A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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T. The capital letter T stands as emblem for the possession which during the Crusades were held by the Templum, (the Templars or Knights Templars). In the streets Suq el-Lahannin (Meats), Suq el-Attarin (Gentlemen), Suq el-Khawadjat (Spices), the emblem T can be seen above the shops. Another emblem in the same quarter is Scta Anna. It indicated the property of the Monastery of St. Anne.

Tabariae. The 'Miraculum S. Jacobi' n. 212 mentions: a certain noble Frenchman, who lived Tabariae, in 1103. (AA.SS. July 25). Does Tabaria mean: Mount Tabor, or the village Dabouriyeh at the foot of Mount Tabor, or the town Tiberias?

Tabgha. The Deutscher Katholisches Palaestina Verein (of Cologne), which was founded in 1855, bought in 1905 the site of Tabgha at the west shore of the Lake of Galilee. The Lazarists Fathers of Germany took care of the site which recalled the Multiplication of Loaves. (Compare Mader, Schneider) A mosaic floor was unearthed in 1932. It is now covered by a chapel. The German Benedictines run the sanctuary since 1939.

Tabgha and the Primatus Petri. Near the Lake are rock-hewn steps which recall the Apparition of the Risen Jesus to his disciples, and the Primatus Petri. (, In 21). Locally the site was known as the PLACE of the COALS. (Jn 21, 9). The Franciscans built here a chapel in black basalt stone. It was inaugurated in 1935. Pope Paul VI descended over the steps to the water of the lake, on Jan 5, 1964.

Tabitha. The word means 'gazelle'. Tabitha is the Aramaic name of Dorcas, a woman of Joppa (Jaffa), raised from the dead by Peter (Acts 9, 36-40). On May 21, 1905, more than 10000 pilgrims, christians and Muslims, visited the cemetery of Tabitha, on Jelbel Tabita, at Jaffa. Not far from the cemetery is the Russian Church. The pilgrimage for remembering Tabitha is on the fourth Sunday after the Easter of the Latins. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on Ter 26: Salutation to Joseph, who was like unto Tabitha, and gave away all his possession.

Tabor. The AA.SS. May 4 relate: Monks of the Benedictine order and their servants, all together 72 persons, were killed by the Muslim bands of Maiduc and Toghtekin, who raided in 1113 Mount Tabor and stormed the Abbey. - Benedictine Fathers were attacked in 1183 on Mount Tabor by troops of Saladin. But the Benedictine Abbey resisted the attack. - The Apocryphal Gospel of the Twelve Apostles (end of 1st century or beginning of 2nd century) tells us that the Holy Spirit led Jesus on the Mount Tabor for being tempted by the devil. (Compare Mt 4, 1-11) (Compare also: Saller S.; Elijah; Moses)

Taboria. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has this name on Aug 7, the day after the Transfiguration of the Lord, which is recalled on Aug 6, on Mount Tabor. Does Taboria mean Tabor or Dabouriyeh, the village at the foot of Mount Tabor. In this village is commemorated that Jesus, after the night of the Transfiguration, drove out the devil (Luke 9, 37). The nine apostles had not been able to cast out this devil (Mk 9, 13-28), when the three chosen apostles witnessed the Transfiguration. Or is Taboria the name of a person?

Tadzariq. Tadzariq is the Persian name for Theodore, who was the brother of Emperor Heraclius. Tadzariq was the commander of the town of Ramleh. He was joined by the troops of Artaboum, the general of Herachus. Ramieh surrendered to the Muslims in the year 12 Hegira (= 634 AD). Tadzariq and Artaboum fled to Egypt.

Taghleb. Christianized Arab tribe in Palestine. On account of its Arabic origin, conqueror Omar imposed to this tribe only a double sadaqa. Sadaqa means the 'aim of the tithes' which is to be paid by the Muslims.

Takhshash. The month of joy and gladness, the name of which is in the language of Syria the 'First Kanun', and in Greek 'Yasabyo', and in Hebrew the 'First Teshrin'. Takhshash is the fourth month in the Ethiopian calendar. This Ethiopian month goes from December 7 till January 5.

Takle Haimanot. Ethiopian Saint of the 13th century, who made three pilgrimages to Jerusalem. He was a teacher and a priest. For his frequent pilgrimages to Jerusalem, the Ethiopian Saint was rebuked by the Patriarch of Alexandria, who admonished the pilgrim by saying that it would be better for him if he occupied himself with the founding of a monastery than in wandering through various countries. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Nahasse 14.) (Budge, The Life of Takle Haimanot, London, 1906.) - Takla Haymanot is the Ethiopian monastery in the Old City, north of the 8th Station. It was acquired in 1891. Takla Haymanot is also the name of the new Ethiopian church and monastery in Bethany, consecrated on Sunday, Nov 17, 1974.

Talaleus, martyr. His deposit was 'in Sion' on Nov 19, according to the Georgian liturgy. Perhaps Thaleleus, the martyr of Aege in Cilicia (BHG 1707-1708) is meant.

Tailtha Kumi. Jesus took the daughter of Jairus by the hand and said to her 'Talitha Kumi', which means: Little girl, up for me. (Mk 5, 41). The Kaiserwerth Diaconesses (Lutheran) opened in 1851 in Jerusalem the Talitha Kumi Girls' School. They transferred the school in 1961 to Beit-Jala near Bethlehem.

Tancred. During the siege of Jerusalem in July 1099, Tancred made a second breach in the walls at the northwest corner. The site was afterwards called Tancred's Tower. The stronghold is also known as Qala'at el Jahud (Jewish Stronghold) [or Qala'at el-Jalud (The Castle of Goliath)]. Tancred was prince of Galilee from 1099 to 1112, and prince of the city of Antioch from 1111 to 1112. He died in 1112. -Tancred is one of the heroes in the epos of Tasso 'Jerusalem Liberated'.

Tannous Joseph. He was born in Nazareth in 1838. He became a priest, he founded in 1880 in Jerusalem the Congregation of the Sisters of the Rosary. All its members are Arab girls. Tannous died in Nazareth in 1892. His remains were brought in 1899 to the Church of the Rosary Sisters on Agron Street (formerly Mamillah Street) in West Jerusalem. (Jérusalem, Bulletin diocésain, XL, 1974, 718, p. 132)

Taphos. This Greek word 'Sepulchre' stands for Confraternity of the Holy Sepulchre. Patriarch Germanos (1534-1579) founded it. Its members are the guardians of the Holy Places for the Orthodox Church. The Taphos-Confraternity is the opponent of the Custody, which defends the rights of the Latins (Roman Catholic Church). The emblem of the Taphos-Confraternity is the Greek capital letter T, interwoven with the 0. This interweaving, produces the letter Phi (beginletter of the second syllable, Phos, from the complete word Taphos) This monogram in relief marks the Greek property.

Tarsha. This Christian family of Jerusalem donated the central altar in the Grotto of Arrest, when the Grotto was cleaned (1959) after the flood of 1956. The picture above this central altar represents Jesus in the Garden with the Oil-press (Gethsemane).

Tarachus, martyr. He is venerated in Palestine on June 27, July 18, Sept 28, Oct 1, Oct 11. Tarachus is remembered together with the martyr Probus and the martyr Andronicus, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Tarasius, St., martyr. Tarasius (Terentius) was martyred with Africanus, Maximus, Pompejus, etc. in Africa. The memory is on April 10. In the 'building of Maurice, the Byzantine emperor' was on July 14, the memory of Tarasius and companions.

Taucha. The parents of Saint Taucha went from Palestine/Syria to Champagne in Gaul in the 4th century. (AA.SS. Oct 10)

Teggart. During the British Mandate (1917-1948) Teggart built Police Stations at Safed, at Latrun (Amwas in the plain of Sharon), at Metulla in Galilea, on the frontier with Lebanon.

Tatian, king (466. 498) of Georgia. He founded the monastery of the Holy Cross (Deir el-Musallibeh) in Jerusalem. (Compare: Lazes)

Teliaeus, St. He was in Palestine in 518, together with David, archiepiscopus Menevensis, and Paternus. (AA.SS. March 1, Feb 9, April 15) (Vita S. Teliaei, c. II, n. 6-9)

Templars or Friends of Jerusalem. These Germans of Wurtemberg were conducted by W. and C. Hoffrnann, and erected in 1868 the Templars Settlement near Jaffa, and afterwards other Christian communities in Haita, Sarona, Wilhelma, Waldheim, and Bethlehem in Galilee. The Templars were exiled to Australia by the British Administration during World War II (1939-45). Their property was taken over by the State of Israel.

Templars or Knights Templars. This religious Order was found at Jerusalem in 1119. They had their headquarters near the Templum Domini (the Dome of the Rock) in the buildings of the EI Aqsa Mosque. King Philippe le Bel arrested the Great Master, Jacques de Molay, and the Knights Templars who were in France. (1307). Pope Clemens V, suppressed the Templars in 1312. - The Templars had as coat-of-arms a red cross. The four ends of the four arms were split open. The Templars wore since 1148 a white mantle.

Templecombe in Somerset (England). The Knights Templars erected in 1185 a commandery at Templecombe where new Templars were trained before departing to the Holy Land.

Ten lepers. See: Lepers (Luke 17, 11-19)

Teodorico of Ravenna, bishop. He came to Syria in 1234. He was accompanied by the Franciscan Father, Diotisalvi of Firenze.

Terebon I. He was the son of the sheikh Aspebet-Peter. As a young boy, Terebon was healed by the monk Euthymius, the Great (377-473) in the desert of Judaea. Terebon succeeded to his father as sheikh and phylarch. He was calumniated and imprisoned at Bosra round 458. Through the intervention of Euthymius, Terebon was liberated. He returned to his camps, and died round 485. His eldest son, Peter II, succeeded him as phylarch (bishop) of the Bedouins.

Terebon II, phylarch of the Bedouins. This after-grandson of Aspebet-Peter, ruled the monastery of St. Theoctist in the 6th century. Terebon II told, round 550, the history of his nomad tribe to the author Cyril of Scythopolis.

Terentius, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of lconium (Asia), in the Greek list. The Roman Martyrology does not mention Terentius.

Terra Santa College. At the junction of Rehov Agron (Mamillah) and King George Avenue is Terra Santa College. Its facade is surmounted by a statue of the Virgin. It was built by Cardinal Ferrari in 1927. 1t was taken over by the Franciscans in 1929. It served as a college until 1948. Then it was partly occupied by the Hebrew University. The Franciscans officiate the chapel for the few Latin families in that part of Jerusalem.

Testa. He was Apostolic Delegate in Palestine in 1949. Later he became a Cardinal.

Teutonic Order. During the siege of Acre (1189-1191) the Order began as a hospital. Indeed, the Hospitallers of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Germans at Jerusalem, founded the military Order of the Teutonic Knights. A 'homo honestus Teutonicus' erected round 1128 a hospital and the church St. Maria (of the Germans). This Church is opposite the Western Wall (Wailing Wall), on the site of the Hasmonaean Palast. The ruins of the Crusader Church are now preserved in the Archaeological Garden. - The Teutonic Knights have as emblem a black cross, of which the four arms enlarge to the periphery. The Hospital(I)ers have the white Maltese Cross on their black mantle. The four triangle-shaped arms converge to a point at the centre of the cross. The Teutonic Order had a hospital at Alden-Biezen (Belgium) since 1220.

Thaddeus, St. Apostle. His feast is on Oct 28 in Mart. Rom. The name Thaddeus occurs only in the lists of Mt 10, 3 and Mk 3, 18. Luke has Jude (6, 16; Acts 1, 13). Legend declares Thaddeus a martyr in Persia.

Thaddeus (or Lebbaeus). The Greek liturgy has his feast on Aug 21. According to tradition, Thaddeus was born in Edessa and went to Jerusalem. After being baptized by John the Baptist, he followed Christ to His Passion. He returned to Edessa, and there he baptized Augarus the Governor and healed him of leprosy. Finally he went to Beirut, where he died. - The Roman Martyrology has on Oct 28 the feast of Simon the Canaenite, and of Thaddeus, who was called also Judas. Both were martyred in Persia.

Thaddeus, copist. A certain Thaddeus, with an Armenian anchorite who was called Mark, copied a gospel in the convent of St. Sabas. (colophon dated 1455) (Surmeyan, Archbishop Artavazd, Catalogue of Manuscripts of 40 Martyrs' Church. 1935, Codex 23, pp. 58-59)

Thaleleus, martyr. The Greek liturgy has his feast on May 20. He was born in Lebanon, and lived during the reign of Numerianus (283-284). He was a physician, and healed many people. He was also a powerful preacher of the Gospel. He was arrested by Theodore, the Governor of Cilicia, and suffered martyrdom. First he was thrown into the sea, but he escaped without harm, wearing a white garment. Finally he was decapitated with the sword. The Martyrologium has his feast, together with that of others, on May 20. (Compare: Talaleus, martyr)

Thalleleus, doctor, Alexander and Asterius from Palestine, martyrs (284) in Edessa, or in Aegis in Cilicia. (AA.SS. May 20)

Thea, St. She was martyred, together with Meura (St), in Gaza, in 305. (Memory on Dec 19 in Mart. Rom.)

Thea of Gaza, virgin, martyr. Together with her sister, Valentine, Thea was martyred by being burned alive. In Palestine is the memory of Valentine on July 22; but Mart. Ram. does not mention Thea on July 22.

Thecla, martyr at Gaza. Greek liturgy on Aug 19. Thecla was born in Bizya, she suffered martyrdom in Gaza, together with Agapius. Thecla was thrown to the beasts and torn to pieces in 306, under Emperor Maximianus (265-310). The Martyrologium Romanum mentions as site of her martyrdom the amphiteater of Caesarea, Palestine, together with Timothy, on Aug 19.

Thecla, virgin and martyr, when the angel brought her on a rock and secretly baptized her. This Thecla 'on the Holy Mount' is mentioned by the Georgian liturgy on July 26, Sept 23, Sept 24, Oct 10, Oct 12, Dec 24. On Oct 10 and Oct 12 Thecla is venerated together with Euphemia. - On Sept 24 Thecla is venerated together with Conon. This veneration was on the 'Holy Mount' (that is the Mount of Olives). The AA.SS. have, in the 1st/2nd centuries on Sept 23: S. Theclae, virg. Seleuciae, who came to Antioch. In the Chapel of Thecla, which is in the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Jerusalem, is a stone, which bears a footprint of Christ.

Thecla (vel Tigridis), St. (Vita S. Tigr. n. 2-8) (AA.SS. June 25, round 562-593 in Palestine)

Thecua (Tekoa). Many monks were martyred in 404 or 410 at Khirbet Kareitoun in the village of Thecua, near Bethlehem. The feast is on May 28. (AA.SS.)

Thenius Otto. This German suggested in 1840 that the hill north of Damascus Gate outside the walls was the true site of Golgotha. (Compare Gordon)

Theobald III of Champagne, leader of the 4th Crusade (1202-1204). In March 1204 the Crusaders stormed Constantinople and made Baldwin the first emperor of the Latin Kingdom of Constantinople. It lasted till 1261. Venice received the main part of the spoils.

Theobald IV, Count of Champagne. He sailed in 1239 for Acre (6th Crusade). He was followed on October 11, 1240 by Richard of Cornwall, who was the brother of King Henry III. Theobald lost in 1240 a battle near Jaffa against the Khwarismian Turks. Theobald IV left Acre in September 1240 for Europe.

Theobald, King of Navarre, since 1234. He was the chief of an army in Palestine round 1240. (See: Guillaume de Cordelle) -Theobald of Navarre is to be identified with Theobald IV of Champagne, who was Count of Champagne from 1201 till 1253.

Theobald Visconti. He made in 1271 an expedition to Acre, with his friend Prince Edward of England. Theobald was not even a priest, he was archdeacon of Liège. During this expedition he was elected pope by the Council of Viterbo. He arrived in Rome, only six months after his election. He adopted the name of Pope Gregory X (1271-1276). He was responsible for the actual form of the Conclave.

Theobaldus, St., Pruvinesis. He came to Palestine round 1056. (Vita S. Theob. c. I, n. 4; c. II, n. 5; - Bulla Canonizationis, n. 5) (AA.SS. June 30)

Theoctista, martyr. Jan 31 and June 28.

Theoctistus, St. Greek liturgy, Sept 3. He was one of the great ascetics in the wilderness of Judaea. He inhabited the cave monastery of Wadi Mukelik. First he lived with St. Euthymius; later he withdrew, though soon other monks joined him. Theoctistus died on Sept 3, 451. He was buried by Euthymius. - The name Theoctistus is also mentioned on May 13 and on May 17 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The AA.SS. have his death in 467, and his feast on Sept 3.

Theodora of Tyrus, Martyr. Greek liturgy, April 2. She was born in Tyrus, Phoenicia. She lived during the reign of emperor Maximianus (285-310). She was led before Urbanus, the governor of Palestine, who caused her to be tortured and thrown into the sea.

Theodora, empress, who built the Church of the Virgin. She was born about 508, she was the wife of Emperor Justinian I (524-565). She died on June 28, 548. Theodora (according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar) or Theodore (according to the Lectionary of Latal) is mentioned on July 2. Was perhaps the name of Theodora connected with a building or with a restoration of a shrine 'Ark of the Covenant' on the hill of Kirjat-Jearim? The feast of the Ark of the Covenant was on July 2.

Theodore. See: Tiridatis, (together with Archelais and Theodore)

Theodore, martyr, St. Greek martyr of the 4th century. Saint Theodore's Church (south Church) is a Byzantine relic in Avdat. Marbled tombstones inserted in the floor have Greek inscriptions. The tombstone, which is next to the right (southern) apsis marks the grave of a young guardsman who died 'a bachelor', at the age of 27. Another tombstone, which is also in the southern aisle, mentions the 'Martyrion of St. Theodore'.

Theodore, monk. He was buried in a catacomb near the Well of David in Bethlehem. There was a Byzantine convent with church, between the fourth and the sixth century.

Theodore, Abuna Abba, Abbot of Dabra Libanos. He was the fifth of those who sat upon the throne of Abuna Takla Haimanot. Theodore died on the 5th day of the month Magabit. (Eth. Synax.)

Theodore, archbishop, perhaps Theodore Ascidas. Theodore Ascidas was a counseller of Emperor Justinian I (518-527). He was exarch (chief) of the New Laura in Palestine; afterwards he was archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia. He died between Dec 557 and Feb 558. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar means perhaps Ascidas by the feast of Jan 26.

Theodore, archbishop. St. Perhaps this is the patriarch of Jerusalem. This Theodore I (he began his rule in 742) was already dead at the time of the Council of 787. The Georgian calendar has the feast of Theodore archbishop on Jan 26.

Theodore, architect. The Emperor Justinian (527-565), in accordance with the wish of Peter and of St. Sabas, sent to Jerusalem the machinarius and architect Theodorus for building the new church of Mary (Nea-Church). The building lasted 12 years. The Nea-Church was dedicated in 543.

Theodore, the builder, and his wife Georgia. An inscription at Jerash tells us that they built the church St. George at Jerash. Its mosaics were made in Feb 533. Theodore is represented on the mosaic wearing a mantle. Georgia is represented as 'orans' (praying woman).

Theodore, the calligraph, bishop of Cyrene, martyr under Diocletian (284-313). Greek synaxaries have his memory on July 4.

Theodore Graptos. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Dec 27. Theodore was the son of Jonas, and the brother of Theophanes Graptos. Theodore was educated in the monastery of St. Sabas in Palestine, and became known on account of his hymnography. During the iconoclastic controversy, he suffered torture, and wasbranded. Theodore died in prison in 833. - His brother Theophanes died in 845. Both brothers were twice exiled, the first time under emperor Leo the Armenian (813-820), a second time under emperor Theophile (829-842). Theophanes became bishop of Nicaea and died in peace in 845. The Martyrologium Romanum has the feast of both brothers on Dec 27.

Theodore, hegumen of St. Sabas. In the list of the hegumens of St. Sabas, Theodore does not figure. But Theodulus is listed between Meliton and Gelasios. The feast of Theodore is on Feb 9 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Here Theodore is listed together with Archelais, martyr, and with Tiridatis.

Theodore, soldier and martyr. On June 3 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Theodore of Constantinople (6th century). He gives the oldest testimony that attributes the painting of the Virgin Mary to St. Luke.

Theodore of Edessa. He lived during the second half of the 8th century. At the age of twenty, he became a monk in the monastery of St. Sabas. Later he was consecrated bishop of Edessa, Mesopotamia. He engaged in theological polemics and wrote ascetic works. In the Greek liturgy his feast is on July 9.

Theodore I, patriarch of Constantinople (died Dec 27, 687). He was commemorated by the Armenian and by the Greek liturgies in Jerusalem on Dec 27 or Dec 28.

Theodore I, pope of Rome (642. 649). He came from the clergy of Jerusalem. He introduced the feast of the Dormition of the Holy Virgin, in Rome.

Theodoric, Legate. This legate of Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) laid the interdict over Acre. (Compare Henri de Nazareth)

Theodoricus, abbas Andaginensis, St. He came to Palestine round 1033. (Vita S. Theod., c. II, n. 24) (AA.SS. Aug 24)

Theodoricus, St., abbas S. Ebrulphi He came to Palestine before 1058. (AA.SS. Aug 1)

Theodoricus. He visited Jerusalem in 1172. He wrote 'Libellus de Locis Sanctis'. He mentions an Armenian church on the eastern slope of Mount Sion, which is dedicated to St. Peter. He mentions the Church of Chariton to the north of the Holy Sepulchre. He mentions a stone (a piece of a column) on which Jesus was seated when, before the Crucifixion, he was insulted. Such a broken column is in the Greek Chapel of the Mocking, which is in the east apse, to the east side of Golgotha, in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. - The Mocked Jesus, seated on a broken column is known in Belgium round 1500 as 'Christus op den Kouden Steen' (Christ on the Cold Stone). An exhibition 'Het Laatgotisch Beeldsnijcentrum, Leuven' (October, November 1979 in Stedeliik Museum, Leuven) showed 21 representations of the Mocked Jesus. Most of the representations were sculptures which belonged to churches or chapels in and around Leuven (Belgium).

Theodoricus, alamannus, carmelita, Blessed. In the 14th century, he visited the Holy Land. (AA.SS. Oct 15)

Theodoricus, praefectus Trevirensis. He came to Palestine in 1072-1073. (Vita S. Conradi, c. iii, n. 24) (AA.SS. June 1)

Theodorus Siceotas, St. He came to Palestine, first round 550, a second time in 580, a third time in 600. (Vita S. Theod., auct. Eleusio Georgio, lat. vers., c. IV, n. 23-24) (AA.SS. April 22)

Theodose, the monk, and the picture of the Virgin Mary. See: Martha, a widow.

Theodose, patriarch. An inscription in the Greek Orthodox parish church of Abud, refers to Theodose, patriarch. The inscription dates from the year 450 of the Bedouins, i.e. hegira (622). The yew 450 corresponds to the year 1072 AD.

Theodosia. An inscription in the so-called Bath of Jesus in Bethlehem reads: 'O Lord, remember your servants Zosimus, Theodosia and Kallis'. (Compare: Kallis)

Theodosia, St., mother of the martyr St. Procopius, and Twelve Ladies. They were tortured in Caesarea-Philippi (northeast of the Lake of Galilee) and decapitated under Emperor Diocletian (284-313). Memory in Mart. Rom. on May 29.

Theodosia of Caesarea, Palestine, martyr and virgin. Greek liturgy, May 29; Mart. Rom. March 23. As a young woman of 18 years she was imprisoned and suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution in 308. To be identified with Theodosia of Tyre.

Theodosia of Tyre, St. The Mart. Rom has her memory on April 2. She was from Tyre in Lebanon. She had greeted the Christian martyrs, therefore she was led before the governor Urbanus in Caesarea, Palestine. He stripped off the skin of the breasts, and he ordered the body of the virgin to be thrown into the sea. She was martyred in Caesarea, Palestine, on Easter, in 3071308 under emperor Maximinus Daia (305-313). Greek Synaxaries and the Palestinian-Georgian calendar have her feast on May 29.

Theodosius, haereticus, intrusus, bishop of Jerusalem. He ended his office in 451 (Cyril of Scythopolis mentions Theodosius on Jan 20). Theodosius was the last bishop of the Jerusalem bishopric. in 451 the General Council of Chalcedon made the bishopric of Jerusalem a Patriarchate.

Theodosius, St. Coenobiarch. He was born in Cappadocia in 423, he settled at the age of thirty in Palestine, he formed a small community east of Bethlehem. When St. Sabas was appointed head of all anchorites, Theodosius was set over the coenobites. Coenobites lived in community. Theodosius opposed Monophysitism. This opposition led to his removal by the Emperor Anastasius. The convent Deir Dosi, or Deir Ibn Abeid, east of Bethlehem, was built over a grotto, where the Magi passed the first night after the angel had warned them in Bethlehem to return to their country by another road (Mt 2, 12). Deir Ibn Abeid is the centre of the Abediyeh Bedouins. - The Georgian calendar remembers Theodosius on Jan 11. Theodosius died at 105 years, on Jan 11, 529. (Metaphraste, Vita S. Theodosii).

Theodosius and Shepherds' Field of the Greek. (Keniset er-Rawat, in the plain). Once Theodosius went from Bethlehem to his convent, and on the way he visited his friend Marcian and operated for him a miracle. (Compare: Marcian; Romanus)

Theodosius I, the Great, (379. 395). He died on Jan 17, 395. He is remembered by the Armenian lectionary on Jan 19; by the Greek synaxaries on Nov 9 or Nov 10; by the Syrian calendars on Jan 18. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his remembrance on May 31.

Theodosius II (Theodosius Minor), emperor of Byzantium, 408-450. He was a grandson of Theodosius the Great (I). Theodosius II died on July 28, 450. He is remembered by the Greek synaxaries on July 29, 30, 31. Sometimes, he is surnamed: Minor, the Little, the Less. His grandfather, Theodosius I, is surnamed the Great. Theodosius II was married to Eudocia in 421. He repudiated her. Their granddaughter (born round 439) is Eudocia the Younger. - Round the time of Theodosius II in 404 or 410, the Saracens murdered monks at Souka (Khirbet Kareitoun) in Tekoa.

Theodosius III, Emperor (715-717) of Byzantium. He died in 722.

Theodosius, patriarch of Jerusalem. Eusebius, Theodorus (or Theodosius), Basilius, were patriarchs 760-772. (AA.SS. Prop.)

Theodota, martyr. Jan 31 and June 28.

Theodote. She lived before the Council of Nicaea (325). She was the mother of the unmercenary saints, Cosmas and Damian. She died in peace. (Compare: Cosmas)

Theodotos. inscription. A certain Theodotos, of a Jewish family of Roman Freedmen, placed in Jerusalem a Greek inscription. The inscription was found by Weill R. This archaeologist excavated on the Ophel-hill in Jerusalem in 1913-14 and 1923-24. The inscription may belong to the synagogue of 'Freedmen' (Acts 6, 9).

Theodoulos, St., the Elder. In the Greek liturgy, on Feb 17. He served in the family of Governor Firmilianus. He witnessed the constancy of the Christian martyrs and claimed to be Christian. He was fixed to a cross in Caesarea, Palestine. (Mart. Rom. Feb 17) It happened round 309.

Theodoulos of Constantinople, urbis praefectus. Round 385 he visited Palestine. (Vita S. Theoduli, c. II, n. 10-11) (AA.SS. May 28)

Theodoulos of Phoenicia. Theodoulos and Hypatus were ordered by Hadrianus the Governor to arrest Leontius. Leontius was an officer in the Roman army and was stationed in Tripoli of Phoenicia (Lebanon). Theodoulos and Hypatus were converted during the process. They were beheaded by the governor during the reign of Vespasian (69-79). The Latin Church and the Greek liturgy venerate their martyrdom at June 18.

Theodoulos of Sinai. Greek liturgy, Jan 14. Theodoulos, together with his father Nilus, led an ascetic life in Sinai. Theodoulos was captured by the Barbarians and sold as a slave. A bishop, however, redeemed him. Theodoulos returned to the monastery (6th century) to continue his ascetic life. Emperor Justinian translated his relics to the Church of St. Paul in Constantinople. (AA.SS. Jan 14)

Theodulus. Martyr in Jerusalem, about 274, together with Alexander, bishop. He is venerated on Dec 18 (AA.SS.)

Theodulus, Paulus, Johannes, Proclus, and Companions, martyrs in Sinai, round 500. Their feast is on Jan 14 (AA.SS.). The 'History' by the author Nilo, exists in a Latin translation. (Jan 14)

Theoforus. See: Ignatius of Antioch.

Theognius, bishop. St. He is mentioned by the calendar of the Georgians on Feb 7, Feb 8, Feb 10. Theognius was a disciple of St. Theodosius, and bishop of Betylion (Betelia) near Gaza. His life is described by Paul of Elousa, and by Cyril of Scythopolis. Paul of Elousa gives as date for his death 522, Feb 8. Theognius is not listed in the Greek Synaxaries. The AA.SS. name him 'episcopus Beteliae' (Analecta Bollandiana). The AA.SS. name him Theognius Cappadocensis, and mention that he came to Palestine in 454. Cyril of Scythopolis relates that Theognius came to Jerusalem in the 5th year (4541455) of Emperor Marcian (450-457). Theognius accompanied a certain lady, Flavia, to the Mount of Olives, and to a church of the Saint martyr Julianus.

Theo(o)n. See: Aurelius (in Timna)

Theophane of Taormina. He mentions Emmaus (Hom. XXXII).

Theophanes, bishop at Mount Tabor at the Byzantine period. The bishopric of Mount Tabor was erected at the Council of Constantinople in 553. (Commemoratorium de Casis Dei, round 808)

Theophanes Graptos. In the Greek liturgy on Oct 11. Theophanes was the son of Jonas, and the brother of Theodore Graptos. Educated in the monastery of St. Sabas, Theophanes became known on account of his hymns. During the iconoclastic controversy, he suffered torture and was branded, together with his brother. From there the name Graptos (Grapti, plural). After the death of the Emperor Theophilus (829-842), Theophanes was consecrated bishop of Nicaea. He died in Nicaea in 845. His surname is Graptos.

Theophanes Isaacius (8thigth century). He tells that Mansour and Celsius saved the columns of the Basilica of Agony at Gethsemane. (PG. Will, 721)

Theophanius (1608-1644). This Greek patriarch of Jerusalem, living in Constantinople, renewed the claims of Germanos (1565) and of Sophronius IV (1579-1608) on the Basilica of Nativity.

Theophilus, bishop of Caesarea, Palestine, St. He opposed the Quartodecimans. These Jewish Christians celebrated Easter on the 14th of Nisan (die quarta decima), the day of the Jewish Passover, in accordance with Exodus 12, 15. Roman practise emphasized the observance of the Sunday as the day of the Resurrection. As Christianity separated from Judaism, Gentile Christians objected to observing the principal Christian feast on the same day as the Jewish Passover. - Theophilus died in 190. The Roman Martyrology relates on March 5 that Theophilus was famous for his wisedom in the days of ruler Severus. This Severus is probably not the Emperor Severus, who ruled from 222 to 235.

Theophilus, bishop of Eleutheropolis. Before 360, he was transferred to the bishopric of Castabala in Cilicia. His transfer caused discussion between Acacius, the metropolitan of Caesarea, Palestine, and Cyril, the bishop of Jerusalem. (PG 67, 1195-1196)

Theophilus of Constantinople, pseudo-patriarch, with twelve clerics (fabulosum). They visited Palestine round 356-361. (Translatio S. Antonii, n. 7, 28) (Analecta Bollandiana, 11, 343, 351)

Theophilus, Nicephorus, patriarchs of Jerusalem, after 1012. (AA.SS. Mai, Prop.)

Theophilus, Sergius, and Hyginus, monks in Mesopotamia. They visited Palestine, before 375 (AA.SS. Oct 23). (Vita S. Macarii (fabulosa) n. 3 et 24)

Theophorus. See: Ignatius of Antioch. (Theophorus means Godbearer)

Theotecnus, bishop of Caesarea Maritima, without year, 2nd/3th cent. The feast is on March 5. (AA.SS.) -Theotecnus means Child of God.

Theotimus, martyr. Together with Domninus, Philotheus, Dorotheus, Casterius, and Silvanus of Emesa, martyrs in Caesarea, Palestine, under Emperor Maximianus, (305-311). Feast on Nov 5 in Mart. Rom.

Theotokos (Mother of God): Title of the Virgin Mary.

Theotonius, St. He came to Palestine, a first time before 1112. (Vita S. Theot., prima c. II, n. 7; Vita altera, n. 2; Vita tertia, n. 5) (AA.SS. Feb 18). He came to Palestine a second time round 1125. (AA.SS. Feb 18)

Thetmar (Thietmar). He visited the Holy Land in 1217. He found the sanctuaries without lamps, without cult.

Thevas, Abas, Murgan, Armenians. A mosaic (1, 19 m x 0, 49 m) in a room in the Russian Convent on the Mount of Olives has an Armenian inscription (5th/6th cent): 'For the prayer and salvation of Thevas, Abas, and Murgan'.

Thibaut = Theobald.

Thief, the Good Thief, called Dismas. To the penitent thief Jesus spoke: 'Truly, I say to you today, you will be with me in Paradise' (Lk 23, 43). The Good Thief is represented at the right hand of the Crucified Jesus. The Roman Martyrology has the memory of Dismas on March 25. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and the Franciscans of Jerusalem have the feast on March 26. - The Crusaders had a fortress Castrum Boni Latronis, on the hill, where is now the Cistercian abbey. The site was considered as the home of the good thief. The Georgian calendar venerates the Good Thief on Oct 12.

Thiemo, archiep. Juvavensis, martyr at Ascalon in 1102. He is called Thiemo of Salzburg. In 1090 he became archbishop of Salzburg. (Riant, Revue des Questions Historiques, 1886, T. XXXIX, p. 218-237) Sometimes he is called Dietmar. The AA.SS. remember him on Sept 28.

Thierry d'Alsace (Thierry of Flanders) (Diederich of Alsatia). He was count of Flanders from 1128 to 1158. He debarked in 1139 in the Middle East. He brought in 1148 a relic (linen with Blood of Christ) to Brugge. Therefore the annual Procession of the Holy Blood, since 1149.

Thietmar (1217). See: Thetmar.

Thirty. three martyrs. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has them on May 27, Greek synaxaries mention 3 groups of each 33 martyrs: 33 at Melitene, companions of St. Hieron, on Nov 7; 33 martyrs of Palestine on Aug 16; 33 martyrs of Nicomedy on Aug 28.

Thirty-five monks. In 1517, the year in which Luther revolted against Rome, 35 monks and nuns pilgrimated to the Holy Land.

Thoenessen Gerardus. He was the son of Hermann Thoenessen and Petronilla Scherders. He was born in Hommersum, near Munster, Germany, on Aug 7, 1865. He was professed in the Belgian Province of St. Joseph on Dec 7, 1897. He came to the Holy Land on March 1, 1898. He guided the Emperor Wilhelm II in Oct 1898. He excavated the Crusader Church of the Agony at Gethsemane in 1909. On Monday Nov 22, 1909, he cut down a dead olive-tree, which was nearly in the centre of the Crusader Church and which had spoiled with its roots the ancient mosaics. The stump was used by Mihaic of Dalmatia as a support for a huge cross. The cross stands near the Chapel of the second Station, under the arcades. Thoenessen died at Jerusalem May 13, 1920.

Thomas the Apostle. In Greece, his feast is on Oct 6. Thomas is known as 'Doubting Thomas' during the life of Christ. Thomas brought the Gospel to India. The Christians of Kerala call themselves 'St Thomas Christians'. His relics were claimed to be in Edessa, the place of his birth. The Martyrologium Romanum had formerly the feast of Thomas on Dec 21. Actually, the feast is on July 3.

Thomas and the ass. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on Yakatit 2 relates: An ass proposed Thomas to ride on its back. Thomas asked 'To what race dost thou belong?' The ass answered: 'I am a descendant of the offspring of the ass which was in the service of Balaam, and the ass whereon thy Lord and Teacher rode, was descended from him, and was my father. Now as for me, 1 have been sent to give thee rest and for thee to mount upon'. Thomas mounted on this ass, and he came to the gates of the city. Then Thomas said: 'Depart, and take heed whither thou departest', and straightway the ass fell down and perished. Thomas commanded to bury the dead beast.

Church of St. Thomas. North of the Street St. James, that leads from the Armenian Patriarchate to the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate, is an old construction. It was the church of the 12th century, and it was dedicated to St. Thomas. Near of it is now the mosque Hariri. The Thomas' Church belonged to the German Crusaders.

Death of St. Thomas. Represented on a engraved copperplate in the Museum of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa. (Guida a] Museo, 1939, Nr 60)

Altar of St. Thomas. The indulgences and Votive Masses of the Cenacle on Mount Sion were translated to St. Saviour's Church. Its central altar is that of the Holy Ghost; the altar in the left apse recalls the Last Supper; the altar in the right apse is in honour of St. Thomas who doubted. The Church of St. Saviour (rebuilt in 1855) is for the Latin Parish inside the walled City.

Thomas Adrzrouni, Armenian Chronicler. He mentions that the Persians, having undermined the walls, took Jerusalem in 614.

Thomas Agni (Thomas de Lentino) (Sicily). Latin patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, 1272-1276, Dominican Father. (May, Prop. AA.SS.)

Thomas Bellaci of Firenze. Blessed. He accompanied John Capistran to the Holy Land, round 1439. Thomas died in Rieti on Oct 31, 1447. Franciscan Martyrology remembers him on Oct 31.

Thomas, Capucin Franciscan. He was found murdered at Damascus in 1840. The Jews were accused of ritual murder.

Thomas Cook and Sons. Eldest travel agency in Jerusalem.

Thomas Diaz, priest. He founded in 1723 at Shefar'am, which is about 20 kms east of Haifa, a house of worship for the newly converted Melkites.

Thomas, Farfensis, St. and others. They came to Palestine, round 670. (Vita S. Thomae, c. 1) (AA.SS. Sept 17)

Thomas, Florentinus, Blessed. He came to Palestine in 1438. (P. M. Morellus, Vita B. Th., c. IV, n. 29-35) (AA.SS. Oct 31)

Thomas, monk and hegumen of St. Euthymius. He died on March 25, 542. On account of the feast of the Annunciation, which is on March 25, the memory of Thomas was advanced to March 24, in the Palest i nian-Georgian calendar.

Thomas, superior at Jerusalem. He gave a latin certificate to J. Cambray on April 10, 1565.

Thomas of Ascani, Franciscan. Born in Ferentino Romano (Italy) in 1846; came to the Holy Land in 1873. He died at Jerusalem, Feb 3, 1920.

Thomas of Novara. This Custos bought in 1621 the ruins of the Church and the Convent of St. Jean the Baptist in the village of Ain Karem. The restoration could begin in 1675, and lasted till 1690.

Thomas I, patriarch of Jerusalem (807-820 or 829). He restored the roof of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. For this purpose, he had fifteen cedar-wood trees and fifteen fir trees, stripped of their branches, brought from Cyprus. Charlemagne (769-814) contributed towards the expenses. Thomas was known under the (Persian) name Tamriq. - The Palestinian-Georgian calendar remembers him on May 16. The AA.SS. mention him on Feb 11.

Thomas II, patriarch of Jerusalem (969. 978). See: Sergius II.

Thomas, a pious man. He buried 1030 corpses in Gethsemane after the sack of Jerusalem by the Persians in 614. (According to Strategius) (Compare: Thomas Ardzrouni)

Thomson. This member of the American Missionaries in the 19th century, was buried in the small cemetery of this group on Mount Sion. The plot was afterwards acquired by the Custody.

Thönessen Luca. See: Thoenessen Gerardus.

Three companions in the fiery furnace. (Daniel 3,1-30). The Song of the three children (Daniel 3, 24-90), Ananias, Azarias, Misael, is preserved only in Greek, and is not found in Hebrew and Protestant bibles. The Georgian liturgy has the feast on Aug 24, and on Oct 15, and Dec 15. Greek Synaxaries have the feast on Dec 17. The Martyrologium Romanum adds on Dec 16: the bodies of the three companions are buried near Babylon in a cave (grotto).

Three doctors of the Church. A legend tells us that under Emperor Alexis Comnenus (end of the 12th century) a discussion arose: who of the three hierarchs (Basil, on Jan 1; John Chrysostom, on Jan 27; Gregory of Nazianze, on Jan 25) is the most important? Under the emperor Alexis Comnenus, a common feast of the three (on Jan 30 in the Greek liturgy) should settle the discussion. Since then 'a triple sun' enlightens this day. In Arabic, the feast is named 'the three moons'.

Three Franciscans (the Superior of the Convent, the parish priest and his helper) and Christians were massacred at Jaffa by Mahomet Bey, surnamed Abou Daxas (or Dahab =father of the gold) in May 12, 1775.

Three French Ladies. They wore the clothing of knights and fought on horse-back before Acre in 1189. When they were taken prisoners, their sexe was revealed.

Three healers. Perhaps as concurrence to three pagan healers, Asklepios, Hygieia, and Telesphorus, three christian healers are venerated in the Holy Land. Generally they are: Cosmas and his brother Damian, the third is Luke, the physician, or Panteleimon, or Christ Himself.

Three Hierarchs. St. Basil of Caesarea (Cappadocia) 330-379; St. Gregory of Nazianzen (329-390); St. John Chrysostom (344-407). Since the 11th century, the Greeks have the common feast of the three hierarchs on Jan 30. It seems that Basil of Caesarea (Basil the Great) came to Caesarea, Palestine, as a priest for study.

Three Kings (Magi): Balthasar, Kaspar, Melchior.

Three Martyrs at Safed in 1266. Sultan Baybars promised clemency to the beleaguered native christian helpers at Safed. The Templars sent Leon, the Casalier (provision-chief) as an ambassador. Leon deceived them, by promising for all defenders free exit to Acre. But Baybars killed the foreigners. Jacobus da Puy and Jeremias of Genoa (or Lecce?) and Hugo, the Prior of the Templars, were executed. The bodies of these three foreigners, together with the bodies of other christians, were thrown in a grotto. This grotto has been discovered in the 19th century. (Geissler Aegidius, Das Martyrergrab in Safed, in Das Heilige Land, 25 (1881) p. 121-126)

Three mothers in the iconography. Elisabeth, the mother of John the Baptist; Anna, the mother of the Virgin Mary; Mary, the mother of Jesus. The three mothers are represented as a group.

Three Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob). The Greek liturgy venerates the three on Dec 16, or in the week before Christmas. This feast does not exist in the Western (Roman, Latin) liturgy.

Three Shepherds at Bethlehem. Sator, Arepo and Teneton are painted in the Chapel of St. Eusthathius in Göreme, Turkey. - A local tradition in Bethlehem showed at Beit-Sahur the tomb of the three shepherds at the site Siyar el Ghanam, the Sheepfold. The site is now the Shepherds' Field of the Latins on the hill where a tent-like Chapel is built.

Three years in the Holy Land. The service of a Franciscan in the Custody of the Holy Land should not exceed three years. Pope Benedict XIV, on Jan 7, 1746; confirmation by Pope Pius IX in 1846.

Thyssen Joseph (1879-1970). This Belgian Franciscan served the Custody for a long period.

Tiberias. The city was built by tetrarch Herod Antipas round 20 CE (AD). He named the foundation Tiberias, in honour of Emperor Tiberius (14-37 AD) - Tiberias suffered in the earthquakes of 1759 and of 1837. In 1936 a cloud-burst caused portions of the city-walls to be removed to allow the flow of water to the lake.

Tigridis is another name for THECLA.

Timolaos, martyr of Palestine, martyred (in 297?) in Alexandria. Feast March 24.

Timolaus, martyr in Caesarea, Palestine. In Greece and in Palestine he is remembered on March 15. Timolaus presented himself to Urban the Governor. Timolaus died during the Diocletian persecution (284-313). Timolaus is commemorated together with Dionysios, Pausides, Romolus, Alexander, another Alexander, Agapius, another Dionysios. They were decapitated in 304 under the Governor Urban. The Roman Church has their memory on March 24.

Timon, martyr. He was one of the seven deacons of the Apostolic Church and he was later consecrated bishop of Bosra in Syria. Timon was burned alive. - The Roman Martyrology tells that he was thrown into the flames, but escaped without harm. Then he was crucified. This was done by Jews and Greeks. The Greek liturgy venerates Timon on July 28; the Rom. Mart.. on April 19.

Timotheus, the Apostle. He was a native of Lystra in Asia Minor, and was converted by the Apostle Paul whose helper he became. Two epistles of St. Paul were addressed to him, and he was enthrusted with the supervision of the church around Ephesus. Timotheus suffered martyrdom in Ephesus by being beaten do death by the mob for opposing the observance of a pagan festival. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Jan 22; the Roman Martyrology on Jan 24. The translation of Timotheus, together with the translation of Andrew, is commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on May 9. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the feast of Timotheus on Jan 22, and on Feb 16. This feast on Feb 16 seems particular to Jerusalem. It was held in the Church of the Anastasis (Resurrection, Holy Sepulchre).

Timotheus, Patriarch of Bagdad-Seleucia. About 800 he wrote in a letter to Sergius, Metropolitan of Elam, that a certain person from Jerusalem had visited him and had told him a strange story. An Arab had been hunting with his dog in the vicinity of Jericho, and the dog in pursuit of some animal, disappeared into a hole in the rock. His master went in, after the dog. He found himself as in a little house in the rock, and there were manuscripts. The hunter reported his find to some Jewish scholars in Jerusalem. The Jews came down to the cave and removed some scrolls, which were reported as being books of the Old Testament and other Hebrew works. (Compare: Samuel Joshua Anastasios)

Timotheus and Titus. The names of the Children upon whom the Lord laid His hand (Mt 19, 13), in the 'Book of the Bee'.

Timothy of Gaza, martyr. During the Diocletian persecution (284-313) he served the Church as a teacher in Gaza. He confessed his faith in front of Urbanus, the Governor, and he was tortured and suffered martyrdom. The Greek liturgy and the Roman Martyrology mention him on Aug 19. The Ethiopian Synaxarium salutes him on Yakatit 24. A Timothy is mentioned in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on March 14.

Tiridatis. He is mentioned by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Feb 9, together with Archelais and Theodore.

Titulus. See: Fortunatus, Eusebius. (1st-4th cent. Aug 14)

Titulus Crucis. The Latin lay brother, Kreutzer Francis, sacristan mounted on Friday, April 13, 1973 at 4. 00 in the morning, on Calvary to prepare the Latin altar for the feast of Our Lady of Doulours (13th Station). He surprised two Israeli robbers. They had robbed the titulus, which is above the Greek Cross at the 12th Station, and also the nimbus round the head of John, who stood under the Cross. The robbers pushed the Latin sacristan along the vertical northern staircase down into the ambulatory. They escaped over the roof of the adjoining Greek Convent. The wounded sacristan needed to wait till the police, with the help of the Muslim watchman, could enter the Basilica. The titulus bears the initials I. N. FI1 (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews). This emblem had offended the Israeli robbers.

Titus, apostle and bishop. He was born on Crete in 12 AD. He went to Palestine at the age of twenty. On the day of Pentecost he was converted, he became a helper of St. Paul. Titus organized the Church in Crete, and became bishop of Cortyna. St Paul wrote a letter to Titus, instructing him how to rule the Church. Titus died in Crete in 106. Greek liturgy has his feast on Aug 25. The Roman Martyrology mentions him on Jan 4 and has his feast on Feb 6. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar celebrates the feast on Aug 25. The Ethiopian Syn. salutes Titus on Paguemen 2.

Translation of his body. Constantine the Just, the Great Emperor of Emperors, translated the body of Titus from Akrates (Crete) to the city of Constantinia. (Eth. Syn. Takhshash 18)

Titus. Apocryphal writings sometimes give the name Titus to the robber on the right side of the Crucified. Normally: Dismas.

Titus, together with Timotheus. The children upon whom the Lord laid His hand (Mt 19, 13) according to 'The Book of the Bee'.

Titus, bishop of Bosra, 4th/5th cent. In his Comnentaries, he accepts the reading '60 stadia' as the distance from Jerusalem to Emmaus.

Tobias, Saint, 5th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd cent. His feast is on Dec 17. (AA.SS.) He is mentioned on Sept 17 and Sept 20.

Tobias, Tobias the Younger, son of Tobit. Tobias healed the eyes of his father Tobit and buried his father Tobit. (Eth. Syn.)

Tobit (Tobias), Book of Tobit. Tobit is a Greek form of Hebrew Tobiah, which is graecized as Tobias. Tobit is deported from the Kingdom of Israel in the reign of Shalmaneser of Assyria. Tobit becames blind, he commands his son Tobias to collect a debt from their kinsman Gabael. Tobias on his journey meets the angel Rafael. Tobias catches a fish, by which the bride Sarah and the father Tobit are to be cured. Tobias marries Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, and expulses the demon Asmodaeus. Tobias returns home and heals the blindness of his father Tobit. The angel Rafael reveals his identity. The book Tobit Jb, in abbreviation) is preserved in Greek. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on Maskaram 10 relates: Tobit is the son of Gabael, of the seed of Asael, of the tribe of Naphtali. Tobit is a native of Tebes, on the right hand of Kades, which is Naphtali in Galilee, which is above Aser. Tobit was buried by his son Tobias.

Tobler Titus. This scholar from Switzerland described in 1848 the arch that afterwards, in 1864-65, will be explored by Wilson, and will be called Wilson's Arch'. The Wilson's Arch is a part of a bridge on several arches. The bridge connected the area of the Temple with the palace of King Herod the Great at the Jaffa Gate. Through a causeway inside the bridge, soldiers could be sent from the Citadel of the Upper City to the area of the Temple and the Fortress Antonia. - Tobler published 'Dritte Wanderung nach Palaestina'.

Tofa. She was the mother of Count Christopher of Jutland. Perhaps she was a concubine of King Valdernar I. Tofa visited the Holy Land round 1190.

Toledo. In 1682 on the General Chapter of Toledo (Spain) was agreed: No Franciscan may pilgrimage to the Holy Land without the permission of the Provincial Definitorium. But the definitive authorisation comes from the Superior Generalis at Rome.

Tombs of the Latin Kings, inside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. They were violated by the Kharismians in 1244.

Tommaso. This Franciscan Father is perhaps the 'lector constantinopolitanus' of whom speaks Salimbene. Salimbene met Tommaso in the convent of Lyon in 1249. - William of Ruisbroek mentions Tommaso as Minister Provincialis of the Holy Land. Tommaso was in this function, at least from April 1253 till August 15, 1255.

Tonnini C. He made the bronzes and the statues in the Basilica of Agony at Gethsemane (Basilica was consecrated, on June 15, 1924).

Toros, Armenian prince. He was received in Jerusalem by the Latin king, Amaury I (1163-1174).

Torosssian Haroutioun. This Armenian acted in the 19th century as pro-consul for Prussia. (Compare Strabion).

Torrence Herbert, Senior. He started Scottish Seamen's Medical Mission at Tiberias, which gave the medical help to the native population. The Hospital was built in 1894.

Torrence Herbert, Junior. He was the son of Torrence Herbert Senior. In the summer of 1946, Torrence Herbert Junior celebrated 25 years of work at the Scottish Seamen's Medical Mission at Tiberias.

Toretti. He was from Venice. He was the master of Canova. Toretti sculpted the relief in marble, representing Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane. The sculpture is on the east wall of the entry-hall to the Basilica via the sacristy. In this sacristy every pilgrim receives gratis a leaflet of an olive-tree. The leaflet is glued on a small paper that bears the image of Jesus, praying in the Garden, and that provides a short explication on the Garden of Agony.

Tounon Hilarius. This Franciscan laybrother from Flanders guided pilgrims. He was more than 28 years in the Custody. Father Custos of Jerusalem sent Tounon to Europe for contacting the court of France. Between Tyre and Sidon Tounon was beaten by Turks and robbed of his clothings. The naked Tounon reached the monastery. This happened six weeks before Surius arrived at Sidon (1667). Tounon was appointed as Superior at Nazareth. There he suffered much from the Turks, Two times he was at Nazareth commissioned with special tasks by the King of France. Tounon died at Nazareth in the midst of the 17th century. (Surius, Le dévot Pèlerin)

Tournai. Two brothers of Tournai, Letold and Gilbert (or Engilbert) climbed as first conquerors the wall of Jerusalem, to the east of Bab al Sahira (Herod's Gate) at the conquest of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on Friday, July 15, 1099.

Tournai, Jacques de Tournai, marshall. He halted in 1218 the French troops at the Fortress 'Falcon' and returned with them to Acre. But a detached vanguard of knights was defeated (Aug 29, 1218) at Caymont (Tell Qaimun at the foot of the Carmel). Hundred knights were taken captives to Jerusalem.

Tower of the Pisans. Daimbert, the leader of the Pisan crusaders, received by an agreement with Godfrey of Bouillon, the possession of the Tower of David. The agreement of 1099 lasted till the death of Godfrey (1100). Perhaps from this arrangement, the name Tower of the Pisans.

Train Jerusalem-Jaffa via Lydda (Lod) (French concession), began on Sept 26, 1892. (Compare: Streuvels)

Tranenses. Templarii Tranenses are mentioned round 1142 in AA.SS. on June 2.

Trdat, Armenian architect. When Hagia Sophia in Constantinople was damaged by an earthquake in 989, Trdat repaired it, at the request of Emperor Basil II.

Trever. This American scholar photographed in Jerusalem in 1947 the freshly discovered Qurnran-scrolls. Professor Sukenik recognized on the photos that the scrolls were from the time round Christ.

Trephillo, bishop of Nicosia, St. He visited as pilgrim the Holy Land round 320. He died 370. The Mart. Rom. has his memory on June 13.

Tribunus, Johannes Tribunus. He died on the 25th of the month Dustros, in the first indiction, year 414 (era of Eleutheropolis). The date corresponds to the year 613 CE. The tombstone (Nr 16) is in the Museum of the Flagellation in Via Dolorosa. The stone was found in Beersheva. (Revue Biblique, 1903, p. 247)

Tripoli (Lebanon). In 1289 Tripoli was taken by the Mamluks. (April 26) Seven Franciscans, and members of the Dominican Order, and Sisters Poor Clares were killed.

Tristam H. B., zoologist. He identified new species of animals, when he visited Masada in 1863.

Trojani. See Caterina Trojani (1813-1887)

Trophimus, one of the 70 disciples in the Greek list. The Roman Martyrology mentions on Dec 29: Aries in Gallia, Trophimus. - To this Trophimus St. Paul refers in his second letter to Timotheus: Trophimus, 1 left ill at Miletus. - Trophimus was from Ephesus, he accompagned Paul to Jerusalem. After the first captivity at Rome, Paul journeyed with Trophimus through Asia and left him ill at Miletus. -- The Melkite liturgy has on April 14: memory of Aristarchus (from Thessalonica), of Pudens (from Rome), of Trophimus (from Ephesus).

Trophimus of Antioch. Together with Savatius and Dorymedon, he bore witness for Christ. The three were brought before Vicarius, the Governor of Antioch. They were executed in Antioch in 278. In the Greek liturgy, feast on Sept 19. (Compare Dorymedon, Savatius)

Trouvelot, French. He was in 1958 the architect for the Latin community in repairing the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Tryphaena. Deposit of her relics in the Church of the Apostles on Mount of Olives, May 9.

Turribus, Sanctus, episcopus Asturicensis. He came to Palestine round 405 (AA.SS. Oct 29).

Tutela, martyr. See: Chryspolitus. Memory on May 12.

Twain Mark, American author. He visited Jerusalem in 1867 and wrote about this trip his book 'Innocents Abroad'(1869).

Twelve Apostles. The Greek liturgy has their feast on June 30. Their names: Simon Peter; Andrew, the brother of Peter. Andrew is surnamed Protoclitos, the First-Called; James, son of Zebedee; John, the brother of James. (John is called the evangelist, the theologian); Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas, the doubter, also called Didymus; Matthew, the publican and the evangelist. He is called Levi James, son of Alphaeus; Jude, called Lebbaeus and Thaddeus Simon the Canaenite or the Zealot; Matthias, who was elected to succeed Judas Iscarioth.

Twelve apostles 'sitting' on twelve thrones. They are mentioned in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Oct 6. Does the memory refer to a church on the westshore of the Lake of Tiberias? There the Commemoratorium de Casis Dei (round 808) mentions a church of the 'Twelve thrones'. There was a table (mensa, rockplate) where the Lord sat down with his disciples at the multiplication of the loaves. (Compare Tabgha)

Twelve ladies, martyrs. See: Theodosia, mother.

Twelve Magi. Syrian and Armenian tradition sometimes have 12 Magi (Kings) (Bruce M. Metzger, Names for the Nameless).

Twelve Prophets. Their memory in the Church of the Resurrection on Dec 4, according to the Georgian liturgy. The twelve minor prophets are: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Abdia (Obadiah), Jonas, Michea (Micah), Nahum, Habacuc (Habakkuk), Sophonia (Zephaniah), Aggai (Haggai), Zacharia (Zechariah), Malachia (Malachi). Since all the 12 Minor Prophets can be written on one scroll in the Hebrew Bible, they are considered a single book, called by the Aramaic word 'The Twelve'. - The name 'Minor' prophets goes back to St. Augustine, who distinguished the 12 shorter prophetic books as prophetae minores from the four longer books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremia, Ezechiel, and Daniel.

Twelve women and Tutela. They were martyred under Emperor Maximianus (305-311) because they had buried Chryspolitus and Barontius. (See: Chryspolitus)

Twenty monks, martyred in St. Sabas in 797. Their martyrdom has been described by Stephen of Mar Sabas, the Wonderworker.

Twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse (4, 4). They do not resemble the elders of the primitive Church. They are a heavenly divine council, formed on the analogy of the Old Testament council of elders and the representation of the heavenly council in such passages as 1 Kings 22, 19; Ps 89, 2. The number 24 may be derived from the 24 classes of priests and levites (1 Ch 24, 5). The Eastern Church venerates the 24 elders of the Apocalypse on Nov 24.

Two anonymous Franciscans, confessors, round 1250, in Syria. The Martyrologium Franciscanum has their memory on Sept 27.

Two German religious men. They pilgrimated in 1333 to Jerusalem. (Dr. Ferdinand Khull)

Two Knights, who returned from the Crusade, erected in Brugge (Belgium) the Tomb of Christ in a church. The Church received the name of Jerusalem-Church.

Two robbers, who were crucified with Jesus. The robber (penitent robber), on the right hand, is very often called Dismas. The robber on the left side, the non-penitent robber, is called Gestas. (Bruce M. Metzger, Names for the nameless in the New Testament)

Two shepherds: Legend names them Arnias and Lekotes.

Tychicus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Colophon, Asia, in the Greek list. The Mart. Rom. mentions on April 29: Tychicus, near Paphos, Cypria. He was a disciple of Paul, he appears as the bearer of Paul's letter to the Ephesians (Eph 6, 21) and to the Colossians (Col 4, 7).

Tychicus, another of the 70 disciples, bishop of Chalcedon, Asia Minor, according to the Greek list.

Tyrannius, bishop and martyr. He was martyred in Tyre (Phoenicia, Lebanon), together with the bishops Silvanus, Peleus, Nilus and with the priest Zenobius, under Emperor Diocletian (283-314). The Martyrologium Romanum has the feast on Feb 20. The AA.SS. give the year 310 for the death of Tyrannius, bishop of Tyre.

Tyre. The Franciscans were at Tyre (Lebanon) before 1255, according to a letter of Pope Alexander IV, which was dated March 1, 1255. The Franciscans were expelled from Tyre in 1291. They returned in 1866.


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