarmi east to Berik language, villages of Aurime, Munukania, Wamariri, Kwerba, Tatsewalem around Apiaweti. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba. Dialects: SERIKENAM, SASAWA, NOGUKWABAI. Speakers are below 5% literate in Kwerba. Tropical forest. Hunter-gatherers; some agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1986-1991. Work in progress.

KWERISA [KKB] 55 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). At village of Kaiy on lower Rouffaer River. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. There may be a few older speakers (1987). Most or all now speak Kaiy. Nearly extinct.

KWESTEN [KWT] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Lower Tor River, north coast area inland east of Sarmi, villages of Holmhaven, Mafenter, Arare, Omte. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. 40% lexical similarity with Berik.

LEGENYEM (LAGANYAN) [LCC] 300 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Raja Ampat Islands, Waigeo Island in northwest end of main bay and on south coast, villages of Beo, Lempintol and Wawiai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Survey needed.

LEPKI [LPE] 530 (1991 SIL). Jayawijaya kabupaten, Okbibab kecamatan, west of the Sogber River, east and north of the Ketengban. Unclassified. Survey needed.

LIKI (MOAR) [LIO] 25 (1954 A. C. van der Leeden ms.). Islands off north coast of Sarmi, Jayapura Kabupaten, Sarmi Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

MADEN (SAPRAN) [XMX] 400 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Raja Ampat Islands, northwestern Salawati Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Possibly the same as Maya. Survey needed.

MAI BRAT (AYAMARU, AJAMARU, BRAT, MAIBRAT) [AYZ] 20,000 or more (1987 SIL). Central Bird's Head around Ayamaru Lakes, about 40 villages. West Papuan, Bird's Head, North-Central Bird's Head, Central Bird's Head. Dialects: MAISAWIET, MAIYAH, MAIMAKA, MAITE, MAISEFA. 5 dialects. 'Ayamaru' is name of the people, 'Mai Brat' of language. 50% to 60% of men and all older women do not know Indonesian. 1,000 to 3,000 are in cities and are very bilingual, some highly educated. Children who have been to school know some Indonesian. Maibrat is used in church. Closest to Karon Dori. Speakers are 25% to 50% literate in Mai Brat or Indonesian. Typology: SOV, heavy verb and clause serialization. Bible portions 1990-1994. Work in progress.

MAIRASI (FARANYAO, KANIRAN) [FRY] 3,300 (1996 L. Peckham). Bomberai Peninsula, southwest coast of neck, east and northeast from Kaimana, Wasior, Triton Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanamerah, Mairasi. Dialect: NORTHEASTERN MAIRASI. Close to Semimi. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Some speak some Kowiai. Speakers are 15% to 25% literate in Indonesian. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:5%, 1:20%, 2:30%, 3:20%, 4:23%, 5:2%. Bible portions 1986-1987.

MAKLEW (MAKLEU) [MGF] 120. South coast area, east side of Marianne strait, west of Marind and east of Yelmek languages. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Bulaka River. Survey needed.

MANDER [MQR] 20 (1991 SIL). North coast area on the upper Bu River, a tributary of the Upper Tor River. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. Speakers intermarry with the Berik, and speak Berik as second language. Nomadic. Nearly extinct.

MANDOBO (NUB, DUMUT, "KAETI", MANDOBBO) [KZH] 10,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). Border area near Fly River on east side of Digul River between Tanahmerah and Mindiptana. Also in Papua New Guinea. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. "Kaeti" is an offensive name. Work in progress.

MANEM (YETI, JETI, WEMBI, SKOFRO) [JET] 400 in Irian Jaya (1978 SIL); 500 in Papua New Guinea (1993 SIL); 900 in both countries. Northeast border area south of Jayapura, villages of Wembi, Yeti, Kibai, Uskuar, Griku, Skotiaho, Skofro. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. 50% lexical similarity with Waris. Significant literacy in Bahasa Indonesia.

MANIKION (MANTION, SOUGB, SOGH) [MNX] 12,000 (1987 SIL). East Bird's Head, east of Meyah, south of Manokwari, about 50 villages. East Bird's Head. Four dialects. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1965-1969.

MAPIA (MAPIAN) [MPY] Mapia Islands, about 180 miles north of Manokwari. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic. Ethnic group now speaks Biak. Extinct.

MARAU [MVR] 1,700 (1987 SIL). South coast of Serui Island, 5 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Dialect: WARABORI (NATABUI, WAREMBORI). 82% lexical similarity with Pom, Munggui, Papuma, Ansus. Survey needed.

MAREMGI (MARENGGE) [MRX] 47 (1975 SIL). North coast inland from Bonggo language, village of Marengge. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. Unintelligible to neighboring settlements including Bonggo. Related to Berik, Bonerif, Mander, Itik, Kwesten, Wares. Survey needed.

MARIND (GAWIR, SOUTHEAST MARIND, TUGERI, HALIFOERSCH) [MRZ] 7,000 (1987 SIL). South coast near Merauke. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Marind Proper. Four dialects. Survey needed.

MARIND, BIAN (BOVEN-MBIAN, BIAN, NORTHWEST MARIND) [BPV] 900 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). South coast area near Merauke, Merauke Kabupaten, Muting Kecamatan. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Marind Proper. Survey needed.

MASIMASI [ISM] 200 (1973 SIL). Island off north coast east of the Tor River mouth, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

MASSEP (MASEP) [MVS] 40 (1978 SIL). North coast east of Mamberamo River mouth and west of Sarmi, near Apawar River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Massep. Survey needed.

MATBAT (ME, BIGA) [XMT] 550 (1991 SIL). Raja Ampat Islands, Misool Island, Segaf Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Survey needed.

MAWES [MGK] 693 (1975 SIL). Northeast coast east of Sarmi near mouth of Wirowai River, villages of Mawes, Mawesweres, Mawesdai. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Mawes. Survey needed.

MA'YA (SALAWATI, SAMATE, SAILOLOF) [SLZ] 1,600 (1991 SIL). Raja Ampat Islands, central Waigeo Island and central Salawati Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Dialects: MA'YA, KAWIT, BANLOL, BATANTA ISLAND. Survey needed.

MEKWEI (MENGGEI, MUNGGAI, MUNGGE, DEMENGGONG-WAIBRON-BANO, MENGGWEI, MUNKEI, MOOI, MOI, WAIPU) [MSF] 1,200 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, villages of Maribu, Waibrong, Kendate, Sabron Dosay. Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran. 60% lexical similarity with Kemtuik. Distinct from Moi (Mosana). Speakers bilingual in Indonesian. Survey needed.

MEOSWAR (WAR) [MVX] 250 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Meoswar Island, west Cenderawasih Bay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Survey needed.

MER (MURI, MIERE) [MNU] 100 to 300 (1988 L. Peckham SIL). Central Bird's Head, headwaters of Wosimi and Uremo River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanamerah, Mairasi. Survey needed.

MEYAH (MEAX, MEYACH, MEAH, MEJAH, MEJACH) [MEJ] 15,000 to 20,000 (1995 G. Gravelle SIL). East Bird's Head, north coast, west of Manokwari, north of Hattam language, and scattered locations. East Bird's Head, Meax. Many are becoming bilingual in Indonesian. Some are bilingual in Mokona. Speakers are 25% to 50% literate in Meyah and Indonesian. Closest to Moskona and Manikion. Bible portions 1990-1995. Work in progress.

MOI (MOSANA) [MXN] 4,600 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Salawati Island, west Bird's Head around Sorong, 9 villages. West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head. Distinct from Mekwei (Moi).

MOLOF (AMPAS) [MSL] 200 (1978 SIL). South of Jayapura, west of Waris. Trans-New Guinea, Molof. Not closely related to any other language. Survey needed.

MOMBUM (KEMELOM) [MSO] 250 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Island next to southeast coast of Fredrik Hendrik Island. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Mombum. Closest to Koneraw. Survey needed.

MOMUNA (SOMAHAI, SOMAGE, SUMOHAI) [MQF] 2,700 (1987 SIL). Lowlands just south of main ranges extending from south of Silimo east to south of Una language. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Momuna. No bilinguals. Contact with Dani who are learning Momuna. Speakers are 5% to 15% literate in Momuna. Bible portions 1985-1987. Work in progress.

MONI (MIGANI, DJONGGUNU, JONGGUNU) [MNZ] 20,000 (1991 SIL). Central highlands, 10 to 70 miles northeast of Lake Paniai. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni. Dialect: AWEMBAK (AWEMBIAK). NT 1990. Bible portions 1976.

MOR [MHZ] 700 (1987 SIL). Mor Islands in east Cenderawasih Bay near Nabire. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Mor. Distinct from Trans-New Guinea Mor. Survey needed.

MOR [MOQ] 60 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northwest Bomberai Peninsula, coast of Bintuni Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mor. Distinct from Austronesian Mor. Survey needed.

MORAID [MSG] 1,000 or fewer (1988 SIL). West Bird's Head, east of Moi and south of Madik languages, villages of Sailala, Makbon, Luwelala, Seni. West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head. Related dialect or language: Kuwani.

MORAORI (MORARI, MOARAERI) [MOK] 50. South coast border area east of Merauke, bordering Marind in the east. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Moraori. Survey needed.

MORWAP (JANGGU, DJANGGU, ELSENG, TABU, SAWA) [MRF] 300 (1991 SIL). Jayapura kabupaten, Arso, Abepura, Kemtuk Gresi, Senggi kecamatans, south of Jayapura, northeast of the Kaureh. Trans-New Guinea, Morwap. Not closely related to any other language. Survey needed.

MOSKONA (SABENA, MENINGGO, MENINGO) [MTJ] 8,000 (1996 G. Gravelle SIL). Southeast Bird's Head, south of Meyah and west of Manikion. East Bird's Head, Meax. 68% lexical similarity with Meyah. Also related to Manikion. Work in progress.

MPUR (KEBAR, AMBERBAKEN, EKWARE, DEKWAMBRE) [AKC] 7,000 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). North coast of Bird's Head, west of Manokwari, and Kelar Valley. West Papuan, Kebar. Dialects: SIRIR, AJIW. Speakers are 15% to 25% literate in Indonesian. Work in progress.

MUNGGUI (NATABUI) [MTH] 800 (1982 SIL). North coast of Serui Island near 135.50', villages of Munggui, Windesi, Murui, Asei Puramati. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. 82% lexical similarity with Marau, Papuma. Survey needed.

MURKIM [RMH] Jayawijaya kabupaten, Kiwirok kecamatan, border area around the Mot airstrip, near the headwaters of the Sepik River. Unclassified. Survey needed.

MUYU, NORTHERN (NORTHERN MUJU, NORTHERN KATI , NORTH MOEJOE, NIINATI, NINATIE, KATI-NINANTI) [KTI] 8,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area east and west of Muyu River. Borders South Kati. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland. Dialects: KANGGEWOT, TOEMOETOE (ARE), SIBIL. Survey needed.

MUYU, SOUTHERN (SOUTHERN KATI, SOUTHERN MUJU, SOUTH MOEJOE, MUYU, DIGOEL, DIGUL, METOMKA, KATI-METOMKA) [KTS] 4,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area in villages south of Yiptem and along Kao River, lower Muyu River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland. Dialect: METOMKA. Kowan is a possible dialect. Survey needed.

NABI (MODAN, KURI) [NBN] 500 (1982 SIL). Southwest Bomberai Peninsula, along Nabi (Kuri) River west from Wandamen Bay, 16 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Unclassified. Closely related to Irarutu. Survey needed.

NAFRI [NXX] 1,630 (1975 SIL). Nafri village, southeast end of Yotafa Bay, Jayapura area. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Survey needed.

NALCA (HMANGGONA, NALTJE, NALTYA, HMONONO, KIMYAL, KIMJAL) [TVL] 8,000 to 10,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern highlands area on north slopes of ranges northeast of Korupun and southeast of Nipsan. Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western. Less than 1% of the population is semi-literate in Indonesian. Distinct from Korupun (Kimyal). Bible portions. Work in progress.

NARAU [NXU] 100 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Kecamatan Kaureh, Jayapura area. Trans-New Guinea, Kaure, Kaure Proper. Survey needed.

NDOM [NQM] 450 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Frederik Hendrik Island. Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Closest to Kimaghama, Riantana. Survey needed.

NDUGA (NDUGWA, NDAUWA, DAUWA, DAWA, PESECHEM, PESECHAM, PESEGEM) [NDX] 10,000 (1985 Mary Owen CMA). Jayawijaya, Tiom, central highlands, south of high ranges, south of Western Dani, north of Asmat. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga. Dialects: SINAK NDUGA, HITADIPA NDUGA. Some speak Damal, Moni, Indonesian. Widely scattered. Levels of bilingualism in Dani are 0:60%, 1:10%, 2:20%, 3:0%, 4:0%, 5:10%. NT 1984. Bible portions 1971.

NGALUM [SZB] 10,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL); 18,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Valleys of Ok Sibil, Ok Tsop, and perhaps Ok Bon, border area in main range north of North Kati and Iwur languages. Also in Papua New Guinea. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Dialects: NGALUM, APMISIBIL, SIBIL. NT 1992. Bible portions 1974-1991.

NGGEM [NBQ] 3,000 (1991 SIL). Along the middle Haflifoeri River, north of Wamena. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani. Closely related to Walak. 50% lexical similarity with Western Dani. Typology: SOV clause chaining. Bible portions 1982. Work in progress.

NIMBORAN (NAMBRONG) [NIR] 3,500 (1987 SIL). North Irian Jaya near Papua New Guinea border, due west of Lake Sentani, about 26 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Nimboran. 40% lexical similarity with Kemtuik. Language use is vigorous. Speakers are bilingual in Indonesian. Bible portions 1982-1985.

NINGGERUM (NINGGRUM, NINGGIRUM, NINGGEROEM, KATIVA, KASIWA, OBGWO, MUYU) [NXR] 1,000 in Irian Jaya, 3,000 in Papua New Guinea; 4,000 in all countries (1975 Wurm). Border area and in Papua New Guinea between the Ok Birim and Ok Tedi Rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland. Speakers are called Muyu. Work in progress.

NIPSAN (SOUTHERN JALE, YALE-NIPSAN) [NPS] 2,500 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Jayawijaya, Kurima, just west of Hmanggona. Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western. Distinct from Yali of Ninia, Yali of Angguruk, and Yali of Pass Valley. 78% lexical similarity with Yale-Kosarek.

NISA (BONEFA, KEREMA) [NIC] 500 (1987 SIL). Inland from east side of Geelvink Bay around Danau Nisa. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Vigorous language use.

NOPUK (NOBUK) [NOB] 300 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). East of Mamberamo River, in the mountains between the villages of Kwerba and Kasonaweja. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Kwerba. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

OBOKUITAI (OBOGWITAI, ATI, ALIKI) [AFZ] 130 (1996 SIL). Lakes Plain just north of mid Rouffaer River, village of Obogwi. Geelvink Bay, Northern, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. 76% lexical similarity with Eritai. Distinct from Doutai, Biritai, Sikaritai, but related. Ati means 'language'. Speakers are about 15% literate in Obokuitai. Typology: SOV, tonal. Bible portions 1994.

ONIN [ONI] 600 (1978 SIL). North and northwest Bomberai Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Dialects: NIKUDA, OGAR, PATIPI, SEPA.

ORMU [ORZ] 600 (1995 SIL). North coast area just west of Jayapura, villages of Ormu Besar and Ormu Kecil, north of the Cyclops Mountains. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. May be bilingual. Survey needed.

ORYA (URIA, WARPOK) [URY] 1,600 (1985 Philip Fields SIL). Immediately southwest of Nimboran, north of Lereh, Jayapura district, Unurum-Guay, villages of Nembonton, Bwasom, Guay, Dore, Suma, Santosa, Taja, Witi, Orya. 140.83 E to 139.47 E, 02.40.66 S to 02.37 S. 44 nautical miles from Sentani, 22 from Genyem. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Orya. Dialects: BARAT (WEST ORYA), TIMUR (EAST ORYA), YAPSI-TAJA. Slight dialect differences. Speakers are 15% to 25% literate in Orya. 'Uria' is a misspelling used earlier. 'Warpok' is the Nimboran name. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:0%, 1:55%, 2:23%, 3:19%, 4:2%, 5:1%. Intefluvial. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,200 feet to about 300 feet. Bible portions 1987-1995. Work in progress.

PALAMUL [PLX] 200 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Raja Ampat Islands, southwestern Salawati Island around Sailolof. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Survey needed.

PAPASENA [PAS] 400 (1982 SIL). Lakes Plain area on lower Idenburg River just east of juncture with Rouffaer River. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. 23% lexical similarity with Sikaritai. May not be Central Lakes Plain.

PAPUMA [PPM] 600 (1982 SIL). South coast of Serui Island near 135.50', village of Papuma. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. 82% lexical similarity with Munggui, Marau, Ansus. Vigorous language use. Survey needed.

PAUWI [PKA] 100 (1975 Voorhoeve). Mamberamo River area on west side by Lake Rombebai. Language Isolate. Survey needed.

PODENA [PDN] 200 (1954 A. C. van der Leeden ms.). Island off north coast of Biri River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

POM [PMO] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Miosnum Island and west Serui Island, villages of Pom, Serewen, Mias Endi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Dialect: JOBI. Survey needed.

PURAGI (MOGAO) [PRU] 700 (1991 SIL). Southwest Bird's Head along Maccluer Gulf, inland around Matamani River. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Western. Survey needed.

RASAWA [RAC] 200 or more (1987 SIL). Two villages near the southern coast of Waropen Bawah District. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi. Survey needed.

RIANTANA [RAN] 1,100 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Frederik Hendrik Island. Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Closest to Kimaghama and Ndom. Survey needed.

ROON (RON) [RNN] 1,100 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Roon Island west of Cenderawasih Bay, north of Wandamen Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Survey needed.

SAMAROKENA (SAMARKENA, KARFASIA, TAMAYA, TAMAJA) [TMJ] 400 (1982 SIL). North coast inland just east of Apawar River, west of Sarmi, villages of Karfasia, Samarkena, Maseb, Tamaya. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Northern, Samarokena. Speakers bilingual in Airoran, Isirawa, and some in Kwerba.

SANGKE [SKG] 200 (1991 SIL). North coast, border area southeast of Jayapura. Sko, Vanimo. Survey needed.

SAPONI [SPI] 10 or fewer (1987 SIL). Botawa village, interior Waropen Bawah District. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi. Nearly extinct.

SAURI [SAH] 100 (1987 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay near Waropen language, in Sauri-Sirami village, near Sirami River. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay.

SAUSE (SEUCE) [SAO] 300 (1993 SIL). Southwest of Sentani, northwest of Lereh, villages of Ures, Mubararon, Sause-Bokoko, Witti-Yadow, Lidya, Puaral. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Unclassified.

SAWERU [SWR] 300 (1991 SIL). Central Serui Island, Serui Waropen kabupaten, Yapen Selatan kecamatan, on an island south of Yapen Island near Serui. Geelvink Bay. Survey needed.

SAWI (SAWUY, AEJAUROH) [SAW] 3,500 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Merauke, Atsy, near south coastal lowland, between Kronkel and Ayip rivers and upper Fayit River area, villages of Kamur, Esebor, Wiagas, Minahai, Comoro. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Sawi. Closest to Awyu. 5% are semi-literate in Indonesian. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:75%, 1:25%, 2:0%, 3:0%, 4:0%, 5:0%. NT 1973-1994. Bible portions 1994.

SEGET [SBG] 1,200 (1988 SIL). West Bird's Head southwest of Sorong, west and southwest of Moi language, villages of Walian, Sailolof, Segum, Seget. West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head. Survey needed.

SEKAR (SEKA) [SKZ] 450 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Northwest Bomberai Peninsula on coast and one small island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Arguni has the highest percentage of lexical similarity with Sekar. Blust says this appears to be Central Malayo-Polynesian. Survey needed.

SEMIMI (ETNA BAY) [ETZ] 1,000 (1991 L. Peckham SIL). Bomberai Peninsula close to Kaniran, south part of neck extending west to Triton Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanamerah, Mairasi. Survey needed.

SEMPAN (NARARAPI) [SEM] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Middle south coast, between Kokonao and Agats, east of Kamoro and west of Asmat languages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro. Close to Kamoro and Nefarpi. Survey needed.

SENGGI [SNU] 120 (1978 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, villages of Senggi and Tomfor. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. Survey needed.

SENTANI (BUYAKA) [SET] 30,000 (1996 SIL). Around Lake Sentani, about 30 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Dialects: EAST SENTANI, WEST SENTANI, CENTRAL SENTANI. 'Buyaka' is their name for themselves. Speakers are 50% to 75% literate in Sentani or Indonesian. Dictionary. Grammar. Fishermen, agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1984-1992. Work in progress.

SERUI-LAUT (ARUI) [SEU] 1,200 (1987 SIL). South central Serui Island and Nau Island south of Serui, 5 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. 82% lexical similarity with Ansus, 77% with Ambai. Vigorous language use. Survey needed.

SIAGHA-YENIMU (SIAGHA, SYIAGHA, SJIAGHA, SIJAGHA, OSER, YENIMU, JENIMU) [OSR] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Southeast near coast, north of lower Digul River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Survey needed.

SIKARITAI (AIKWAKAI, TORI AIKWAKAI, SIKARI) [TTY] 800 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Lakes Plain area just north of junction of Idenburg and Rouffaer rivers, along Mamberamo River, and west 15 miles, south 10 miles, villages of Sikari, Haya, Iri. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Related languages: Wari, Kwerisa, Eritai, Kaiy, Doutai, Biritai. Language use is vigorous. Work in progress.

SILIMO (SOUTH NGALIK, PAIYAGE) [WUL] 5,000 (1987 SIL). Central highlands south of the range immediately west of the Baliem River, Amo, Kiniage valleys. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga. Dialect: LOWER SAMENAGE. NT 1992.

SKO (TUMAWO, SEKO, SEKOL, SEKOU, SEKA) [SKV] 350 (1978 SIL). North coast border area east of Jayapura, at the mouth of the Tami River, villages of Sko-Yambe, Sko-Mabo, Sko-Sai. Sko, Vanimo. Survey needed.

SOBEI (BIGA, IMASI) [SOB] 1,850 (1987 SIL). North coast area east of Sarmi, Jayapura Kabupaten, Sarmi Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Children bilingual in Indonesian. Government schools through entire area. Intermarriage with other language groups increasing. Irianese Malay used with people from other languages. Bilingual evaluation needed with adequate sampling of community and degrees of proficiency investigated. Survey needed.

SOWANDA (WAINA, WINA, WANYA, WANJA) [SOW] 1,100 in all countries (1978 SIL); 1,000 in Papua New Guinea (1982 SIL). Northeast border area south of Jayapura. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris.

SUABO (SUABAU, INANWATAN) [SZP] 1,100 (1987 SIL). South Bird's Head along Maccluer Gulf, 15 villages. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Inanwatan. Closest to Duriankere.

TABLA (TEPERA, TANAH MERAH, TABI) [TNM] 3,750 (1990 UBS). Jayapura, Demta, Depapre, 13 villages on north coast east and west of Tanahmerah Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Dialects: YOKARI, TEPERA, YEWENA-YONGSU. Yokari dialect understood by other dialects at 80% to 95%, others have 95% to 100% intelligibility with each other. Tabla has 30% lexical similarity with Sentani (closest). Distinct from Tanahmerah (Sumeri) of Bomberai Peninsula. 'Tepera' is their name for themselves. Levels of bilingualism in Indonesian are 0:1%, 1:1%, 2:8%, 3:85%, 4:5%, 5:0%. Bible portions 1986. Survey needed.

TAIKAT (TAJKAT, ARSO) [AOS] 600 (1978 SIL). Northeast border area, straight south of Jayapura. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Taikat. Closest to Awyi.

TAMAGARIO (BURU, TAMARAW, WAGOW) [TCG] 3,500 (1987 SIL). South coast area between Gondu and Bapai rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Kayagar. Survey needed.

TANAHMERAH (SUMERI, SUMERINE) [TCM] 500 (1978 SIL). North Bomberai Peninsula along the Gondu and Bapai rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Mairasi-Tanamerah, Tanamerah. Distinct from Tanahmerah (Tabla) of Sentani branch. Survey needed.

TANDIA [TNI] 2 (1991 SIL). Bird's Head neck area just south of Wandamen Peninsula along Wohsimi River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Tandia. Most Tandia people speak Wandamen. Nearly extinct.

TAROF (NEBES, KOKODA) [TCF] 3,700 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Middle south coast of Bird's Head along Bintuni Bay. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, South Bird's Head Proper, Central. Dialects: TAROF, TAMBANI, MIGORI. Dialects listed have lexical similarities of: Migori and Tarof 73%, Tarof and Tambani 80%, Migori and Tambani 73%. Tarof and Kasuweri have 63% lexical similarity; Kemberano and Tarof have 55%; Tarof and Arandai 37%. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list Tarof and Kasuweri as separate languages. Survey needed.

TARPIA (KAPTIAUW, KAPITIAUW) [SUF] 564 (1978 SIL). North coast area near Demta, villages of Tarfia and Kaptiau, Jayapura Kabupaten, Demta and Bonggo Kecamatans. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Dialects: SUFRAI, TARPIA (TARFIA). Closest to Bonggo. Survey needed.

TAUSE (DOA, DARHA) [TAD] 350 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Around Deraposi, southwest of Danau Bira, northeast of Fayu language, northwest of Edopi language, western Lakes Plain (Paniai). Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Dialects: TAUSE, WEIRATE, DEIRATE. First contact with outside world in 1982. Related to Fayu and Kirikiri, but a separate language. No Indonesian spoken. There is a trade language spoken with nearby languages. Access by river, air. Levels of bilingualism in Fayu are 75,:1 15%, 2:7%, 3:2%, 4:0%, 5:1%.

TAWORTA (TAWORTA-AERO) [TBP] 150 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Lakes Plain area on the south side of the Idenburg River east of Taiyeve. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, East Lakes Plain. Survey needed.

TEFARO (DEMBA) [TFO] 100 approximately (1987 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay, in villages of Tefaro and Demba. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Survey needed.

TEHIT (TEHID, KAIBUS) [KPS] 8,800 (1993 R. Doriot). Southwest Bird's Head, kecamatan Teminabuan, about 35 villages. West Papuan, Bird's Head, West Bird's Head. Dialects: TEHIT JIT, MBOL FLE, SAIFI, IMYAN, SFA RIERE, FKAR, SAWIAT SALMEIT. Closest to Kalabra. Speakers are 15% to 25% literate in Indonesian. Work in progress.

TOBATI (JOTAFA, YOTAFA, YAUTEFA, HUMBOLDT JOTAFA, JAYAPURA) [TTI] 2,462 or fewer (1975 SIL). Jayapura Bay, close to Jayapura, villages of Tobati, Engros, Entrop, Kota Raja. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. Formerly classified as Papuan. Kayupulau may be a dialect. Survey needed.

TOFAMNA [TLG] 100 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Tofamna village, south of Jayapura just east of Nawa River. Trans-New Guinea, Tofamna. Not closely related to any other language. Survey needed.

TOWEI (TOWE) [TTN] 115 (1975 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, south of Dubu, west of Emumu languages, in and around Towe. Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Western. Survey needed.

TUNGGARE (TARUNGGARE, TURUNGGARE) [TRT] 500 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). North central, inland from Waropen group, west of Mamberamo River, east Geelvink Bay near Nabire. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Most closely related to Bauzi; 70% lexical similarity. Survey needed.

UNA (GOLIATH, MT. GOLIATH, ORANJE-GEBERGTE, LANGDA) [MTG] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern highlands on south slopes of main ranges east of Sela Valley, west of Ngalum, Bidabuh, east Weip Valley, Yay Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. 80% lexical similarity with Eipomek. Speakers are 5% to 15% literate in Una. Typology: SOV, clause chaining, switch reference, split ergative. Work in progress.

URUANGNIRIN (FAUR, TUBIRUASA) [URN] 250 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Two small islands between Karas Island and mainland of southwest Bomberai Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Blust says this appears to be Central Malayo-Polynesian. Survey needed.

USKU [ULF] 150 (1991 SIL). Usku village, south of Jayapura, just south of Pauwasi. Trans-New Guinea, Usku. Not closely related to any other language. Survey needed.

WABO (WORIASI, NUSARI) [WBB] 1,500 (1987 SIL). North and south coast of east end of Serui Island, near 136.45' to 136.55', 6 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East. 71% lexical similarity with Kurudu, 46% with Western Serui. Survey needed.

WAIGEO (AMBER, AMBERI, WAIGIU) [WGO] 300 (1978 SIL). North central Waigeo Island off western Bird's Head, Sorong Kabupaten, Waigeo Selatan Kecamatan, Warsanbin, Selegop, Waifoi, Go, Kabilol, Kabare, and Nyandesawai villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Dialects: AMBER, SAONEK.

WAKDE [WKD] 400 (1980 SIL). Wakde Islands off the north coast just east of the Tor River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

WALAK (LOWER PYRAMID, WODO) [WLW] 1,500 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Villages of Ilugwa, Wodo, Bugi, Mogonik, Wurigelebut. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Dani.

WAMBON [WMS] 3,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area northeast of Kaeti language. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Survey needed.

WANDAMEN (WANDAMEN-WINDESI, WINDESI, WINDESSI, BINTUNI, BENTUNI, BENTOENI, WAMESA) [WAD] 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Wasior, Manokwari, west Cenderawasih Bay along Wandamen Bay extending west to east end of Bintuni Bay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Dialects: WINDESI, BINTUNI, WAMESA, WASIOR, AMBUMI, DASENER, AIBONDENI. 25% are literate in Wandamen, 50% in Indonesian. Bible portions 1937-1994. Work in progress.

WANO [WNO] 3,500 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Central highlands area on upper Rouffaer River basin north of Western Dani, south of Dem. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Wano. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress.

WAREMBORI (WARENBORI) [WSA] 600 or more (1987 SIL). North coast, west of the mouth of Mamberamo River, villages of Warembori, Yoke, and others. Language Isolate.

WARES [WAI] 200 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). North coast area inland from Kwesten language on upper Biri River, south side, village of Mauswares. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Tor, Tor. Distinct from Waris or Wari. Survey needed.

WARI (WERETAI, WARITAI) [WBE] 300 (?) (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Lakes Plain area around Taiyeve. Geelvink Bay, Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Related language: Doutai. Different from Waris or Wares.

WARIS (WALSA) [WRS] 1,500 in Irian Jaya; 2,500 in Papua New Guinea; 4,000 in all countries. Northeast Irian Jaya south of Jayapura. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

WARKAY-BIPIM (BIPIM AS-SO, BIPIM) [BGV] 300 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). South coast area bordering Asmat to east and Sawi to west, lower Eilanden River, 3 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Yaqay. 50% of speakers somewhat bilingual in Indonesian or Asmat.

WAROPEN (WONTI, WORPEN) [WRP] 6,000 (1987 SIL). East Cenderawasih Bay, south coast of Serui Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen. Dialects: WAROPEN KAI, NAPAN, MO'OR. 25% are literate in Indonesian. Work in progress.

WOI (WO'OI) [WBW] 1,300 (1987 SIL). Miosnum and west Serui Islands, villages of Wooi and Wainap. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. 77% lexical similarity with Pom, Marau, Ansus. Survey needed.

WOLANI (WODANI, WODA, WODA-MO) [WOD] 5,000 (1992 UBS). Western central highlands along Kemandoga and Mbiyandogo Rivers, north of Ekari language 75 miles northeast of Lake Paniai, north of Wissel Lakes and northwest of the Moni. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga, Ekari-Wolani-Moni. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1984.

WORIA [WOR] 12 approximately (1987 SIL). Interior Waropen Bawah, Botawa village. Geelvink Bay, East Geelvink Bay. Botawa is a Demisa and Waropen speaking village. Nearly extinct.

YAFI (JAFI, YAFFI, WAGARINDEM, WARGARINDEM) [WFG] 175 (1975 SIL). Northeast Irian Jaya, border area south of Jayapura near Ampas, villages of Yaffri, Sungguar, Tainda, Abiu, Tokondo. Trans-New Guinea, Pauwasi, Eastern. Survey needed.

YAHADIAN (NERIGO, JAHADIAN) [NER] 500 (1991 SIL). South Bird's Head, between lower Mintamani River and Sekak River along Maccluer Gulf. Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, South Bird's Head, Konda-Yahadian. Survey needed.

YAIR (AWYU) [YIR] 1,500 (1987 SIL). South coast west side of Digul River, south of Kombai, east of Awyu. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Reading comprehension of Indonesian is poor.

YALE, KOSAREK (KOSAREK, YALE-KOSAREK, WANAM, INLOM) [KKL] 2,300 (1993 R. Doriot UFM). Eastern highlands, just east of Yali of Ninia, northwest of Nipsan, east of Dani, a little north of Yali of Angguruk. Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western. Dialects: KOSAREK, GILIKA (KILIKA), TIPLE. Closely related to Nipsan, Hmanggona, and Gilika. The term 'In Lom' refers to only half the group. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

YALI, ANGGURUK (NORTHERN YALI, ANGGURUK, YALIMO) [YLI] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Central highlands area northwest of Nalca, east of Grand Valley Dani. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga. Distinct from Yali of Ninia and Yali of Pass Valley, but related. NT 1988. Bible portions 1976.

YALI, NINIA (NINIA, SOUTHERN YALI, JALY, JALÈ, NORTH NGALIK) [NLK] 9,500 (1995 J.D. Wilson RBMU). Central highlands area west from Angguruk, east of Grand Valley Dani, including Holuwon village. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga. Distinct from Yali of Pass Valley and Yali of Angguruk, but related. 15% to 20% literate. NT 1993. Bible portions 1976.

YALI, PASS VALLEY (WESTERN YALI, PASS VALLEY, ABENDAGO) [YAC] 5,000 or fewer (1988 SIL). Central highlands, east of Angguruk and northwest of Naltya, Jayawijaya, Kurulu, and Kurima. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Dani-Kwerba, Southern, Ngalik-Nduga. Dialects: PASS VALLEY, LANDIKMA, APAHAPSILI. Distinct from Yali of Ninia and Yali of Angguruk, but related. NT 1977.

YAMNA [YMN] 250 (1980 SIL). Island off the north coast east of the Tor River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

YAQAY (YAQAI, JAKAI, SOHUR, MAPI, JAQAI) [JAQ] 10,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area north of Odamun River and along Miwamon River southeast of Sawuy and Kaygir languages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Yaqay. Dialects: OBA-MIWAMON, NAMBLOMON-MABUR, BAPAI. Many becoming bilingual in Indonesian.

YARSUN [YRS] 200 (1991 SIL). Island off the north coast east of the Biri River, Jayapura Kabupaten, Bonggo Kecamatan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Survey needed.

YAUR (JAUR) [JAU] 350 (1978 SIL). Lower end of Cenderawasih Bay, west of Iresim. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yaur. Survey needed.

YAWA (YAPANANI, MORA, TURU, MANTEMBU, YAVA, IAU) [YVA] 6,000 (1987 SIL). Central Serui Island, Serui Waropen, Serui Selatan, Timur Barat, 8 north coast villages, 2 interior villages, 18 south coast villages. Geelvink Bay, Yawa. Dialects: CENTRAL YAWA (MORA), WEST YAWA, SOUTH YAWA, NORTH YAWA, EAST YAWA. Distinct from Iau in Lakes Plain area. Speakers are 15% to 25% literate in Yawa. Bible portions 1989-1990. Work in progress.

YEI (YEY, JEI, JE) [JEI] 1,000 in all countries (1975 Wurm). Border area of south coast, bordering southeast Marind on east. Also in Papua New Guinea along upper Maro River. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Yey. Survey needed.

YELMEK (JELMEK, JAB, JABSCH) [JEL] 400 (1978 SIL). South coast area on east side of Marianne Strait between Frederik Hendrik Island and mainland. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Bulaka River. Closest to Maklew. Survey needed.

YERETUAR (GONI, UMAR, UMARI) [GOP] 250 (1978 SIL). Lower Cenderawasih Bay, south of Wandamen language. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yeretuar. Distinct from Kamoro. Survey needed.

YETFA [YET] 1,000 (1996 UFM). Jayawijaya kabupaten, Okbibab kecamatan, border area just east of the Sogber River. Unclassified. Work in progress.

YOKI [YKI] 40 (1978 SIL). East of Warembori on the east side of the Mamberamo River mouth, Jayapura Kabupaten. Unclassified. Survey needed.

YONGGOM (YONGOM, YONGKOM) [YON] 2,000 in Irian Jaya (1987 SIL); 15,000 in Papua New Guinea (1986 UBS); 17,000 in all countries. South coast border area just north of where Fly River forms border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea. Also in Papua New Guinea. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland. Close to Southern Kati and Ninggerum. Bible portions 1965-1988. Work in progress.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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