A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Walker. This Englishman died in 1840 before Acre. The combined fleets of England, Austria, Turkey bombarded Acre and brought to explosion the powder-storeroom, on Nov 3, 1840. Ibrahim Pascha of Egypt retreated from Acre. - The memorial tablet of Walker is in the St George's Convent of the Greek-Orthodox Community at Acre.

Walter (Gautier)

Walter-Arnott, Miss. She opened in 1863 for the Church of Scotland, the Tabitha School at Jaffa. The school was rebuilt in 1875.

Walter Guglingensis, German. He mentions in 1481 the belfry at the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. On the summit is the cross.

Walter Hubert, bishop of Salisbury. In 1192 he obtained permission from Sultan Saladin for two priests and two deacons of the Latin rite and for a few catholic native priests to remain in Bethlehem. Jerusalem and Nazareth, but now a Moslem guard sat at the door the Basilica in Bethelem, collecting fees.

Walter of Brienne. (Walter IV) He was taken prisoner by the Kharesmians before Gaza in 1240. They brought him before the town of Jaffa, of which he was the count. They told him to exhort the besieged population of Jaffa to submission. Waiter called on the garrison to defend themselves. Waiter was sent to Cairo, where he was murdered in the prison before or in 1251. (See also: Gautier IV of Brienne)

Wandelende Jood (Wandering Jew). In the 19th century a sculptor of Mechelen (Belgium) sculpted a wooden figure (about 60 cms heighth). The stepping Jew bears the Streimel-hat, the kaftancloak, the suitcase. This sculpture was in 1979 since several years in possession of the Koninklijke Jonge Sebastiaan Schutters of Mechelen. If this champion-club is challenged and is defeated in the contest, then the figure 'Wandelende Jood' wanders to the victorious archers-club. Hence the name of the figure.

Warren Charles, Britain. The Palestine Exploration Fund sent Lieutenant Warren to Jerusalem in 1867. He explored Jerusalem by making shafts and by visiting the underground water-canals. The 'Warren shaft' is the shaft by which the Jebusites took water from the spring of Gihon. Warren explored the Ophel-hill in 1867.

Watchers at the Sepulchre of Christ. The Syriac 'Book of the Bee' names 5 watchers: Issachar, Gad, Matthias, Barnabas, and Simon. But others say there were fifteen, three centurions and their Roman and Jewish soldiers.

Watson. Anglican. He opened, not far from the Maronite Church, near Tariq Mar Botros, the Ophthalmic Clinic. Later it went to Hebron Road, and after 1948 to Sheikh Jarah, Nablus Road.

Watson H. D., Sir. Maj. Gen. C. A. in 1919.

Watzinger C, German archaeologist. He investigated, together with Kohl H. the site of Capharnaum in 1905. The Franciscans had bought the site in 1894.

Wauchope Arthur, Sir, High Commissioner for Palestine in 1932 - 1938.

Way of the Cross. Pilgrims follow the traditional Way of the Cross from Pilate's Judgment Hall to the hill of Calvary. At intervals they pause to remember some details. The Franciscan Community leads the Way of the Cross, every Friday at 3 p. m. The Way is divided into fourteen Stations. The first two stations are in the Praetorium. Then there are seven stations on the way to Calvary (Stations 3 till g). The five last stations (10, 11, 12, 13, 14) are recalled in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

First Station: Jesus is condemned by Pilate (Mk 15, 15).
The official procession starts from the courtyard of the EI Omariyeh School. This school is very close to the site of the Fortress Antonia. From this fortress the Roman garrison controlled the Temple area. - When the courtyard of this Moslem school is not open for visitors, then pilgrims can remember the trial in the Chapel of the Flagellation. (Compare: Maximilian of Bavaria; Cambellotti; St. Paul; Pilate; Claudia, wife of Pilate.)

Second Station: Jesus takes op His Cross. (John I9, 17)
The official procession halts downstairs the staircase (or ramp) in the Via Dolorosa, at the outside wall of the Chapel of the lInd Station. The ramp reminds us of the Scala Sancta of Rome. And the Chapel of the 2nd Station, has the beginning of the Lithostrotos (pavement). Individual pilgrims very often meditate the second station, inside the Chapel. (Compare Hinterkeuser; Ecce Homo; Ratisbonne; Lithostrotos; Sisters of Sion)

Third Station: Jesus falls a first time.
The Via Dolorosa descends under the Arch Ecce Homo (Compare Sanuto), and along the Prison of Barabbas, to the valley EI Wad. Here at the left corner is~ the Armenian Catholic Patriarchate. A door in a iron railing leads to the Chapel where he First Fall is recalled. (Compare Menghetti; Polish Soldiers)

Fourth Station: Jesus meets His Mother Mary.
The fourth Station is in the Armenian property. The meeting is recalled by the Armenian Catholic Church of 'Our Lady of the Spasm'. (See: Hovag; Simeon, the Elder) Two sandals in a mosaic floor in the crypt of the Armenian Church remind us of the meeting. Because this parish church is not always open, the pilgrims recall the meeting at the small sanctuary, alongside the way. (Zieliensky; Seven Sorrows of Mary: the first sorrow was 'Simon in the Temple foretold the suffering of Mary'; the fourth sorrow was 'Mary meets Jesus as Crossbearer'.

Fifth Station: Simon of Cyrene is made to carry the Cross. (Mk 15, 21)
(Compare: Alexander, the son of Simon; Rufus, the son of Simon; Simon; Buttadeus; Cartiphilus; Jerusalem Cross; Simon Rusticus; Ernoul; Ricold de Monte Croce)

Sixth Station: Veronica wipes the face of Jesus.
(Compare: Veronica; Woman, healed from issue of blood; Loupias; Cosmas, the unmercenary physician; Pierotti)

Seventh Station: Jesus falls a second time.
The Via Dolorosa ascends rapidly. At the top where is a crosspoint of streets, is recalled the Gate of Judgment. An inscription above the Franciscan chapel mentions Porta Judiciaria. Within the chapel is a column of red stone. On Sunday, Dec 2, 1978 the descending rainwater had damaged the foundations of this Chapel, and the arches above the crosspoint were broken. Sometimes, in Rome, a copy of the sentence of death was fixed up to the gate of the city, when the condemned person was lead outside the walls. Perhaps in Jerusalem a similar proclamation was done for the condemned Jesus. The seventh station reminds us the words of the Scripture 'Extra portam passus est. He suffered death outside the walls. Through a gate Jesus left the walled city and proceeded to the place of crucifixion.

Eighth Station: Jesus speaks to the Daughters of Jerusalem (Luke 23, 28.)
(Compare Charalambos) Opposite the convent of Charalambos, above the window of a shop is an incised text VIII Station In loco objacenti (i.e. to the opposite place). Here is a circular stone. It is the base of an horizontally laid column, which is connected with the altar in the chapel of Charalampos. The exposed base bears a Latin Cross and the Greek word NIKA. with the initials of Jesus Christ. The meaning is: Jesus Christus, victorious. - In reality Christ now went directly to the place of execution. But the pilgrims needs to descend his steps to the VIIth Station and then to continue to the right. After 150 meters, he ascends a stone stairway on his right, he follows a winding street, that brings him before the entrance of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate. The upstanding shaft of a reddish column, which is enclosed in a pillar between two doors, marks the ninth station.

Ninth Station: Third (or last) fall of Jesus.
This station belongs exclusively to the Copts. No number, no inscription indicates that it is the ninth station. At the 9th Station ends for Jesus the carrying of the Cross. Indeed for this point (last fall, last haltpoint) Jesus is carried by the soldiers to the nearby skull of crucifixion. The ninth station recalls the words of Mk 'ferousin, they carry him to the place of execution'. Stations 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 were along the streets. The third and last part of the Way of the Cross is inside the Basilica.

Third part, inside the Basilica.

The pilgrim returns on his steps, and continues to the Basilica. He passes along the Russian Hospice of Alexander. He descends to the Atrium before the Basilica. (Compare: Patriarch, burned to death; Juniper; Cosmas of San Damiano; Mary of Portugal; Ethiopian priest.) The pilgrim enters the Basilica. The official procession recalls the 10th Station (Jesus is stripped of His garments (Mk 15, 24) on the platform that is over or next to Calvary. The southern aisle (Latin part) has on the floor a mosaic that recalls the

10th Station. The Armenians remember the Stripping of the garments by a chapel in the deambulatory. The stripping of the Rainment recalls us the Garment that is venerated in Trier. A tradition has it that Helena, who had lived at Trier, has donated this relic to the town of Trier.

11th Station: Jesus is nailed to the Cross (Mk 15, 24). About the question 'three or four nails' compare: Skelet of a crucified man; about the meaning of this sacrifice, compare: Abraham; Isaac, patriarch. The silver-plated bronze altar of the 11th Station, is the work of Fr. Dominic, a Dominican Father of St. Mark's in Florence. This altar was intended by Bonifacius of Ragusa for the Stone of the Anointing (1558).

12th Station: Jesus dies. Compare: Adam, grotto; Melchisedek; Dismas, the penitent thief; John, the Beloved disciple; Rindfleisch who mentions the hole of the cross; Gestas, the unpenitent thief; Longinus, the centurio; Mary as Mater Dolorosa, with the 5th sorrow 'Jesus is nailed'and the 6th sorrow 'Jesus dies'; Titulus Crucis (The inscription above the cross).

13th Station: Jesus'body is taken down from the Cross (Mk 15, 46). The 12th Station belongs to the Greek-Orthodox community. The statue of Mater Dolorosa indicates for the Latins the 13th Station. And also the last, the seventh of the seven sorrows: 'Jesus is laid in the arm of Mary'. But first the body had to be claimed free by Joseph of Arimathea. (Compare: Morsted; Second Calvary of the Armenians; Simeon, the Elder) The preparations for burial are recalled by the Stone of Unction. (Compare: Maries (Three) at the Funeral; Nicodemus; Shroud of Turin; Umberto, ex-king of Umberto, who is the owner of the Shroud., Pieta-sculpture; Stabat Mater Dolorosa-hymn)

14th Station: Jesus is laid into the Tomb. 'So because of the Jewish day of Preparation, as the tomb (of Joseph of Arimathea) was close at hand, they laid Jesus there '(Joh 19. 42). (Compare: Watchers at the Tomb; Rindfleisch, who mentions the fissure in the marble slab in 1498; Maurus, who opened the Tomb in 1504; The Greek community who inspected the Tomb after the fire of 1808; Harmon Larry, a drug-indicted student who danced on the marble-plate on Feb 24, 1971 and who was killed on Nov 11, 1971; Mary Magdalen has found this tomb empty. Peter and the 'other, the unnamed disciple' have inspected the empty tomb. The Myrophores (Five Myrophores) brought ointment to the buried Jesus, but Jesus reveals Himself to Mary Magdalen. An altar, belonging to the Latins, recalls this apparition. And the apparition of Jesus to his own Mother Mary is remembered by the Chapel of the Franciscans. - Arculfus, round 670, mentions the traces of the cisels at the rock-hewn tomb; Daniel Abbas (1108) tells us that marble plates protected the rock, but by three circular openings, the rock could be touched and venerated; Willebrand of Oldenbourg in 1212 found the rock completely enclosed by a marble-mantle. Cyril of Jerusalem has seen the rolling stone that closed the Tomb, still unbroken. Arculfus, round 670, tells that the stone was divided in two parts for two altars. The part that is under the glass-cover in the pedestal which is before the tomb, recalls us of the stone that had been taken away from the tomb. (John 20, 1). In the tomb Jesus had been laid, with the head to the west and with the feet to the east. The unnamed disciple, stooping to look in, saw the linen cloths there, but he did not go in. Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb; he saw the linen cloths lying, and the napkin, which had been on his head, not lying like the linen cloths but rolled up in a place by itself. Then the other disciple, who reached the tomb f irst, also went in, and he saw and believed. The sun in the early morning gives the light from east toward west, so the two disciples could see and the linen clothings and the napkin. Then the disciples went back to their homes. (John 20, 4-10)

Weemarus. See: Weirnarus.

Weill Raymond, French Archaeologist. One part of the Ophel-hill had been acquired by Baron Edmond do Rothschild to permit the excavations by Weill in 1913/14 for the Tomb of the Davidic Dynasty. Weill resumed the excavations in 1923/24. He discovered the 'Theodotos-inscription' (1st Cent BC). He published in 1920 'La Cité de David'.

Inscription. Weill found in a cistern a Greek inscription which was set up by Theodotos. This Theodotos came of a Jewish family of Roman Freedmen. The inscription may belong to the synagogue of 'Freedmen' that is mentioned in Acts 6, 9.

Weimarus (Weemarus), count of Campania. He visited Palestine, after 673, together with Bercharius, St., abbas Dervensis. (AA.SS. Oct 16)

Wolf IV of Bavaria. He declined to partake at the siege of Tortose (in Lebanon) at the end of 1101. Wolf, together with Renaud of Bourgogne, continued to Jerusalem.

Welter. He excavated at Shechem in 1928131.

Wendelinus of Walberberg (Germany) see: Glerlich Jacobus (born in 1876).

Wendelinus of Menden (Germany) See: Hinterkeuser (born in 1851)

Wentworth Henri. He retired in 1853 for a time as a monk in the Agricultural Manual School near Urtas. (Compare: Minor Mrs).

Werner de Gray. This Crusader was a cousin of Godfrey of Bouillon. Werner was buried under the ancient portico (westside) of the Church above the Tomb of Mary.

Werro Sebastian. This parish priest of Freiburg (Switzerland) visited the Holy Land in 1581. He took the measures between the Stations (Seven Stations). These Stations are: 1) Pilate; 2) Pamoison (Collapse) of Mary 3)First Fall; 4) Simon helps; 5) Veronica wipes the face of Christ 6) Second Fall; 7) Calvary.

Wesro-Manen, queen of Ethiopia. She came as a pilgrim to Jerusalem, Sept 26, 1933. (Compare: Empress of Abyssinia)

Western Wall (Waiting Wall, Ha Kotel). When the area round the temple was occupied by the Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa mosque, the Jews went for prayer to the Western Wall. Above this remain of the Temple hovers the presence of God (shekinah). The Jews tried to change the site in a synagogue. This attempt caused trouble with the Moslems in 1929. An International Commission decided that the wall was Moslem property, but that the Jews had the right to pray there. Since the Six Days War, the narrow corridor before the Western Wall has been enlarged to a spacious square.

Way William of Eton (1456 or 1462). He mentions a (first) fall of Jesus, immediately after the descent of the Scala Sancta, when Jesus left the praetorium.

Weygand, General. (died 1965). This Frenchman was on service in the Middle East. On Feb 12, 1965, a Holy Mass for his soul was celebrated in the Basilica of St. Stephen.

Widow of Naim, whose son was raised. The Coptic Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew, the Apostle, gives the name Lia (Leah) to this widow. In an Arabic tradition, however, she is called Barsa'ah, daughter of Jywail (Joel). - The Franciscans acquired a small sanctuary in Naim in 1878 and they built a chapel. The episode of Luke 7, 1 did never receive the same importance as the raising of Lazarus in Bethany (Jn 11, 1-54).

Wigger of Swabia. John of Würzburg (he visited Jerusalem round 1160-70) tells that the Franks have obliterated the epitaph on the famous Wigger, who stormed Jerusalem in 1099, and have written over it the epitaph of some French knight or other, as may be seen on the spot. For his coffin is still visible and still exists outside in a corner between the great Church (of the Holy Sepulchre) and the Chapel of St. John the Baptist, with the name struck out and another name written there.... The following epitaph may be read on the outer side of the monument: 'One thousand and one hundred years, save one, Since Blessed Mary bore her glorious Son; when rose upon July its fifteenth sun, by Frankish might Jerusalem was WO,,. ' In answer to which 1 (=John of Würzburg) have written: 'Not Franks - Franconians, warriors far more brave, From Pagan yoke Jerusalem did save; Franconian Wigger was, each Frank well knew, Franconian Guntram, and Duke Godfrey, too, and easy 't were to prove my words are true. ' Tobler (1848) mentions: The inscription now tells 'Here lies Philip d'Aubigny, may his soul rest in peace. Amen. '

Wilhelm II, Kaiser of Germany (ruled 1898-1918). He visited Palestine in Oct 1898, with his wife, Augusta Victoria. He then inaugurated the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer. He donated a plot of land on Mount Sion to the Catholics of Germany. He bought the area for the Kaiserin Augusta Stiftung on the Mount of Olives. - On Mount Carmel, he exclaimed: 'It is hard to descend from this throne of Nature and to return to Berlin'.

Wilheima (now Benei Atarot). The former German Colony Wilhelma was founded in 1902. Wilhelma honoured Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Wilhelm of Boldenseel. He visited Palestine in 1333.

Wilhelmus, landigrave of Friesland. He came to Palestine in the 11th century. (Vita S. Hemmae, n. 6) (AA.SS. June 29)

Wilhelmus, sixth patriarch (1130-45) of the Latin Patriarchate.

Wilhelmus de Sandwico, Carmelite of Acco (Acre), 12th/13th c. (AA.SS. May 26)

Will Anton. Round 1607, erected cross at Leutesdorf in 1609.

William de Sancto Johanne. This Templar was elected archbishop of Nazareth in 1288. He ruled till 1290. Pope Nicholas IV, in a letter from Rieti (June 14, 1288) confirmed 'Guillelmus de Sancto Johanne' as archbishop of Nazareth. Probably two parts of a stone slab, that were discovered in 1962 in the walled city of Acre, refer to this William. (Prawer J., Israel Expl. Journal, vol 24, 1974)

William of Castellammare of Stabia. This Franciscan was a missionary in Gaza. He was martyred in 1364. Memory on August 8.

William of England, Blessed. This Franciscan was martyred in Selmas, on June 5, 1342. In Franciscan Martyrologium: Jan 23.

William of Hedley, Franciscan Father, 1270. He followed the Crusade of prince Edward (the later Edward I). William died on sea and was buried in the Greek soil. (G13B 1 280; 11 413)

William of Ruisbroek (Ruysbroek). This Franciscan set out for Constantinople in 1253. He was accompanied by Bartholomew of Cremona. William presented a letter of King Louis IX of France at the court of Sartach on July 21, 1253. There he met Sergios, an Armenian monk from Palestine, who helped William. Then William and Bartholomew proceeded to the court of the great Khan Mangu at Karakorum (Dec 1253 - Jan 1254). William left Mongolia in 1254, and in May 1255, he was in Acre. From here he sent his report to King Louis [X. (Compare: Vartan, Armenian monk in Mongolia)

William of Tyre (Guillaume de Tyr), historian, perhaps 1127-1190. He tells us that in 1182 a ship with 1500 pilgrims for the Holy Land was shipwrecked.

William II, Emperor of Germany. See: Wilhelm II, Kaiser.

Williams. During the British Mandate (1917-1948) he made experimental digs at Eilat.

Willibald, St. of England. This monk was in Palestine from 724 till 726. He died at Heydenheim in 786. Another monk wrote 'Vita seu Hodoeporicon S. Willibaldi' (AA.SS. July 7). Willibald saw two columns (of ordeal) against the north and the south walls in the church of the Ascension on the top of Mount of Olives. The columns are there in memory of the two men in white garments, who said to the Apostles: Viri Galilaei, etc... (Acts 1, 60); and who can creep between the wall and the columns will have remission of his sins.

Willibrand of Oldenbourg (1212). He saw near the Basilica of Mary on Mount Sion, the convent of Syrian monks. They showed the sanctuaries to the pilgrims. Willibrand saw the Tomb of Christ covered by slabs of white marble. (Compare Daniel hegumenos, who sees in 1107 the 3 circular apertures. Compare Rindfleisch, who mentions in 1496 the fissure in the horizontal marble slab).

Wilphagius, St. He came to Palestine round 650. (AA.SS. June 7)

Wilson Charles, pioneer archaeologist of Jerusalem. He made a survey of Jerusalem in 1864-65. He explored the giant arch to the left (north) of the Western Wall. The Arch is named Wilson's Arch. (Described by Tobler in 1848). Wilson in 1865166 identified Capharnaum. - The Wilson's Arch is a part (one arch) of the bridge that connected the Temple over the Valley of Tyropaeum with the Upper City (the western part).

Wingate Ode, General and grave. English since 1936. Wingate gave Haganah members in Palestine their first professional military training. Later he was in Ethiopia and in Burma. Wingate died in Burma in 1944. He is buried at Arlington (U.S.), because his death came about in the crash of a U.S. military plane. (Jerusalem Post, July 18, 1976). Wingate very often met Moshe Dayan at the Shimron-kibbutz.

Wingate Square. The Balfour Street begins at Terra Sancta College in West Jerusalem and ends at Wingate Square.

Winkler Alfred. His father was sacristan in Leipzig, and had hidden a Jewish family. He and his wife were therefore arrested and executed by the Nazis in a concentration camp on Dec 24, 1942. The orphan-boy Adolf, who at that time was 12 years, vowed: 'Later I will walk with a cross to Jerusalem for peace. ' On Jan 6, 1977 Adolf received from the Catholic parish-priest of Griesbach (Bayern) the habit of a pilgrim, with breastcross and a long rosary. Adolf walked with his own wooden cross of 7 kgr. to Jerusalem. He participated at the Procession Way of the Cross, on Friday Aug 5, 1977. Adolf Winkler returned via Amman, where he took the plane. He has legated his wooden cross of about 7 kgr to the Chapel of the 2nd Station, where Jesus took up His cross. The wooden pilgrim-cross of Winkler is very often carried by individual pilgrims or by groups in their devotional Way of the Cross with the 14 Stations.

Winkmar of Boulogne. He had as companions Siger of Bruges, Gerard of Kortrijk, Guinemer of Bouillon. The four crossed as pirats during 8 years before the coasts of Syria. They joined the first crusade, which conquered Laodicea in 1097. Winkmar was taken prisoner, but he was ransomed by Godfrey of Bouillon.

Winnid of Banestorp of Denmark, knight. With his wife he pilgrimated on foot to the Holy Land and to Santiago of Compostella (1190). He made the pilgrimage in order to expiate the murder of a child of seven years. By this murder he had tried to take vengeance for the accidental death of a member of his family.

Wintershoven. See: Gerbert of Wintershoven.

Wiric the Flemish. At the death of Godfrey of Bouillon in 1100, Wiric was in favour of a lay kingdom at Jerusalem. He was opposed to an ecclesiastical (= patriarchal) rule in the Holy Land.

Wise Men. See: Three Kings. (Balthasar, Caspar, Melchior)

Wittenauer, Prelat. He died in the summer of 1979 in Germany. As chief of the 'Aussenamt für Deutschen-Seelsorge' (Pastoral of Germans abroad), he visited many times the Holy Land.

Woizero. See: Amaretch.

Wolcott S. W. This American missionary in the 19th century climbed the rock of Masada from the west side. Wrongly he believed that his was 'the snake, the dangerous path, which is described by Josephus in Wars VII, 292-293.

Wolfe, Michael Solomon Alexander. This convert German Jew was the first Lutheran bishop in the Lutheran-Anglican bishopric of Jerusalem from 1841 to 1845. (See: Michael Alexander)

Wolfram of Heppeneert on the Maas. Count Wolfram, together with two other knights, was a crusader. Wolfram was the father of the 'Kaartridder of Heppeneert, the Knight with the Playcards'. Wolfram was married in Heppeneert to Herispiendis. He returned from the crusade with the bride Odilia. He had met his bride in Bessarabia. She was a pagan, but she converted to Christianity. Odilia had married Wolfram, because Wolfram during the Crusade had received a false information that his wife Herisplendis had died. And Herisplendis at home had received notice that Wolfram had been killed in the battle. The futur 'Kaartridder of Heppeneert' was the son of Wolfram and Odilia. Count Wolfram, when he started for the crusade at the age of 19, had planted a nut. The nut was from Jerusalem. Out of the nut grew a tree. A lightning cleft the tree, and a miraculous statue of the Virgin Mary appeared in the cloven tree. By veneration of this miraculous statue the 'Kaartridder, Knight with the Playcards' who had become a furious card-player and has made a pact with the devil, was liberated and was saved. Therefore the veneration of the 'Virgin of Calmness, Rest' in the church at Heppeneert on the Maas in Belgium.

Wolley C. T. This Englishman made for the British Administration in 1947 a new survey on the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Woman in the New Testament, who was healed from the issue of blood. (Mt 9, 18-26) Eusebius of Caesarea (260-339) mentions at Banjas (Caesarea Philippi) a bronze statue of this woman, kneeling before a statue of Christ. - Julian the Apostate (361-363) broke the statue of Christ and placed his own statue, but the lightning decapitated it. The local christians reassembled the broken statue of Jesus and located it in the church. - The name of the woman, who was healed by Jesus, was Mariosa. Some identify this healed woman with Veronica who wiped the face of Christ (6th Station).

Women of the Old Testament. Eva, the mother of mankind; Sarah, the wife of Abraham and mother of Isaae; Rebecca, the wife of Isaac., Leah, the first wife of Jacob; Rachel, the second wife of Jacob and mother of Benjamin; Aseneth, the wife of Joseph of Egypt; Miria(m), sister of Moses; Deborah, the woman who judged Israel, Ruth, who married the landowner Booz in Bethlehem; Hulda, the prophetess; the woman in Sarepta, who gave hospitality to the prophet Elijah; Judith, who killed Holofernes; Queen Esther, who saved the Jews; Anna, the mother of the prophet Samuel; Anna, the mother of the Virgin Mary. - These woman are enumerated among the Just in the Old Testament. The feast of the Just in the Old Testament is held in the Eastern Church on the first Sunday of Advent.

Wonedalphus. He came to Palestine round 1004, together with Guido of Anderlecht. (AA.SS. Sept 12)

Wooley Leonard, Sir. He excavated the city of Ur in Mesopotamia, and he explored the Negev. He published, together with Laurence T. E. the book 'The Wilderness of Zin' (1915).

World Lutheran Federation. This society received in 1946, after the end of World War II (1939-1945) the German Lutheran properties.

World War I graves. There are 52 known World War I (1914-1918) German and Austrian graves in Jerusalem alone, while 15 residents of Jerusalem, among them one Arab, Wadia Kanaan, died while serving with the German and Austrian forces in the Middle East

Wormbser. He belonged to a German family of Palestina-pilgrims. He mentions in 1591 Beit-Sahur, the village of the Shepherds or the Vigilants, to the east of Bethlehem.

Wounded Franciscans in Bethlehem. Greek monks and Greek Orthodox civilians wounded on April 25, 1873, eight Franciscans at the Grotto of Nativity. Since then, by an order of the Sublime Porte of Constantinople, a policeman is on duty, day and night, at the Grotto of the Nativity. A painting of the Latins was burned by a candle, in the night of May 7, 1869 (Guida Nr 252). The amianthus tapestry was sent by Mac Mahon, president of France in 1874. For the cleaning of this tapestry, the Latins are controlled by the Greek Community.

Wright. This American archaeologist excavated Shechem in 1957-60.

Studium Biblicum Franciscanum - Jerusalem
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