A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Saada Gabriel Abu, Mgr. He was Melkite bishop in Jerusalem till his death in 1965. A bronze bust of Saada stands before the Church of the Melkites in Beit-Sahur, near Bethlehem.

Sabas, Isaias, and 36 companions, Martyrs in Sinai, 303. (AA.SS. Jan 14)

Sabas, monk. He was born in Moutalaski near Caesarea, Cappadocia, in 439. As a youth he became a disciple of Euthymius the Great. After living for years as a solitary, he founded in 478 a ]aura east of Bethlehem. In 493 Sabas was given the jurisdiction over all Palestinian monks. He went twice to Constantinople, in 511 and 532. He died at the [aura of St. Sabas on Dec 5, 532. He is surnamed Sabas the Syrian. His relics were brought back from Italy in 1968 with permission of Pope Paul VI. Greek and Latin liturgy have his feast on Dec 5. In St. Sabas' monastery is on July 19 the memory of Michael and Theodorus, his uncle. (martyred by the Persians in 614). On March 20. is the memory of Johannes, Sergius, Patricius, and 17 companions (martyred in 797 by the Arabs). On May 16 is the memory of the 49 monks of St. Sabas' convent, who were murdered by the Persians. Under Soliman II (1537-1541) thousands (?) of its anchorets were killed (Radzvil).

Convent of Mar (Saint) Sabas. The permission to visit the Convent of Mar Sabas, must be obtained in the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, in the forenoon. Women are not allowed to enter the Convent of St. Sabas. Women can view the buildings from the Women's Tower.

Four lauras of St. Sabas: The Great Laura (today St. Sabas in the lower Cedron valley) founded in 483; the New Laura (it was begun by Origenistic monks in 507); the Laura Heptastomos (Seven fountains) in 512; the Laura of Jeremias in 531.

Monasteries founded by St. Sabas: Castellion on Jebel Muntar, in 492; Monastery of Nicopolis (Amwas) in 508, during the voluntary exile of Sabas; Spelaion (Spelonca) in 509; Scolarios in 510; Zannos in 513.

St. Sabas'Church in Ruga Armenorum in Jerusalem. This church is mentioned by John of Würzburg in 1165.

Sabas of Kalymnos. After he became a monk, he lived in the skete of St. Anne on Mount Athos. He went to Palestine where he stayed for seventeen years in the monastery of SS. John and George of Choziba, and from there he went to the monastery of St. Sabas. In Jerusalem he cooperated with Chrysostomus Papadopoulos. Upon his return to Greece, he lived near Nektariu6 in Aegina until the death of Nektarius. Then he went for several years to Patmos, and the last years he spent in Kalymnos, where he died in 1948. He was canonized by the Greek Church in 1958.

Sabas of Serbia. He was born in 1175 in Tirnovo as the third son of King Stephen 1 Nemaya. He secretly became a monk on Mount Athos in 1191. In 1219 he was consecrated as the first archbishop of the Serbs by the Byzantine Patriarch. He established a hospice for Serbian pilgrims in Jerusalem and at Mount Sinai. He died in 1235. (Greek liturgy, Jan 14).

Sabatini Salvatore da Pizzoli (Italy) (1875-1920). This Franciscan Father was murdered on Jan 23, 1920 at Mugiuk Deresi (Armenia) by the Turks. - An autograph letter of him is conserved in the Museum of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

Sabbatino, Blessed. He accompanied St. Francis to the East in 1219 and he returned with St. Francis in 1220. Sabbatino died in Rome round 1249.

Sabbatino, Franciscan in Armenia. He was baptized in the Armenian convent of Kegard (lance). In this convent, according to tradition, the lance which pierced the heart of Christ, is conserved. - Sabbatino, still an infant, wore the habit of St. Anthony of Padua.

Sabinus, priest. His memory is on April 29. Sabinus appears in the company of S. Andrew, the Apostle, because he founded a chapel in honour of S. Andrew in the Church of the Apostles (Apostoleion). This memory is particular to Jerusalem. Sabinus is mentioned also on July 20. The 'House of the priest Sabinus' is mentioned on Sept 11 in the lectionary of Paris. This house seems to have been an annex to the Church of the Apostles on the Mount of Olives.

Sacquegna of Lecce. He fabricated in 1913-14 the papier-mâché representations in the Chapel of the 2nd Station (Jesus takes up his Cross), Via Dolorosa.

Saewulf, anglo-saxon pilgrim. (1102). He mentions the column of the Flagellation, inside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. He is the first to give St. Peter's the additional name of St. Peter's in Gallicantu. Seawulf supposes the 10th Station (Jesus is derobed) as prior to the Crusades and near to Calvary. This 'nearness' is recalled by the Armenian Chapel 'Division of the Garments' which is to the east of Calvary inside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Satrira, daughter of Moses the prophet. Her martyrdom (?) is, according to the Ethiopian Synaxarium, on Nahasse 12. In the Bodleian MS, this saint is called Afra, and the nativity of Moses is commemorated.

Said Alexander. Near Beth-Shearim (House of Gates) a mound bears the equestrian statue of Saint Alexander, who lost his life here. Beth-Shearim is about 15 kms west of Nazareth. Beth-Shearim housed the Sanhedrin for many years. The catacombs on the slope of the mount shows inscriptions in Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Palmyrene.

Saidnaya. The Greek Convent Saidnaya inside the Old City of Jerusalem honours the Blessed Virgin of Saidnaya, a site 35 kms. north of Damascus.

Saint Frai, Mlle (1816-1894). This lady of Tarbes (France) founded the Sisters of Notre Dame des Douleurs. These Sisters run a Home for the Aged at Bethany.

Saint Omer (town in France). A young man of St. Omer came to Palestine in the 12th century. (Joh. mon., Miracula S. Bernardi Poenit., c. IV, n. 42) (AA.SS. April 19)


Saint Abraham, Hebron, EI Khaill. It was the capital of the Seigneurie of St. Abraham under the Crusaders. They made Hebron a bishopric in 1168. The cathedral in the Haram was built in 1171-172. Saladin conquered EI Khalil after the battle of Hattin in 1187. He brought Nur ad-Din's pulpit (minbar) frorn Ascalon to the Haram. The pulpit is still in situ in the Haram.

St. Brocard, Ed Deir, Ein es-Sih. (Compare Brocardus St. on Mount Carmel).

St. Elias, Mount Carmel. The present Carmelite monastery occupies the site of the Greek monastery of St. Margaret. This site was a place of pilgrimage in Crusader times. The Carmelite Fathers then had a hermitage around the chapel of St. Simon Stock (of Kent) below the actual light-house.

St. Euthymius, Khan-el-Ahmar (the Red Khan). The convent was in the 12th century, during the Crusades, still occupied by Eastern Orthodox or Greek monks. (Compare Samaritan, Good Samaritan)

St. George de Labeyne, El-Bi'na. This locality was named in the Crusaders' time after a Benedictine abbey (Deir el Assad). The village Bi'na is on the north side on the way Acre to Safad. The church is dedicated to St. Barbara. In the valley is a spring, where stood the Crusader Church of St. George.

St. Gillis, village of Sinjil. The village is to the west side (= left) of the way Jerusalem to Nablus, about 40 Kms north of Jerusalem. (Compare: Raymond de Saint Gilles)

St Johan de Sabaste (Sabastya). The ruined cathedral in honour of St. John the Baptist in Sebaste (Samaria) is transformed in a mosque.

St. John de Tire (Tirat Karmel). The site is named after a Greek abbey with a miraculous shrine. The place was probably held by the Templars of Chastiau Pélerin. - Bir el Kaniseh (Fountain of the Church) is a covered well, close to the site where in the Middle Ages was the hamlet Capharnaum-by-the-sea. (Mediterranean Sea). St. John de Tire is about 10 Kms south of Haifa.

St. John's Ford, Qasr al Yahud, Jews' Castle. This traditional place of Jesus' baptism at the West-bank of the Jordan is near the monastery of the Greek-Orthodox. The Templars occupied there a fortified post.

St. John in the Woods = Ain Karem. The Franciscan Church in the valley (village) is over a Crusader Church. The sanctuary recalls the birth of John the Baptist. The church on top of the hill remembers the 'Meeting of Mary with Elizabeth' (Luke 1, 11-80).

St. Jorge de Lidde, Lydda, Ludd, Lod. The Crusaders had at St. Jorge de Lidde the seat of their first bishop in 1099. The Church of St. George was restored by the Crusaders. (Compare: St. George of Lydda and Abu Ghosh).

St. Lazarus, Bethanie, Bethany, El-Azariya. The Benedictine nunnery was founded by Queen Melisend, wife of King Fulk, for her sister Juveta or Judith (Yvette). Melisend erected a tower for the protection of the place. The Canons of the Holy Sepulchre had first ceded in 1138 the church at St. Lazarus to the Benedictine nuns of St. Anne's. Yvette was abbess from 1157 to 1178.

Saints, painted at the repair of 1169, on the columns of the Basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem: Macarius, Anthony, Leonard, Cosmas, Damian, Stephen, John the Baptist, Margaret, Cataldus, Olaf of Norway. (This list is not complete).

Saints were raised and coming out of their tombs after Jesus' resurrection, entered the HOLY city and appeared to a number of people (Mt 27, 52. 53). At the Vespers of Great Saturday, the Melkite liturgy names: priest Jeremias, prophet Ezechiel, prophet Daniel, the blessed Zachariah and John the Baptist.

Salama, Abba. Surname for Frumentius.

Salaphta, virgin. Her name means Peace. Her baptism and her life in the monastery are described in the Life of Porphyrius of Gaza. Perhaps Salaphta is referred to by the name Pax, St. on Oct. 21, in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Salesian Fathers. They were founded in 1868 by John Bosco. They came to Palestine in 1891. They have an orphanage and school in Bethlehem (foundations of Belloni in 1863); an Agricultural School in Beit-Jimal (founded by Belloni in 1878). They have in Cremisan near Beit-Jala a winery and a Theological School. The School and the Church of Jesus Adolescent at Nazareth (French property) are directed by the Salesian Fathers.

Salesian Sisters. They were founded by St. John Bosco and by St. Maria Mazzarello (1837-1881). The Salesian Sisters came to Palestine in 1894. They opened in 1959 their Noviciate for the Middle East at Cremisan near Beit-Jala.

Saller Sylvester, Franciscan. Born in Michigan Oct 25, 1895; died at Jerusalem, Jan 22, 1976. He excavated the shrines of Mount Nebo, of Ain-Karem, Bethany, and Dominus Flevit on Mount of Olives. -On the first Friday of October 1972 he inaugurated the series of Friday-Talks at the Convent of the Flagellation. Out of his diary he gave the talk 'Nine months on Mount Tabor'. He placed in 1944 a tablet on Mount Tabor in memory of Mt 28, 16 'that the Risen Jesus appeared to his disciples on a mountain of Galilee'. Theodosius (in 530) located this apparition on Mount Tabor.

Sallustius, bishop of Jerusalem (486-494) July 23. He has his feast in the Church of the Disciples on July 24, according to the Georgian liturgy. The Greek synaxaries do not mention him. Sallustius obliged Sabas to take Holy Orders. Sallustius succeeded Martyrius (479-493) and was succeeded by Elias in 494.

Salome (Mary Salome), St. Her feast in on Oct 22 in Mart. Rom. She was the wife of Zebedee and mother of the apostles James, the Greater, and John. She stood by the cross of Jesus and took part in His burial (Mk 15, 40; 16, 1). She asked that her sons might sit, one on the right hand of Jesus and one on the left in His Kingdom (Mt 20, 20). - On Oct 22, the Franciscan Community of Nazareth makes a pilgrimage to the village of Yafa, 5 kms south of Nazareth, and celebrates Holy Mass in the Chapel of St. James. Yafa is inhabited by Moslems and by Christians (Greek-Orthodox, Latins, Melkites).

Salome, the sister of our Holy Lady, the Virgin Mary. Salome is 'saluted' by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 25th of Genbot. This Salome made bold to touch the seal of Mary's virginity, and her fingers were burned by divine fire; but as soon as she touched the Child Jesus, she was healed, and her fingers became as before. She sometimes carried Jesus in her arms during the flight to Egypt. She saw Him on the day of His Resurrection, before the Apostles saw him. In the Upper Room of Sion, the Holy Spirit came down upon her and the holy women.

Salome, the daughter of the sister of Our Lady Mary. The Ethiopian Synaxarium relates on the 8th of Sane: Joseph rose up, and took our holy Lady, the Virgin Mary, and her Child, and Salome, the daughter of the sister of Our Lady, and they came to Egypt, and to Dabra Kueskuarn (or Ayn es Shems, the fountain of the Sun) (Heliopolis). And Our Lord Jesus made this fountain of water to spring up, when He was with His mother, and it exists to this day.

Salome, the dancing daughter of Herodias.

Salome, the wife of Lazarus. See Lazarus, the teacher of the Law.

Salomes, St., and Judith, St. In the 9th till the 11th century, round 1080 (?) they came to Palestine. (Monachus Altah., Vita SS. Sal. et Jud., c. II, n. 13) (AA.SS. June 29)

Salomon. See: Solomon.

Salos. See: Symeon Sallus.

Salvator Lilli, Franciscan. He was born in 1853 in Italy. He was ordained a priest at Bethlehem in 1878. He worked as parish priest in Mugiuk Deresi (Lesser Armenia). There he was killed, together with other Christians, on Nov 22, 1895, by Turks, who persecuted the Armenians.

Salvatorian Sisters. They were founded in Tivoli, Rome by the Blessed Mary of the Apostles (Baroness Teresa of Wollenweher, 1833-1907). The Sisters came to Beit-Sahur in 1958. They follow in the Holy Land the Melkite rite. They have also a house in Nazareth, they run a Home for Aged Persons in Emmaus (El-Qubeibeh).

Salvius (Fontain of Salvius). See: Anastasius the Persian.

Saizman. He made the interior decorations of the new cupola which was built in 1868 over the Rotunda of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. The repairs were done by France as protector of the Latin Church and by Russia as protector of the Orthodox Church.

Samaria. 1480 Martyrs of Samaria at the Persian invasion of 614, are commemorated in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

Samaritan Traveller (Good Samaritan). The inn 'Good Samaritan' is at Maleh Adommin (the slope of the Bloods (plural). The site was called by the Crusaders Maldouin, or Chastel Rouge. The Arabic name is Talat el Damm (Ascent of the Blood (singular). There was a fortress of the Templars in the 12th century. - Khan el-Hatrura is to the north side (left side) of the road that descends from Jerusalem to Jericho. The Biblical name Maaleh Adommim (slope of the bloods) is related to the iron oxide with its red colour. An old legend places at Maaleh Adommim the capture of King Zedekiah by the Babylonians. (Compare Zedekiah's Cave). - The site is the scene of the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10, 25-37): a Jewish traveller was wounded by robbers. The Jewish wounded man was not helped by a Jewish priest, nor by a Jewish levite. Then a Samaritan traveller came along and he brought the wounded man to an inn and paid for him the expenses.

Samaritan woman. Legend gives her the name Photina, and mentions her 5 sisters and her 2 sons. Greek liturgy: Feb 26.

Samson, a judge in Israel. He is saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Magabit 30. Samson lifted up (Judges 16, 3) the gates of the city of Gaza. He transported them, according to a local tradition, to Jebel Muntar, southeast of Gaza. The strength of Samson was in his hair. Samson put his arms round the two middle pillars supporting a temple-building in Gaza, and he died under its ruins. Samson was called a Nazarite. - When Samson killed Philistines with the jawbone of an ass, he was helped by the archangel Michael. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Yakatit 12)

Samuel Joshua Anastasios. This Syrian Orthodox Archbishop in Jerusalem bought in 1947 some Dead Sea Scrolls and brought them to the United States. They were bought there by Israel.

Samuel, martyr of Alexandria. He was beheaded in Caesarea, Palestine, in 309 under Emperor Galerius (305-311), together with Elias, Jeremias, Isaias, Daniel. Feast on Feb 16.

Samuel, prophet. To him Yahweh revealed that the young man who inquired about the lost asses of his father, was the king whom Yahweh had chosen for Israel. Samuel anointed Saul king. The ghost of Samuel was, on request of Saul, called up by the with of Endor in Galilee. Saul consulted this witch before the battle of Gilboa against the Philistines. The Roman martyrology and the Armenian liturgy have the memory of Samuel on Aug 20. Jews and Moslems and Christians venerate Samuel in the shrine Nebi Samuel (895 m.) The hill on which the shrine stands, was called by medieval pilgrims Mons Gaudii (Mountain of Joy), Montjoie, because from that hill the pilgrims had their first view of Jerusalem. Baldwin II (1118-1131) gave the place to the Canons Regular of Premontré, who rebuilt the church with a monastery under the name of St. Samuel of Montjoie. After the fall of Jerusalem (1187) a synagogue is mentioned in the 13th and 15th cent.; the site passed into the hands of the Moslems in the 16th century. A mosque was built in the 18th century, then was erected a cenotaph (memorial) and the shrine retained the name of Nebi Samwil.

Sancia (Sancha), queen of Naples, wife of Robert d'Anjou. Two papal bulls of 1343 (Clemens VI) report that 'after difficult negotiations and huge expenses' between the Sovereigns of Naples and the Sultan of Egypt, Malek al, Nasir Mohammed, the Franciscans took possession of the Cenacle of the Lord, the Chapel of the Descent of the Holy Ghost, the Chapel of the Apparition of the Risen Jesus, and around these sanctuaries Queen Sancia built a convent for 12 friars and 3 lay brothers. - It was probably round 1336 that the Franciscans took over-possession of the shrines. Sancia died in 1345. The Franciscan Martyrology remembers her on July 28. (Compare Roger Garin)

Sandys George. He was the son of the Archbishop of York (England), he visited Palestine in 1611, and wrote: Jerusalem is inhabited by Christians out of their devotion; and by Turks for the benefits received from Christians, otherwise perhaps it would be generally abandoned.

Sankt Marien zu Jerusalem. This Order was founded in 1218 in the castle of Aldenbiezen (near Tongeren) in Belgium. The device was: Helpen en Genezen (To help and to cure). In 1979 the Order had 520 members, they are helped by 400 Families and by honour-knights. The Order at Aidenbiezen belonged to the German Group of the Hospital(l)ers. (Compare: Teutonic Order)

Sanuto Marino of Italy. He remarks the two flagstones in the Arch that overspans near to the Second Station, the Via Dolorosa. Fabri (1485) tells us that Jesus was standing on one flagstone, and Pilate at the other flagstone and that these two flagstones had been placed above the Arch by the fidels. Anselm of Krakow (1507) writes: the two flagstones were bought by a certain Franciscan Guardian (=Superior of the Franciscans), who fixed them above the Arch.

Sarah, wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac. She is named among the 'Just of the Old Testament' on the first Sunday of Advent in the Eastern Church. Her cenotaph (empty tomb) is opposite that of Abraham in the Haram at Hebron. Sarah is honoured with a salutation to the womb of Sarah. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Nahasse 26)

Sardis, Provincial Council of Sardis in 347, proclaimed the supremacy of the See of Rome. In the North (= left) side above the architrave (main horizontal beam, resting immediately on capital of columns) in the Basilica of Nativity in Bethlehem are represented six provincial councils. Seven general Councils are to the South side. The texts of the Councils were drawn up at the same time in Latin and in Greek.

Sareptha, widow of Sareptha (Saraphta) See: Zarephath.

Sarkis, Armenian Patriarch. He was in office in 1311 and played a role in preserving the independence of the Armenian Patriarchate in Jerusalem, when Palestine came under Mameluke rule. Non Armenian historians consider Sarkis as the first Armenian Patriarch in Jerusalem. The Armenians pretend the first was Arsen in 1006. - The Armenian church of St. Sarkis is since 1976 under construction on Mount Sion. The dedication stone (khatchkar) of an anonymous Armenian pilgrim of the 18th century, is inserted in a wall of this church.

Saturnine of Jerusalem, penitent and abbess. The Ethiopian Synaxarium salutes her on the 6th of Hamle (the 11th month, July 5 - Aug 3): on this day Saturnina died. She was of the people of Jerusalem, and previously was a sinner. She turned to God and became an abbess. She died in peace. Salutation to Saturnina.

Saturninus, St., martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, in 303. His memory, together with Lupus, is on Oct 14 in the Roman Martyrology.

Saul, the King. He consulted a witch at Endor, before the battle against the Philistines (1 Sam 28). His army was defeated; Saul and his three sons were killed in this battle near Mount Gilboa. Two accounts (1 Sam 31; 2 Sam 1) of his death agree that is was suicidal. One account makes it self-inflicted, the other account represents it at the request of Saul to a passerby. Saul is not venerated in a Christian liturgy.

Savary François, count of Brèves, minister of France. He contacted, without success, Sultan Mehmed III (1595-1603), in Constantinople (Moschopoulos, Terre Sainte, p. 165). Savary went personally to Jerusalem, before returning to France. With a bribe of 6000 florins to the Turkish judges, he obtained in favour of the Latins some rights on Calvary, which were not foreseen in the Capitulations of 1604 (Zinkeisen J., Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, T. III, p. 824)

Savatius. Together with Dorymedon and Trophimus, he suffered martyrdom in Antioch in 278 under Vicarius, the governor. The Greek liturgy has the feast on Sept 19.

Savignac R. This French scholar visited the ruins of Sobota in 1905.

Savoy (House of Savoy) and Mount Sion. On Thursday of the Holy Week 1928 (April 5) the prince of Italy, Umberto of Savoy, visited the Holy Cenacle at Jerusalem. To protest against claims of the House of Savoy on Mount Sion, the Moslems laid carpets in the Upper Room (the Cenacle), declaring the room a mosque; afterwards they erected before the central window a mihrab, a prayer-niche, directed to the south, to Mecca. (Terra Santa, 1928, p. 84-87; 89-99)

Saxon. An anonymous Saxon visited the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai, in the 13th century. (Analecta Bollandiana, Cat. cod. hag. Brux. 11, 165-166)

Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs) in Rome. Tradition tells: A part of the stone stairs that led down from Gabbatha to the Via Dolorosa, is conserved under the wooden stairs (scala sancta) in Rome. Pope Sixtus V had it transferred to the Chapel 'Scala Sancta'. This Chapel was built by Fontana in 1585-1590.

Scandinavian Seamen's Church (Lutheran) in Haifa, founded 1949.

Scandar, Abouna. (1841-1915) In 1876 he opened the Latin mission of Kerak. In 1880 he directed the emigration of Christians from Kerak to Madaba. He returned to Kerak and founded there the Latin parish.

Schick Conrad. German architect and archaeologist. He worked for Deutscher Palaestina Verein, round 1850. He explored Herod's Family Tomb in 1891; Golden Gate; Gilhon spring. He published in 1880 the Siloam-tunnel inscription. He excavated in 1887 for the Greek community at Mount of Olives. The street, east of Nablus Road, leading to the Garden Tomb, is called after Dr. Schick.

Herod's Cave (Tomb of the Herodian family). The site belongs to the Greek-Orthodox Church. The tomb is west of Gehennah-valley. Probably the tomb was the burial place for members of the Herodian family. (Herod himself is buried at the Herodium-Fortress, east of Bethlehem). A huge rolling stone is just inside the entrance of Herod's Cave at Jerusalem.

Schiapparelli Ernesto. (died 1928). He founded Associazione Nazionale per soccorrere i Missionari Italiani. This Society built in 1936-38 the octagonal chapel on the Mount of the Beatitudes. Antonio Barluzzi was the architect. The shrine is run by the Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Italian sisters).

Schindler Oskar (1908-1974). During World War II (1939-1945) he saved 1200 Jews in Poland. After the war, he emigrated from Germany to Argentine. In 1956 he returned to his homeland, Germany. In 1962 he was honoured by Israel as one of the 'Righteous of the Nations'. He died in Hildesheim. By his will he was buried at Jerusalem on the Latin cemetery on Mount Sion. The burial was under the assistance of Father Pax E., chaplain for the Germans.

Schmidt Wilhelm. This German Lazarist Father was in 1889 director of a girls-school in West Jerusalem. Afterwards the school was transferred to St.. Paul's hospice in East Jerusalem, outside Damascus Gate, Nablus Road. The school is named Schmidt Girls' College. It is run by the German Sisters of St. Ch. Borromaeus.

Schmitz Ernst, German Lazarist Father. He founded in 1908, in the newly built St Paul's Hospice, which houses the Schmidt Girls's College, a museum, in which fauna of Palestine is exhibited.

Schneider P.L. This German acquired in 1876 a plot to the west of the Franciscan Church of Emmaus. He ceded it in 1883 to Deutscher Verein vom Heiligen Lande. Actually the house 'Löwenburg' is transformed in a Home for Aged People. Schnelder, Dr. He and Mader A. E. excavated el Tabgha in 1932.

Schneller Johann Ludwig. This German Protestant missionary founded in 1860 in Jerusalem the 'Syrian Waisenhaus', in order to help Christian orphans from Syria, after the revolt of the Druses.

Scholarios (Scholarius). He was a disciple of St. Sabas. He founded the laura of Scholarios at Jebel Muntar in 510 (see John Scolarios)

Schultz Stephan. This German missionary visited Acre in 1754-55. He reports that the Knights of St. John used oil instead of water for the mortar.

Schumacher. Thid traveller (19th century) describes the ruins of Hippos, to the east of the Lake of Galilee.

Scolarios (Scolarius). The monastery Scolarios at Jebel Muntar was founded by this disciple of St. Sabas in 510.

Scopus. On Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, was laid in 1919 the first stone for the Hebrew University.

Scravenrunde. A soldier brought in the 13th century relics of St. Catherina of Alexandria (St Catherina on Mount Sinai) to the monastery of Scravenrunde. (Analecta Boll., Cat. cod, hag. Brux., II, 166-167)

Scythopolis (Beth-Shean). Seventy Martyrs in 452 at Scythopolis. Feast on June 28. (AA.SS.)

Sebaste. (Greek translation of the Latin word Augusta) Herod the Great received the town from Emperor Augustus. Therefore Herod changed its name in Sebaste. In Sebaste lived about 6000 veterans of the Roman armies in the days of Herod. Hundred year later, Sebaste was eclipsed by Neapolis (now Nablus). Neapolis means new city. It was founded in 70 AD as Flavia Neapolis, in honour of Emperor Flavius Vespasianus. - In 1170 king Ludovicus VII made a donation to the Hospitalers of Sebaste in Samaria. (AA.SS. June 24). Omri, the sixth king of Israel, had founded Sebaste.

Sebastian, son of Photine, the Samaritan woman.

Sebeos, Armenian chronicler. Sebeos and the other Armenian chronicler, Thomas Ardzrouni, mention that 'the order was given to count the slain, and that 57000 persons had been slain' (by the Persians in 614 at Jerusalem).

Sela Mérill. He explained in 1902 a part of an aqueduct near Birket Mamillah as belonging to the Gihon Superior (the Upper Pool) of King Hezekiah. (Quarterly Statement, 1903, 157)

Selassie Haile, Emperor of Ethiopia with the title Negus. (1892-1975) See: Haile Selassie.

Seleucus, St. martyr. Under Emperor Galerius (305-311) in Caesarea, Palestine. The feast is on Feb 16.

Sellers. This American excavated, together with Wright, the site of Shechem in 1957-60.

Sellin. This Austrian scholar excavated together with the German Watzinger old Jericho (Tell-es-Sultan) in 1907109. Sellin excavated at Shechern in 1913-14 and in 1926-27.

Sem. Sem was the son of Noah and the father of Kainan (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Paguemen 3). The Jews honour the Cave of Sem and Eber (his grandson) in the southern part of the town of Safed. Arab tradition, preserved in an inscription of 1412, recognises this cave as the tomb of the messenger who brought to Jacob the bloody coat of Joseph.

Sem and Melchisedech. The Ethiopian Synaxariurn has on the 3rd day of the month Paguemen: on this day is celebrated the death of Melchisedech. This man was the son of Kainan, the son of Sem. When Melchisedech was fifteen years, God compelled Noah to send Sem, his son, with the body of Adam and to lay it in the 'middle of the earth', which is called Kranyo (Cranion); and God informed Sem that He would redeem Adam by His blood. And Sem with the boy Melchisedech took the body of Adam from the house of his father in secret, and he went there. And Melchisedech was appointed priest. And when Abraham returned from the war, Abraham gave to Melchisedech tithes of all his possessions, and Melchisedech was appointed priest and king of Salem. Salutation to Melchisedech.

Sema'et Walde Mamher (1884-1902). He was the head of the Ethiopian Community. He built Dabre Gannet (Mount of Paradise), the round church at Ethiopia Street outside the walls. This church was consecrated in 1893. He acquired also the property north of the 8th Station. There he erected in 1901 the residence of the Ethiopian Archbishop.

Seneca and Justus, 9th and 10th bishops of Jerusalem, 2nd cent.

Sepinski Augustinus Josephus. Born at St. Julien-les-Metz (France) June 26, 1900. Died Dec 31, 1978. He was the General of the Franciscan Order from 1951 to 1965. He was Apostolic Delegate in Jerusalem from Feb 2, 1966 to 1969. Then he became Nuntius Apostolicus in Urugay. In 1975, at the age of 75, he left this office and retired to Naples.

Sepp Johannes Nepomocenus. This scholar donated in 1861 seven paintings of Pacher Friedrich to the Franciscan convent of Tiberias. Sepp wrote 'Neue Entdeckungen auf der zweiten Palaestinafahrt' München, 1896.

Septemius of Lycaonia. Together with Jerusalem of Lycaonia and Fortunatus, he suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution (284-313). After severe tortures he was beheaded in Ailouri in 294. In the Greek liturgy, his feast is on April 16.

Sepulchre, Dedication of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, on Sept 13 in the Greek liturgy. Jesus was crucified outside the walls, in a quarry. The quarry was already out of use in the days of the crucifixion. A rocky knoll on the east slope of this quarry was named in the Hebrew language Golgotha. The Greek translation is given by John 19, 17 'kraniou topos', place of a (the) skull. The Latin translation is Calvaria. The rock had a hollow, a grotto. The roof of this grotto was cleft by a fissure. Probably the fissure was from an earthquake (Mt 27, 51-52). It may be that the fissure existed already before the days of Jesus. According to a legend -the legend perhaps antedates Christ - the skull of Adam was buried in Jerusalem. Perhaps Paul refers to this or such a legend in his letter to the Romans: Christ is a second Adam, and Christ died for Jews and Romans alike. (Rom 5, 1-15). - The burial cave of Jesus was in the garden on the west slope of the same quarry. King Herod Agrippa I (41-44) included the quarry in an enlarged town. Hadrian, the Emperor (117-138) filled the quarry and laid over Calvary and over the tomb a forum with pagan statues.

By the edict of Milan in 313, Christianity became a religio licita (a religion which was legally recognized). The Christians reclaimed the spot of Calvary and of the Tomb. The Basilica was dedicated in 335, on Sept 13. The date of September 13 came in the place on which the Roman temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been dedicated. The Basilica was damaged by the Persians in 614. It was restored by the patriarch Modestus. Caliph Omar in 638 respected the church. Caliph Hakem in 1010 damaged the Sepulchre of Christ. An earthquake in 1034 damaged the building. Emperor Constantine Monomachus of Constantinople restored the basilica in 1042. In 1099 the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem. An earthquake caused damages in 1105. The Crusaders began a restoration in 1135. It was finished in 1149.

The Russian hegumen Daniel describes the Tomb in 1109-10. He mentions a turret above the Edicule, that covers the tomb. The turret bears a cupola, that is covered with scales (plates) in gilded silver. And above the cupola is an ikon (figure, painting?) in massive silver. This was the work of the Franks (Crusaders). A tile that corresponds to the description as it is given by Daniel, is in the Chapel of Etchmiadzin in the Armenian Church of St. James. Replica of this tile can be purchased in the Armenian Pottery, which is opposite the 6th Station on the Via Dolorosa.

Liberation of the Holy Sepulchre, on July 15, 1099 by the Crusaders. The liberation happened on a Friday at 3 p. m. Yearly at July 15, the Latin Patriarchate recalls the liberation. Holy Sepulchre is also the titulus of the Concathedral of the Latin Patriarchate.

Broken marble-plate that covers the tomb of Christ. Rindfleisch Peter (1498) mentions already the fissure. (Röhricht, Pilgerreisen, Berlin, 1860, p. 333)

Serafin of Novara. He belonged to the Franciscan Province of Sicily. He died in 1677, at the age of 60 years, on May 3, the feast of the Invention of the Cross.

Serapion. Together with Paula, Jerome, Marcella, on Aug 28 in the Georgian lectionary.

Serbs. In 1623, they sold their convent of the Archangel St. Michael to the Greek-Orthodox. St. Michael is the actual St. Francis Street. (For Map of Greek Convents, see: Mertens A, What, when, where in the Holy Land, 1977, p. 54)

Serenus, pseudo. episcopus of Jerusalem. He ended his office in 415. (AA.SS. June 7)

Serge, Grandduke of Moscow. See: Mary Magdalen, Church in Gethsemane.

Sergios, Armenian monk. He came from Palestine. He lived at the court of the Mongols, where he rendered services in 1254 to William of Ruisbroeck.

Sergios, bishop of Madaba. A mosaic from the year 578-579 in the Church of the Apostles at Madaba refers to bishop Sergios. (Noth M. Mosaikinschriften der Apostelkirche in Madaba, in Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina Vereins, 84, 1968, p. 131). Sergios is also mentioned at Madaba in an inscription in the Chapel of St. Elias (inscription from 595196). He is mentioned in an inscription of 597 in the baptistry of Ras es Siyaga (Mount Nebo).

Sergios, St., soldier. Sergios and his brother Bacchus. Sergius was in command of the 'Schola Gentilium' in the army, and Bacchus was his second in command. Bacchus refused to sacrifice and he was beaten to death. Sergius was made to run by the chariot of commander Antiochus for many miles with nails in his shoes, and finally given a soldier's death by the sword. It happened at Rosapha, afterwards called Sergiopolis, probably in 297, when Galerius, after his victory over the Persians, persecuted the Christians in the Roman army. Later Galerius became Emperor. (Elinor A. Moore, Some Soldier Martyrs of the early Christian Church in East-Jordan and Syria. 1964, Beirut)

An ikon of Sergios and his brother Bacchus. It is in the Greek Orthodox Church of the Forty Martyrs, near Holy Sepulchre.

Convent of Sergios. It was two miles from Bethlehem. It was surnamed Xeropotamos (Dry River). The site is actually named Tantur. The convent is mentioned in Pratum Spirituale, PG. 87, 3053.

Sergius, patriarch. June 15 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. There are Sergius I. and Sergius II. as patriarchs of Jerusalem. The date of the death of both Sergius is unknown. Sergius I was patriarch round 843 to 850. Sergius II was patriarch from Oct 7, 906 to round 911. - Sergius II, Leontius, Anastasius, Christodorus I, Agathonus, Johannes VI, Christodorus II, Thomas II, Joseph: patriarchs of Jerusalem between 907 to 980 (AA.SS. May, Prop.).

Sergiy of Odessa. This Metropolitan led a group of six Russian Orthodox clergymen from the Sovjet Union to the Holy Land for the Easter-pilgrimage in 1977 (Easter for the Orthodox Church was in Jerusalem on the same date as for the Latin Church, Sunday, April 10, 1977). It was the Russians' first visit to Israel. Representatives of the Russian Church generally pay a visit to the Holy Land during the time of Pentecost.

Seridion (Seridon) Monastery near Gaza, whose hegumen was Seridus. In Serid(i)on lived Dositheus and Dorotheus.

Seridus. Unter abbot Seridus, Vitalius left the monastery of Gaza to convert the licentious women in the harbour of Alexandria. It was during the patriarchate of John the Almoner (610-619). (Vitalius has his feast on Jan 11)

Seth, son of Adam and Eve, with whom Jahweh 'replaced' the slain Abel. Seth is the father of Enosh (Gen 4, 25). -Seth ministered (i.e. officiated as a priest) to the body of our father Adam, until the flood came. Then Noah took Adam's body into the ark (Syn. Eth. 6th of Miyazya) (Compare: Sem)

Seven Maccabees brothers. Boniface of Ragusa (Boniface Stefani) in 1573 mentions the Church of the Seven Maccabees brothers at Amwas.

Seven Shepherds: See Shepherds.

Seven Sleepers at Ephesus. Their feast is on Oct 22. They were placed in a grotto. The grotto was then walled up. This was done by Optimus, proconsul of Asia, under Emperor Decius, round 250. Legend tells that the seven men slept during 300 years, and then awakened for a time. The legend has been adopted in the Koran (Sourate al Kahf, Sourate XVIII, 13-18). The Melkite liturgy has 'the seven sleepers' and 'mother Eudocia 'on Aug 4. This Eudocia is not the mother of the seven sleepers. This Eudocia is venerated in the Melkite liturgy, also on March 1. The Ethiopian Synaxarium 'salutes' the seven sleepers on Ter 13.

Seventy disciples (Luke 10, 1). A Greek list names the 70 disciples. The first ten are: James, brother of the Lord and son of Joseph, Simon, who was the second bishop of Jerusalem (62-107); Matthias, chosen by lot in the place of Judas; James Alphaeus, the brother of Matthew Judas; Barnabas; Philip, the deacon who baptized the eunuch Ananias, bishop of Damascus, who baptized Paul; Joseph and Justus and Barnabas; Stepheri, the first martyr, deacon. (The ninth disciple (Joseph, Justus, Barnabas) is threefold, to obtain the number 72)

From 11 to 20 are the names: Prochorus, bishop of Nicomedia; Nikanor; Simon, bishop of Bosra in Hauran; Parmenas; Timon, bishop of Bosra; Epainetus, bishop of Carthage; Luke, bishop of Laodicea; Aristarchus, bishop of Apamea in Syria; Mark, called John, bishop of Biblos (Lebanon); Zeno(n), bishop of Diospolis.

From 21 to 30 are named: Aristobulus, bishop of Britain; Apelles, bishop of Smyrna; Narcissus, bishop of Athens; Herodion, bishop of Tarsus; Agabus, a prophet; Rufus, bishop of Thebes; Asynkritus, bishop of Hyrcania; Phlegon, bishop of Marathon in Achaia; Hermes, bishop of Dalmatia; Patrobas, bishop of Puteoli in Campania.

From 31 to 40 are named: Hermas, bishop of Philippolis; Linus, bishop of Rome; Gajus, bishop of Ephesus; Philologus; Olympas; Herodion; Aristarchus; Poudes; Trophimus; Lucios, bishop of Laodicea in Syria.

From 41 to 50 are named: Jason, bishop of Tarsus; Silas, bishop of Corinth Silvanus, bishop of Salonica; Andronicus, bishop of Pannonia Kriskes, bishop of Chalcedon; Amplias, bishop of Odessa in Moesia,; Urbanus, bishop of Macedonia; Barsabas, bishop of Heraclea; Stachus, bishop of Byzantium; Sosipater, bishop of lconium.

From 51 to 60 are listed: Erastus, b. of Caesarea Philippi (Banyas) Terentius, b. of lconium; Kuartus, b. of Berytus in Phoenicia Apollo, b. of Caesarea in Bithynia; Sosthenus, b. of Colophon in Asia; Epaphroditus, b. of Andriace, Myra, Lycia; Caesar, b. of Dyrrachium, Epirus Nova; Tychikus, b. of Colophon, Asia; Mark, b. of Apollonia in Palestine; Justus, b. of Eleutheropolis, Palestine.

The names from 61 to 70 are: Artemion, b. of Lystra in Lycaonia Onesiphorus, b. of Cornaea in Achaia; Clemens, b. of Sardinia Tychikus, b. of Chalcedon; Karpus, b. of Verria in Macedonia; Euodus, b. of Antioch; Zenas, b. of Diospolis. 1 Philemon, b. of Gaza; Fortunatus; Achaikus.

The synaxe of the 70 (72) disciples is in the Greek Melkite liturgy on January 4.

Seventy disciples. Of the 70 disciples, the Greek-Melkite liturgy mentions on April 8: Herodion, who is named in the letter of Paul (Rom 16, 11), Agabus, the prophet of Jerusalem, who predicted the captivity of Paul; Rufus, the son of Simon of Cyrene; Asyncretus, Phlegon, and Hermes, who are mentioned in the letter of Paul to the Romans (16, 13-14).

Seventy-eight disciples: on April 15 in the Lectionary of Paris.

Severianus, martyr. Together with Victor, Zoticus and Eusebius, he witnessed the martyrdom of St. George of Lydda, and was converted. Subsequently Severianus was beheaded during the reign of the Emperor Diocletian (284-305). According to a tradition George of Lydda was martyred in Lydda in 303. The Greek liturgy has the feast of Severianus on April 20.

Severianus, martyr and bishop of Scythopolis. He was martyred in 452 by the sword. The Mart. Rom has his memory on Feb 21.

Severianus, monk. He founded a monastery in Caphar Barucha, now Beni Naim, about 6 kms east of Hebron. In this monastery St. Euthymius lived for a time.

Severos, bishop of Sodom in 325. Abel F. M. in 'Géographie de la Palestine, II, 1938, p. 467-468 remarks: Among the bishops who were present at the Council of Nicea in 325 was one Severos, bishop of Sodom. This title - Abel continues - does not appear after this date and has perhaps been taken by the bishop of Zoara, whom one meets in 381. Zoara was in the south-eastern part of the Dead Sea valley.

Severus, St. from Scythopolis or from Abila. He travelled to the West round 365. (Vitae S. Severi, c. 1) (AA.SS. Nov 1)

Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. Such are the Babylonian names of the three children, that is to say, Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, the sons of Eliakim, the king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar reared in his palace in Babylon and cast into a fiery furnace. The three youths are saluted on Takhshash 2 in the Eth. Syn.

Sharbel. See: Makhlouf Sharbel (Charbel).

Shardy Frederick, American. He made 'Mediatrix', one of the 12 panels in bronze. His panel represents Mary's intervention at Cana. The 'Mediatrix' panel is at the South facade of the Basilica of the Annunciation at Nazareth. (Basilica consecrated on March 23, 1969)

Shaw Walter, English. He headed the Commission of Enquiry about the Hebron riots of 1929 where Moslems killed Jews. He held public sessions in Jerusalem from Oct 25 to Dec 29, 1929.

Sham, Ham, and Japheth (Japhet). Three sons of patriarch Noah. Shem (Sem) stands for Asia; Ham (Cham) for Africa; Japheth for Europe.

Shepherds at Bethlehem. In the Greek-Orthodox Chapel of St. Eustathius at Göreme (Turkey), the three shepherds are called: Sator, Arepo, and Teneton. In the Syriac 'Book of the Bee' the names are seven: Asher, Zebulon, Justus, Nicodemus, Joseph, Barshabba, Jose. (Bruce M. Metzger, Names for the Nameless in N. T. p. 86)

Shilling Godfrey. This Franciscan planned in 1890 to erect a huge cross on a hill in Staten Island, overlooking the entrance into New York Bay. He changed his plans. A massive Crucifixion group, in granite, was placed on a hilltop in Brookland near Washington. This granite group replaces a former wooden Cross. (Compare Leonari Aristides)

Shroud. St. Jerome mentions an Apocryphal Gospel, in which the Risen Lord appears to James the Less, 'after having given the shroud to the servant of the high-priest'.

Shroud of Turin. The shroud was photographed in 1898 at the occasion of an regular exhibition for veneration. Normally the shroud is folded over the feet. (So the Jewish observances, according to a rabbi.) The shroud of Turin is folded over the head. Professor Raes of Belgium examined a sample of the shroud of Turin. It is woven in the fish-bone pattern, which is a pattern of wealth. It is woven in linen. It is woven on a loom, on which also cotton (gossipium herbaceum) was woven. - Other examinations discovered that on the shroud rested pollen. The same kinds of pollen were found in Galilee, in Edessa (Turkey), in Constantinople, in France, in Italy, also on the several places where, according to tradition, the shroud of Turin has been.

Shushan, Armenian princess. See: Jojik.

Sibylla, elder sister of Baldwin IV, King (1174-1185) of Jerusalem. Both were children out of the later annulled marriage of King Amaury I with Agnes de Courtenay. Sibylla married first Guilliaume de Montferrat, and later Guy de Lusignan, who was king of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192.

Sibylle, countess of Flanders. She was the daughter a King Fulk d'Anjou and his first wife Aremburge du Maine. Ex-queen Melisend and her daughter-in-law, Sibylle, promoted the election (1157-58) of Patriarch Amaury de Nesle. Sibylle married Thierry d'Alsace.

Sicilian pilgrims came to Palestine in the 16th century. The year is not indicated. (AA.SS. Aug 17)

Siger de Bruges, Pirate. He crossed eight years before the coasts of Africa and of the Levant, together with Gerard of Kortrijk (Belgium) and Jith Winkmar of Boulogne (France). They joined the first crusade and partook in the siege of Laodicea in 1097.

Sigurd, King of Norway. He was the son of Magnus III. Sigurd landed in the summer of 1110 at Jaffa, from there he went to Jerusalem. There King Baldwin I asked him to conquer the harbour of Sidon (Sajete of the chroniclers). Sigurd blocked this port in October 1110.

Sikko. Together with Eelko, leader of the Frisian Crusaders in the first crusade (1096-1099) (AA.SS. March 22).

Silas, one of the 70 disciples. According to the Greek list, Silas was bishop of Corinth. The Roman Martyrology has Silas on July 13. This Silas was sent with SS. Paul and Barnabas to the Gentiles. Silas died in Macedonia. - The Melkite liturgy has on July 30: Silas, Silvanus, Crescentius, Epainetes, Andronikus (all of the 70 discipies).

Silas, the soldier. See: Surset.

Silentiarius. See: John the Silent.

Siloe, dedication of the altar, Sept 6. In the Pool of Siloe the blind beggar was healed (Jn 9). Near the Pool was a church in the 6th century. Perhaps it was erected by Eudocia, who died in Jerusalem in 460. The Church was dedicated to the Saviour, the Illuminator. It was destroyed in 614 by the Persians. The Crusaders never rebuilt it. - The site was explored by Bliss and Dickie in 1896. It was covered up again by the Turkish Government, for fear that a desire to possess the holy site might lead to fresh contentions between the Christians. Remains of a mosque were rebuilt, and a sexagonal minaret was added to the mosque.

Inscription of Siloe. It was discovered in 1880 by a boy of Bishop Gobat's School. The slab with the inscription is now in Istambul. The inscription does not mention King Hezekiah. Perhaps the inscription is before his time. The water flows from the Spring of Gihon (Fountain of the Virgin), very slowly, to the Pool of Siloe. The tunnel or canal of Siloam is 544 meters. -The inscription was on the left side when you see from Gihon to Siloe. The inscription has been removed to the Museum of Constantinople.

Tower of Siloe. The Pool of Siloe waters the Garden of the King (Neh 3, 15). The Pool of Siloe brings his water through a open canal to the nearby valley of Kidron. In the vicinity of the Pool of Siloe was the Tower of Slice, which is mentioned in Luke 13, 4. Jesus asked the Jews: 'Or these eighteen upon whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them, do you think that they were worse offenders than all the others who dwelt in Jerusalem? I tell you, No.' No site has been indicated for the ruins of this tower.

Silvanus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Salonica, according to the Greek list. The Roman Martyrology mentions on Dec 2: In Troas in Phrygia, St. Silvanus, bishop, famous on account of his miracles. The Melkite liturgy has on July 30: Silas, Silvanus, Crescentius, Epainetes, Andronikus. (all of the 70 disciples).

Silvanus, bishop of Egypt. He was martyred in Tyr (Phoenicia) with the bishops Tyranpio, Peleus, Nilus, and with the priest Zenobius, in 310. The Roman Mart. has the memory on Sept 19.

Silvanus, bishop of Gaza, with 39 or 40 companions. See: Silvanus, the Elder.

Silvanus, the Elder, Martyr. He was born in Gaza, and served as a soldier in the Roman army during the reign of Emperor Diocletian (284-305). Later he became a priest in Gaza, and preached throughout Palestine. The immoral people of Caesarea, Palestine, accused him. He was condemned to hard labour in the copper mines of Phunon, about 50 kms south of the Dead Sea. There he was beheaded with 39 companions in 310. The Greek liturgy has the feast on Oct 14. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem has the memory of Silvanus on May 4. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his commemoration in the Church of the Anastasis (Resurrection) on May 4. Phunon is in the El-Arabah valley, which extends from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea.

Slivanus, the monk. He lived some years in Scethe (Egypt), he went to Sinai, proceeded to Palestine. He founded near Gerar (Wadi esh-Sheria) which is mentioned in Gen 10, 19, a community for hermits. By some scholars Gerar is identified with Tell esh-Sheria; by others with Tell Abu Hureire. Both sites are about 20 Kms northwest of Beersheva.

Silvanus of Emesa, Martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, under Emperor Maximianus (305. 311). His feast is on Nov 5, together with Domninus, Theotimus, Philotheus, Dorotheus, Casterius.

Silvanus, Sanctus, episcopus Nazarenus, sancti Hieronymi discipulus. Silvanus lived round 400. Feast on Sept 22. (AA.SS.)

Silvester, Patriarch of Great Rome (Pope). He is commemorated on Jan 1. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the commemoration of St. Silvester in the Church of the Resurrection on March 1. Perhaps this commemoration was particular to Jerusalem. Pope Silvester ruled the Church of Rome from 313 to 335.

Silvinus, St., bishop. He came to Palestine round 700. (Vita S. Silv., auct. Antenore, cA, n. 9) (AA.SS. Feb 17)

Simeon, Armenus. St. He came to Palestine round 980. (Vita S. Sim., c. II, n. 15. - Encyclica Arsenii, patriarchae Hierosolymitani) (AA.SS. July 26) - Simeon travelled to Rome in 983. (AA.SS. July 26)

Simeon of Cyrene, the Crossbearer. See: Simon of Cyrene.

Simeon of Trier. He was born round 987 in Syracuse (Sicily); his father was a Greek. At seven years, Simeon and his parents emigrated to Constantinople. Simeon was in Jerusalem round 1026. He went in the service of a hermit near the Jordan; afterwards he lived at Bethlehem, and later on the peninsula of Sinai near the Red Sea. The presence of sailors disturbed him, and he ascended to Mount Sinai. His Benedictine abbot from Europe ordered him to go to Europe to accept a donation from Richard II, count of Normandy. Along the Nile, the cities of Antioch, Belgrado and Rome, Bonosius (?) (= Simeon) arrived in France; there he met count Gulllaume IV of Poitiers. When Bonosius (= Simeon?) reached Rouan, Count Richard had died and Simeon could not receive the money. He went to Verdun, there lived Richard, who was the abbot of the abbey of St. Vannes. Simeon had met Richard in the Holy Land, Simeon stood a long time at Verdun, then he went to Trier. Toge. ther with Poppo, who was the archbishop of Trier, Simeon travelled to Palestine. After the return, Simeon obtained permission of Poppo to live in one of the cells of the Porta Nigra at Trier. There he lived 5 years, and there he died on June 1, 1035.

Simeon II, Greek Orthodox patriarch of Jerusalem (1050-1099). He retired or was exiled by the Crusaders, to Cyprus in 1099 and there he died in 1099.

Simeon reclusus, St. See: Simeon of Trier.

Simeon Salos, St. (See: Simon the Fool). Round 552 in Palestine, together with Johannis ad Mare Rubrum. (AA.SS. July 2; July 21)

Simeon, St. called Simeon the Elder. His feast on Oct 8 (Mart. Rom.) is particular to Palestine. Luke 2, 22-35 relates: 'Now there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon, and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him... And inspired by the Spirit, he came into the temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the customs of the Law, he took him up in his arms, and blessed God and said, 'Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace,... - At the top of the quarter Katamon in Jerusalem, amidst the pines is the Monastery of St. Simeon. The small church is dedicated to him. The church was rebuilt in 1890. And in the church his supposed tomb is pointed out. Since the 16th century tradition says that Simeon lived there, the old man who had the consolation of seeing the Saviour before his death (Luke 2, 25). - The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has on Feb 3: memory of Simeon and Anne, prophets. Greek Synaxaries have Simeon and. Anne on Feb 3. No church, chapel or tomb of Anne, the prophetess, is venerated in Jerusalem.

Simeon, the Elder, and his translation of the Book of Isaiah, in the Septuaginta-translation. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on Yakatit 8 'salutes' Simeon and relates: And when king Ptolemy, who was called the 'Conqueror' was reigning, and the Jewish people were under his dominion, he brought from Jerusalem to Alexandria seventy (two) learned Jewish rabbis and he commanded them to translate the Books of the Law from the Hebrew tongue into the Greek tongue. (Ptolemy II, 283-246 BC). And when Simeon, the Just, had translated all the Books of the Law, he came to the Book of Isaiah, who saith: 'Behold a virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and His name shall be called Emmanuel (Is 7, 14). And Simeon was afraid to write 'a virgin' and said: 'The king will laugh at the prophet, and will not accept his word'. And Simeon wrote 'young girl'. And the angel of God appeared to him, and said: 'Thou shalt not taste death until thou hast seen the Christ, who shall be born of a virgin, and has carried Him in thy hands'. And Simeon lived after this three hundred years, until our Lord Jesus was born, and he brought Him into the sanctuary, as it might be this day.

Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem. He was the son of Joseph and cousin of Jesus Christ. He was consecrated after the death of James the Less, who was stoned about 62. Simeon suffered martyrdom by the Jews during the reign of Trajan (98-117). He was martyred at the age of one hundred and twenty years. The Greek liturgy venerates him on April 27. (Compare: Simeon, son of Cleopas)

Simeon, the son of Cleopas, as the 'unnamed' disciple of Emmaus. Origen tells that Simeon was the youngest of the four sons of Cleopas, who was the uncle of Jesus. This Simeon succeeded his brother James the Less, after his death about 62. This 'unnamed' disciple of Emmaus (the companion of Cleopas) is represented as a bishop with stola in the right nave of the Franciscan shrine at Emmaus. His father, Cleopas, has his statue in the left nave. The Melkite liturgy mentions Simeon, relative of the Lord, on April 27. The Roman Martyrology has his feast on Feb 18.

Simisius, abbas. He lived in the laura of Duq (Douk) on top of the mount of Quarantine near Jericho. (Compare Elpidius).

Simon, Benedictine lay brother of Maria Laach. He executed the statue of Mary on her deathbed, in brown marble in the crypt of the Dormitio on Mount Sion. This church was consecrated in 1906.

Simon, St. and Judas Thaddeus, St. Apostles. Simon was one of the Twelve. Simon is called 'the Canaanite' (Mt 10, 4; Mk 3, 18), 'the Zealot' (Lk 6, 15; Acts 1, 13). Legend tells us that Simon was martyred in Persia. - Judas Thaddeus (Luke 6, 16; Acts 1, 13) was one of the Twelve. According to legend Thaddeus was martyred in Persia.

Simon of Cyrene, who helped Jesus to carry His cross (5th Station). The sect of the Basilidians holds that Simon, who resembled Jesus, was abducted and was crucified instead of Jesus. This legend is recalled in the Islam. Simon (Simeon?) of Cyrene is mentioned together with Cyriakus of Jerusalem, and both have their feast on Oct 28. A; legend (of the 17th century) relates: Simon and his two sons preached in Spain, where Simon was a bishop.

Simon de Guinecort (Frère). This name is found on a Crusader seal. The inscription surrounds the coat of arms. The seal was discovered at Château Pèlerin (Castle of the Pilgrims), which is identified with Atlit on the Mediterranean coast, south of Haifa.

Simon of Lipnica (Poland), Blessed. Simon entered the Franciscan Order in 1453. He made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In Krakow, he helped those who suffered from the pest. He died on July 18, 1482. (AA.SS. July 18)(Vita S. Simeonis, c. IV, n. 27-31)

Simon of Meopham, archbishop of Canterbury. Pope John XXII in 1332 wrote to him and to Edward III, king of England, and to David 11 of Scotland and asked them to help the bishop of Bethlehem recover his revenue and so enable him to return to Bethlehem and carry out repairs. It seems little was done. (Compare Romanus)

Simon, the Canaenite. Greek liturgy: May 10. He was born at Cana in Galilee. According to legend, he was the bridegroom at the wedding of Cana. He left his home and followed Christ. He was present on the day of Pentecost. Subsequently he preached the Gospel in Mauritania, and finally in England, where he suffered martyrdom. - The Roman Martyrology mentions Simon, the Canaenite, and Thaddeus, who was named also Judas, on October 28. Simon preached first in Egypt, came afterwards to Persia, where he wad martyred, together with Thaddeus.

Simon the fool and John Fekru. Simon Shalusi and John his friend (or John Fekru) are named in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 14th of the month Nahasse (twelfth month, Aug 4-Sept 3). Both saints lived in the kingdom of Yostos (Justus), the Christian Emperor. They went to Jerusalem for the festival of the Cross. After the feast, they continued to Jericho. John saw on the plain of the Jordan some monasteries. A certain archimandrite Nikon accepted both pilgrims. Afterwards they departed by the road to the Dead Sea, and they came to a river which was called Amon. There they found a cave. Simon went to Jerusalem and pretended to be mad, and sometimes, he healed those who were mad, and sometimes he carried fire in his hands. And Simon went in under a vine, and he and John, his friend, delivered up their souls into the hand of God. - The AA.SS. mention Simon on July 2; and on July 21, Simon, together with Johannes ad Mare Rubrum. They lived in Palestine round 552.

Simon, the leper. (Simon of Lans) He is commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Miyazya 11. Perhaps to be identified with Simon of Mt 26, 6-13; Mk 14, 3-9. Simon was the host of Jesus, when a woman anointed the head of Jesus and washed His feet.

Simon, a magician of Samaria. He was esteemed by his followers as 'The Great Power of God' (Acts 8, 9-24). He was converted by the preaching of the apostles; he desired to purchase the gift of charismata for money. From him, the vice of simony, commercial traffic in sacred things, takes its name. Peter met Simon again in Rome, where this magician preached against Peter.

Simon Myroblytes. He was a solitary on Mount Athos. One Christmas night he saw a bright star of such golden glory that he was convinced that it was the identical star of Bethlehem. Pondering the meaning, he interpreted it as a command to erect a monastery. In about 1363, the monastery of Simonpetra was founded. In the Greek liturgy Simon has his feast on Dec 28.

Sim(e)on rusticus. Pilgrim Ernoul (1230) mentions the station where Sim(e)on rusticus (who returned from the fields, Luke 23, 26) was obliged to carry the cross of Jesus. The fact is now recalled by the 5th station of the Way of the Cross.

Simeon the sewer (the tanner). He was a Christian of Joppa (Jaffa). In the house of Simon, Peter had a vision, and there Peter received the messengers of the centurion Cornelius who lived in Caesarea. (Acts 9, 43; Acts 10, 6).

House of Simon. A small mosque, near the light house, is considered the site of Simon's house. Beside the mosque is St. Peter's church. It dates back to 1654. It was pillaged in 1775, and in 1799. In 1830 the convent was rebuilt. It is registered as Spanish property. In 1933 the parish church, St. Anthony, was constructed.

Simon Srugi (1877-1943). This Arab was from Nazareth. He died at Beit-Jimal at the convent of the Salesian Fathers. His cause has been introduced in Rome.

Simon Stock (1165-1265) Saint. He was born in the county of Kent (England) in 1165. He entered the Carmelite Order in 1212. The Order was reformed since 1209. Simon became general vicar in 1215. In 1237 he came to the Holy Land, he lived six years (1237-1243) on Mount Carmel. In 1251 he received at Cambridge the scapular which was to become a distinctive mark of the Order. Simon died at Bordeaux on May 16, 1265. His body reposes in the tomb of the altar of Notre Dame of the Carmel. This altar was made round, 1880.

Simon Stylite. An oratory in the Tower of Eudoxia at the Monastery of St. Sabas is dedicated to Simon Stylite.

Simon the tanner in Jaffa. See: Simon the sewer.

Simon the Zealot, apostle. (Luke 6, 15) See Simon the Canaenite.

Simplicius. Compare: Potentinus.

Sinai. Christian pilgrims very often continued their pilgrimage from the Holy Land to Mount Sinai. - According to tradition Moses received the Law for the Hebrews on Mount Sinai. Israeli soldiers occupied Mount Sinai in the Sinai-campagn of November 1956. They evacuated the Sinai-peninsula in 1957. (Compare Eden, Eisenhower). Israel again occupied Mount Sinai in the Six Days War of June 1967. Israel evacuated Mount Sinai in November 1979. On Nov 19, 1979 (2 years after his first visit to Jerusalem) Sadat, president of Egypt, inaugurated at Mount Sinai a building that contains a mosque, a church, and a synagogue. The threefold sanctuary is in remembrance of the three religions, which are related to Mount Sinai.

Sinai, ancient martyrs in Sinai. Without year, without day in Martyrologium Orientale, November.

Sindoon. Joseph of Arimathea wrapped Jesus in a clean sindon (a linen shroud) (Mt 27, 59; Me 15, 46; Lk 23, 53). John I9, 27 mentions othonia 'bindings'. (Compare: Shroud, Suaire).

Singeliers Philippus. This Franciscan lay brother was doorkeeper at the convent Boetenclaal near Brussel. He started with Surius Bernardinus on April 25, 1644 for the Holy Land. Both came back end of June 1647.

Sinjil. The village of Sinjil, on the left side of the way from Jerusalem to Nablus, got its name from Raymond de Saint-Gilles, Count of Toulouse. Near the village are two Crusader ruins, one called Qasr (tower), the other Keniseh (church).

Sion Gate. According to an inscription on the gate, it was built by Soliman II, in the year 947 Hegirah (1540-41 AD).

Sion Mount. The Dominican Father Burchard (Burkhard of Barly) was surnamed: of Mount Sion. He was in Jerusalem round 1283, i.e. before the Franciscan Roger Gar(h)in who came to Jerusalem in 1333. (See Roger Garin)

Sion Léonie. This Sister belonged to the 'Filles de la Charité'. She was born at Houplines, near Lille (Nord France), round 1846. She came to Jerusalem on May 3, 1886. She founded in Jerusalem in 1886 the Hospice 'Saint Vincent de Paul’ outside Jaffa Gate. She founded in Bethlehem in 1887 the 'Hospital of the Holy Family' (called French Hospital), she founded the French Hospital at Nazareth in 1898. She died at Jerusalem on Oct 31, 1903.

Sira (Sirana), Blessed. On Dec 31 the Franciscan Martyrology mentions: The Blessed took her name Sira (Sirana) from her country of origin, Syria. She belonged to the Third Order of St. Francis. She worked several years in the hospice of the Franciscans on Mount Sion, together with the Blessed Michelina of Pesaro. Both went to Italy, perhaps for the Indulgence of the Jubilee of 1350. Sira lived in Pesaro which was the city of Michelina. In 1356 both Michelina and Sira died.

Sirach (Jesus Sirach, Ben Sira(ch). The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 16th day of the month Genbot: Sirach said in sealing (finishing) his book, 'Blessed be the God of All, who doeth great things everywhere, and who maketh long our days from the womb'. And when saying this, he died. Salutation to Sirak, the son of Eleazar of Jerusalem. - The Book of Ben Sira is also called Ecclesiasticus, in the Vulgate. The book was written in Jerusalem, 190-130 BC.

Sirmond. Jesuit historian and scholar (1559-1651, Paris). H. Delehaye edited in 1902: Synaxarium Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae e codice Sirmondiano adjectis synaxariis selectis. (Propyfaeum ad Acta SS. Nov.)

Sisinnios, bishop. The Pratrum Spirituale, chapter 93, speaks of a hermitage at Bethnambris (Bethnemra), near Tell Nimrin to the northwest of Siyagha in East Jordan. It was inhabited by Sisinnios. He had been a bishop, but resigned his office and retired to a solitary life. His death occurred during the reign of Emperor Tiberius 11 (574-582). At the moment of his death, he was visited by the archimandrite Gregory. He found Sisinnios with his disciple. The disciple also died before Sisinnios had been buried, and was laid in the same grave with his master.

Sisinnius. See: Elpidius et Sisinnius. (AA.SS. Sept 2, Sept 28)

Sister Joséphine of Jerusalem. See: Rumène Joséphine.

Sister Mary of the Five Wounds. This Sister from Portugal belonged to the Third Order of St. Francis. At 59 years of age, she travelled over Aleppo to Jerusalem. There she died on Sept 5, 1670 from the plague.

Six oecumenical councils. On Sunday the 13th of July, or on the next Sunday, the fathers of the six oecumenical councils are remembered in the Melkite liturgy. These six councils are: Nicaea 1 (325), Constantinople 1 (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople 11 (553), Constantinople III (Trullanum) (681).

Sixty Crusader Knights. They were cut down by the Moslems. The mosque of the sixty, Jamia es Sittin, with some walls still standing in Khirbet Seilun (the ancient SiJo) remembers the knights Jamia es Sittin (or Jamia el Yeteim) is not far from the weli (sanctuary) Jamia el Arbain (mosque of the forty), which is shaded by a huge tree,

Sixty defenders of Gaza. See: Florian (Dec 17). They were killed by the Arabs under the reign of Emperor Heraclius (609-641). Compare Forty defenders of Gaza.

Sixty martyrs. They were killed in Jerusalem by the Moslems about 724. They were buried in the supplementary buildings near the nave of the Church of St. Stephen. Their feast was there on Oct 21 (SHG, 1217). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the feast on Oct 21.

Skeleton of a crucified man. It was discovered in a cave, north of Jerusalem, in 1968. (Israel Exploration Journal, vol 20, n. 1-2). One nail pierced together both feet. The skeleton dates perhaps from the first revolt of the Jews against the Romans (67-70 AD).

Skull of Adam under the feet of the Crucified Christ. The legend that the skull of Adam was buried under Calvary inspired artists to add a skull either in the Grotto of Adam under Calvary or under the feet of the Crucified. (Compare: Adam, Grotto of Adam) -Origen (in Mattheum 126, P.G. XIII, 177) tells us: I have heard about a legend that the body of Adam is buried under Calvary.

Skytte Lars. He was born in Stockholm about 1610. He worked in Portugal as a diplomat between 1641 and 1658. He converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism, and he joined the Franciscan Order in 1647. He was in the Custody of the Holy Land between 1653 and 1655. In Portugal he was the friend of Father Claude Jarier, who died at Jerusalem in 1653. Skytte worked in Rome in 1655 and between 1658-1696. There he died in 1696. He wrote in 1668 'Scala Pietatis'. (Arce A, Lars Skytte, in Archivum Franciscanum Historicurn, An. 65, 1972, 415-474)

Slouschz N. He cleared in 1924 Absalom's Tomb at Jerusalem.

Smaragdus. The male name of the virgin Euphrosyna of Alexandria, who lived 38 years in a convent of monks.

Smith A. He made trial digs at Shiloh. The subsequent excavations were done by Kjaer H., in 1926-1929,

Smith Sidney. This British naval officer defended with a British squadron, Acre against the attacks of Napoléon in 1799.

Smithsonian Institution of Washington. It excavated Tell Jemme (Gemmeh) in 1970. Flinders Petrie in 1927 believed it was the Biblical Gerar (Gen 10, 19). Tell Jemme is one of the tour large mounds between Gaza and Beersheba. (Compare: Silvanus, the monk)

Smuts Jan Ch. (1870-1950). The settlement Ramat Johannan, about 10 kms south of Haifa, is in honour of this South-African Fieldmarshall and statesman.

Soba. According to the Ethiopian liturgy, Soba was the mother of Elisabeth, and the grandmother of John the Baptist. The sister of Soba was Anne, who became the mother of Mary the Virgin.

Sobata (Subeita, Isbeita, Esbeita). The Hebrew name of this Byzantine city in the Negev is Shivta. The ruins show three monasteries.

Societas. Jesu (= Jesuits). In 1534 the Jesuits tried to find an apostolate in the Holy Land. The war between Venice and the Turkish Empire impeded their departure. (Compare: Ignatius of Loyola)

Sodalitas Catholica Opificum ex gente Germanorum. (Deutsch Katholische Arbeitergemeinschaft). Their members visited the city of Jerusalem in 1900 and they donated a white marble memorial tablet with Latin text. The inscription recalls the visit of Maximilian, Duke in Bavaria, to Jerusalem in 1838, at the time of the pest. (Compare: Baier Dr) - After the restoration of the Chapel of the Fiagellation in 1929, the marmor slab was fixed at the northern part of the facade, outside the Chapel.

Soidos. An inscription in Avdat mentions: 'Let Zamnos the builder of the house be remembered in the year 162 (= 268 AD). Let Soidos be remembered'.

Soler, archbishop of Montevideo. He visited Palestine in 1885. He bought the site of Deir et Benat (Convent of the Maidens) at Ortas (Urtas), as the seat of a shrine of Mary, Our Lady of the Garden. (Hortus Conclusus). The shrine is staffed by Sisters of Our Lady of the Garden. This congregation was founded in Italy in 1829, but came to Uruguay and Montevideo. The sanctuary was completed in 1901. The Sisters opened the Orphanage in 1903.

Soler Petrus. See: Petrus Soler, martyr Damascus 1860.

Solomon, the King of Jerusalem. He is not venerated in the Armenian liturgy, not listed in the Roman Martyrology, nor in the Greek liturgical books. Solomon is 'saluted' by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 23th of the month Saneh. The Queen of Saba paid a visit to Solomon. (Saba, Sheba) (1 Kings 10, 1; 2 Chr 9, 1). Solomon (961-925) built the Temple at Jerusalem.

Portico of Solomon. John 6, 22 writes: It was the time when the feast of the Dedication was being celebrated in Jerusalem. It was winter, and Jesus was in the Temple, walking up and down in the Portico of Solomon. - This portico was at the southeast side of the precinct round the Temple. In the southeast corner of this mount are vaults, which are named Stables of Solomon.

Throne of Solomon. Just north of the Golden Gate is a small mosque. It is known as the Throne of Solomon (Kursi Suleiman). Legend says that here Solomon sat and watched the jinns (spirits) who worked for him.

Pools of Solomon. Three large pools, south of Bethlehem, are after a popular tradition attributed to Solomon. A spring, Ain-Saleh, carries water to the upper pool. Herod the Great carried water to the Herodium by an aqueduct. The water for the Temple passed in the days of Jesus through the Pools of Solomon. (Compare: Pilate's Aqueduct)

Pillars of Solomon. The red-rock pillars at Timna are like chimneys for the refining of the ore of copper in the mines of Solomon.

Quarries of Solomon (Solomon's Quarries or Royal Caves). A subterranean quarry which is supported on natural pillars goes 200 meters under the city of Jerusalem. This quarry supplied since the epoch of Solomon or before this period materials for construction. The entrance to the quarry is between Damascus Gate and Herod's Gate. The Arabs call the site Mogharet el Kittan (Grotto of the Cotton), because the caves served as a storeroom for powder. The site is known also as Zedekiah's Cave(s). A tradition has it that Zedekiah, the last king of Judah (597-587 BC) escaped from his royal palace through a tunnel to these caves, and from there in the direction of Jericho. Zedekiah was overtaken by the troops of King Nebuchadnezzar. His sons were executed in his presence, he himself was blinded and abducted in chains to Babylon. The site where Zedekiah was captured is on the way to Jericho, at Qalaat ed Damm (the Castle of Blood), where tradition afterwards located the Good Samaritan Inn.

Solomon and Megiddo. Solomon built the fortified city Megiddo. Some constructions are interpreted by certain scholars as stables for horses. The Book of Revelation 16, 16 mentions a place which in Hebrew is called Armaggeddon. This great symbolic battlefield for the final struggle is related with the strategical importance of Megiddo.

Solomon and Mount of Scandal in Jerusalem. On the Mount of Scandal or Mount of Offence Solomon, having taken Moabite wives into his harem, built for these foreign wives a sanctuary to Chamos, who was the God of Moab (1 Kings 11).

Solomon and Tomb of Pharaon's Daughter. At the foot of Mount of Scandal, is the Monolith of Siloe, an ancient tomb. It is locally known as Tomb of Pharaon's Daughter. it could have been that Solomon buried there his Egyptian wife.

Solomon and New Testament. In Mt 6, 29 Jesus declares: 'Think of the flowers growing In the fields; they never have to work or spin; yet I assure you that not even Solomon in all his regalia was robed like one of these. '

Solomon, patriarch of Jerusalem (round 858-864). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar commemorates him on Feb 14.

Son of Lambert Coriparius of Acre. His marble tombstone (Nr 10) with Latin inscription is in the Museum of the Flagellation. (Revue Biblique 1921, p. 443-446)

Sopater, disciple of Christ. (1st cent.) (AA.SS. June 25)

Sophia, the mother of St. Sabas. Sabas was born in Moutalaski near Caesarea, Cappadocia, in 439. Sophia followed her son to Palestine, where she became a nun and lived in the convent of St. Paula in Bethlehem. After her death, her remains were brought to the church of St. Sophia, which is about 350 meters north of the Convent of St. Sabas. This church was built in 657. - Another tradition says that Sophia was buried in St. Theodosius, east of Bethlehem.

Sophia in Jerusalem. 'In sancta Sophia, litania': this means the church which was dedicated to the Wisdom (Sophia) of God, where the house of Pilate was recalled. The Georgian liturgy recited in this Sophia-Church a litany on Aug 7. The dedication of this Church was commemorated on Sept 21.

Sophia-Church in Constantinople. The Hagia Sophia was built by Emperor Justinian I (523-565). Greek synaxaries have the dedication on Dec 23, and a second dedication on Dec 24 (562). Georgian liturgy had in Jerusalem the dedication, on Dec 23.

Sophia degli Arcangeli of Florence. This Lady opened in 1353 a pilgrim house north of the Franciscan Convent at Mount Sion. The hospice came later under the Friars, and the women who were in charge of it, became Tertiaries.

Sophia of Jerusalem, mother of Elisabeth, who had as son John the Baptist. Sophia is venerated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium.

Sophinos. This martyr is mentioned in the Passion of St. Codratus, in the Armenian liturgy on May 9. Sophinos is not named in the Greek liturgy.

Sophronius I, St., patriarch of Jerusalem. He was born at Damascus round 560; he died at Jerusalem on March 11, 638. Sophronius was a monk in Egypt, round 580. Then he came to the Jordan area, and from 619 he was at Theodosius' monastery near Bethlehem. He accompanied John Moschus on his journey to Rome, and returned from Rome round 620. Moschus dedicated his Pratum Spirituale to Sophronius. In 633 Sophronius went to Alexandria. Shortly after his election to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem (634-638), he addressed his famous 'Synodical Letter' to the other patriarchs, explaining his own teaching on the two natures in Christ. Sophronius saw the surrender of Jerusalem (637) to the Moslem conqueror, Caliph Ornar. Of this 11 extant sermons, that delivered on Christmas 634 has special interest, as it indicates that the Saracens were already in possession of Bethlehem. The Latin Patriarchate has the feast of Sophronius on March 11. This Sophronius I, patriarch, is most probably to be identified with Sophronius the Poet, who ruled the Church of Jerusalem until the arrival of Islam.

Sophronius II, Euthymius and Simon, patriarchs of Jerusalem, round 1060-1099.

Sophronius IV, Greek Orthodox patriarch of Jerusalem, 1579-1608. He renewed the claims of Germanus (1565) to the Basilica of Bethlehem. In 1605, one year after the New Capitulations, Sophronius could get a firman (permit) from Sultan Ahmed I, giving the Greeks the northern part of the Calvary, the place of the crucifixion (12th Station). This northern part is still in Greek possession.

Sophronius, the Armenian, the hegumen. He was the successor of St. Theodosius (died 529) in the convent of St. Theodosius. Sophronios died in 542, on March 21. - Sophronius was an Armenian of Sebastia in Armenia. Sophronius had a cousin, Mamas, who was in the Byzantine court. Mamas donated money for the convent.

S. O. S. village for abandoned children in Bethlehem. The institute was founded in Tyrol in 1949 by Gneimer. The village in Bethlehem is run by Austrian Sisters.

Sosipater, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of lconium, in the Greek list. According to the Roman Martyrology (June 25) we read: Sosipater, near Beroea, who was a disciple of St. Paul. In the letter of Paul to the Romans (16, 21) Sosipater and Lucius and Jason are called 'my kinsmen'. Sosipater, together with Jason, is remembered by the Greek liturgy on April 28.

Sosthenes, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Colophon, in the Greek list. The Roman Martyrology has on Nov 28 Sosthenes, a disciple of St. Paul. This Sosthenes is named in the first letter to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 1, 1).

Sosthenes, president of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18, 17). This Sosthenes was beaten by the Jews in the presence of the governor Gallio, who ignored the riot. This Sosthenes is since patristic times identified with Sosthenes who is greeted by Paul in 1 Cor 1, 1. His being beaten may have been the incitement for his conversion to Paul.

Soudarion (Greek). The unnamed disciple in Jn 20, 7 entered the empty tomb and saw the cloth that had been over His head. Soudarion (napkin) stands in opposition to othonia, 'bindings, linencloths'. - The emir of Edessa (Urfa in Turkey) was obliged to give the soudarion (Holy Shroud (Mt 27, 59) or napkin) to the Byzantine conqueror John Gourgen in 944.

Soultaneh Danil. See: Alphonsine, Sister.

Sozomenos. He was born near Gaza, he wrote 'Historia Ecclesiastica', he died around 450.

Spaccapietra. He visited Jerusalem in 1859, Oct 29, as Apostolicus Visitator.

Spafford Horatio. This lawyer of Chicago settled in Jerusalem in 1881, together with his wife. They erected the American Colony. The Americans were joined by Swedish sympathisers. In time the Swedish element withdrew and the Colony continued under the descendants of the original founders. (Bertha Spafford Vester, Our Jerusalem, 1951) Spafford lived first inside the walls, where is now Spafford Baby Home. Horatio Spafford died at Jerusalem in 1888. (Compare Lagerlöf).

Spafford Baby Home. The site was the first abode of the family Spafford (1881) in Jerusalem. The house is very close to the wall Damascus Gate to Herod's Gate on the ridge. Under the ridge are the subterranean Quarries of Solomon (or Royal Caves). The Spafford house became later Christian Missionary Society Girls School. And afterwards Spafford Baby Home.

Spanish Kings. Between 1219 and 1244, Spanish kings helped the Armenians of St. James in Jerusalem, because at that period the Armenians were in union with Rome.

Spelonca. The name of a monk and of a convent in Wadi Kattar (between Muntar and Castellion) in the Judaean desert.

Spes. The Latin name for the person, who was named in Greek language Elpis (Hope).

Spijkerman August, Franciscan. He was born in 1920 at St. Nicolaasga in Friesland (Netherlands), he died at Jerusalem in 1973. His speciality as numismatist concerned Palestinian coins. Spijkerman cooperated with Rosenberger who edited several books about Rosenberger-collections.

Spirid(i)on, the wonderworker, bishop of Trimythonthe (Cyprus). He was the father of a family, he was named bishop. His continued his work of shepherd. He died around 348. The Melkite liturgy has his feast on Dec 12; the Roman martyrology on Dec 14. -The Greek Orthodox Convent St. Spiridon is inside the wall, to the west of Damascus Gate. (Mertens A. What, when, where in Jerusalem, p. 54, Map of Greek Convents inside the Old City of Jerusalem.)

Spiridon Scordillis, archimandrite. He organised a small museum of antiquities that were found in Jacob's Well at Shechem. In 1860 the Greeks had acquired the site. In 1863 the crypt was restored. Before 1914, the Greeks rebuilt with Russian funds the Byzantine church above the well. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the funds stopped, and the church is still unfinished.

Spoudaioi. The Greek word means 'men who are always at hand'. Daniel the Russian archimandrite, in 1106 locates their convent west of the Holy Sepulchre. There is actually a Greek convent. Its chapel is dedicated to the Holy Virgin.

Srour of Abud. (13th cent.) He was the son of the deacon Abd el-Messih son of George, son of Said, son of Khweq el-Aboudi. Srour bought near Cairo a Syro-Edessian canonary (book with canons, laws of the church). The ruin, Khirbet Srour, is at the entrance of the village of Abud.

Srpouhi, the Armenian 'Mother Superior', who took the veil at the age of 16 and departed to Christ at the age of 100. This inscription is in the Armenian cemetery outside Sion Gate in Jerusalem.

Stachus, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Byzantium, in the Greek list. The Roman Martyrology mentions on Oct 31, Stachus, bishop of Constantinople (Byzantium), who was ordained as the first bishop of this town by Andrew the Apostle.

Star in Bethlehem. The silver star in the Grotto of Nativity was stolen on Oct 31, 1847, by the Greeks as protest against the Latins. The star bears the Latin inscription: Hic de Virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est 1717. Because the removal was contrary to the Status Quo, the Greeks were obliged by the Turkish Government to replace an identical star, in 1852.

Starkburg. German name of the Crusader fortress Montfort. With the support of Frederick II, it passed, early in the 13th century, into the hands of the Teutonic Order. The Arab name is Qal'at el Qurein.

Starkey James Leslie. He was the head of the British expedition for the excavation of Lachish. He was murdered on Jan 10, 1938, near Hebron, as he was driving from Lachish to Jerusalem. The British dig ended in 1939. Starkey is buried on the Protestant-Anglican cemetery on Mount Sion, Jerusalem.

Statchbury H. He made in 1960 the final clearing of Zachariah's Tomb in the valley of Kidron.

Station(s). A manuscript which was formerly in the Franciscan Convent of Sint Truiden (Belgium) mentions the word Station(s) as stopping place or place of praying during the Way of the Passion. The manuscript is probably before Bethlem (round 1475). Its author is unknown. The manuscript mentions 12 Stations (from Judgment (1st) to burial (12th). The Stations are: 1) Judgment; 2) Jesus is disrobed for the scourging; 3) Crowning with thorns; 4) Ecce Homo; 5) Jesus meets his mother Mary; 6) Simon helps; 7)Veronica wipes the face of Jesus; 8) The Gate of Judgment, when leaving the town; 9) Place of Crucifixion; 10) Mary and John under the Cross; 11) Mary receives the body of Jesus; 12) Burial. The manuscript is actually in the Franciscan Convent at Vaalbeek (Leuven).

Status quo. At Easter 1757 there was in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre a collusion between the Greek clergy and the Franciscans (Latins). The Porte Sublime of Constantinople issued then a firman (decree). It accorded to the Greeks possession of the Basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem, of the Tomb of the Virgin in Gethsemane, and joint possession with the Latins in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769) appealed to the Western Powers without result. In 1829, the Armenian Orthodox as belonging to the Ottoman Empire, had their rights in these three sanctuaries confirmed. After the Crimean War (1854), the Treaty of Paris in 1855 confirmed the Status Quo of 1757. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 excluded a priori the question of the Holy Places. Clémenceau after the victory of 1918 declined to 'become the sacristan of the Holy Sepulchre'. The British Mandate, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the State of Israel, respected the Status quo.

Sanctuaries under Status quo:

The Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre is used by Greek, Armenians, Latins. - The Basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem is used by Greek, Armenians, Latins. - The Tomb of Mary in Gethsemane: here the Latins claim right from the Greek. - At the shrine of the Ascension, the Christians (three groups) have rights, together with the Mosiems. - At the Coenaculum, Room of the Last Supper, on Mount Sion, the Franciscans claim right against the Moslems.

Steenberg Matthieu, parish priest of Londerzeel (Belgium). He had visited the Holy Land. Shortly after 1500 he erected a Cruysganck in his parish. The stations in the fields and streets were: 1) Pilate condemns Jesus; 2) First fall; 3) Simon helps; 4) Veronica cleans the face of Jesus; 5) Second fall; 6) Daughters of Jerusalem lament Jesus. 1 7) Last (third) fall; 8) Jesus is stripped of his garments. - The stations in the streets of Londerzeel were on the same distance as in Jerusalem. On Good Friday the stations were visited with a procession. Round 1930 a highway cut the village in two parts. Since then the Procession Way of the Stations was omitted.

Steiner Joseph. He was born at Haifa from Austrian parents, on Nov 24, 1897. He was ordained as a priest by Patriarch Barlassina in 1920. Steiner died in Lebanon, on Dec 7, 1975.

Steinmann. This French professor was drowned, together with 22 French pilgrims, on a visit from Jerusalem to Petra, when a flood entered the Siq of Petra in April 1963. Only two ladies who were much in advance were not overrolled by the flood because they could climb on the rocks. The Siq of Petra is a narrow passage between high walls of rock. Since the disaster the dam that should prevent the invading of floods had been made higher.

Stephanis and Victor, martyrs. They are mentioned in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on April 22, Aug 8, Oct 3, Nov 11. These martyrs are not identified.

Stephanus, abbas ad Lacum Anserum, St. He visited Palestine in the 8th century. (AA.SS. Jan 14)

Stephanus Blesensis. He is mentioned in the first crusade, 1096-1099. His chaplain was Alexander. (Chronica S. Petri Vivi) (AA.SS. April 23)

Stephanus, fifth patriarch (1128-1130) of the Latin Patriarchate.

Stephanus Obazinensis, St. He worked for the Saracens, round 1259. (Vita S. Stephani, auct. anon. c. II, n. 7) (AA.SS. March 8)

Stephanus Perticensis. He participated in 1205 at the fourth crusade, he was in Palestine in 1203. (AA.SS. June 24)

Stephanus, the unprofitable clerk. Armenian monks, who wrote in colophons of manuscripts, protested their unworthiness in the following fashion: 'Least of the clergy, the unprofitable clerk, Stephanus, miscalled a priest, which in name alone he is, and not in deed, and a hardened sinner and foreigner, unfruitful of good and unprofitable in all ways, the unmentionable Aretas'. (Hintlian Kevork, History of the Armenians, 1976, p. 54)

Stephen, St. First Martyr. His feast is on Dec 26. Stephen was a Jew of the Diaspora. He lived in Jerusalem, and he accepted Christianity. Stephen and six others were appointed to provide for the care of the needy community, while the Twelve confined themselves to preaching (Acts 6, 11-6). The Seven also preached and it was the Jews of the Diaspora who charged Stephen before the council. The burden of the charge was a prediction of the destruction of the Temple and of the change of the Law. This was judged blasphemy, and Stephen was stoned, according to the law. Luke notes the presence of Saul (Acts 8, 1).

Death of Stephen. A street slopes down from Stephen's Gate to the valley of Kidron. South of the street, in the curve, is the newly (since 1966) rebuilt multi-storeyed church of the Greek Orthodox. The church commemorates the stoning of Stephen.

Finding of his body. In 415 the priest Lucian found the tomb of St. Stephen in Cafargamala (Beit-Jimal). This village is 5 kms south of Beth-Shemesch in Judaea. The body of St. Stephen was then transferred to Mount Sion in Jerusalem, and it remained there from 415 till 439. In 439 the relics were brought from Mount Sion to the newly built basilica north of Jerusalem. This basilica was built under Empress Eudoxia-Athenais. The actual church was consecrated in 1900. It is served by the Dominican Fathers. Near the church is the Ecole Biblique et Archéologique de la France.

Stephen's Gate. (See Lions' Gate) Stephen's Gate has several names. The name Bab Sittna Mariam (the Gate of our Lady Mary) indicates that the way descends to the Tomb of the Virgin Mary. The name Bab el Asbat (Gate of the Tribes) indicates that pilgrims coming from Jericho entered through this gate. The Greeks usually call it Gethsemane Gate, as leading to Gethsemane. Since the Crusades, the christians and the pilgrims call it St. Stephen's Gate. It was also named Gate of Galilee. The Hebrew name Lions' Gate is related to the sculpted lions.

Stoa of St. Stephen. In the Stoa of St. Stephen, deposition of the saints Tarachus, Probus, Andronicus, on June 27 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Stoa (portico) means perhaps the atrium (central court) of the Basilica, which was inaugurated by Empress Eudoxia on June 15, 460.

Synaxis in Stephano Sancto. The Georgian calendar on Jan 14 has for this synaxis: totum invenies temporis Paschalis Secunda feria quarta (the second Wednesday after Easter).

Transfer of the bones to Jerusalem. The Melkite liturgy remembers it on August 2.

Transfer of the bones to Constantinople. The Greek synaxaries remember it on August 2.

St. Stephen on Mount Sion (Armenian Church). Theodoric (1172) mentions this church. A colophon of the Armenian manuscript (Man. No 1863, fol 327b-328b) dated 1134, locates this church to the east of the Armenian Convent of the Holy Archangels.

Stephen, adopted name of Dunale.

Stephen, the Arab. He was hegumen of the 'koinobion' of St. Sabas. Stephen died 533 or 534, Jan 22. (Vita Euthymii, ch. 48) The Georgian calendar has the feast on Jan 12.

Stephen, bishop. St. Not identified. Perhaps Stephen, disciple of S. Euthymius and deacon of the Anastasis-Church, and later bishop of Jamnia, who took part at the Council of Chalcedon (451). Feast on April 2.

Stephen, count of Chartres in France. He took part at the first Crusade, 1096-1099.

Stephen of Chenolakkos, St. In the Greek liturgy on Jan 14. He lived in the 8th century. He entered the monastic life in Palestine, staying for some time in the monasteries of St. Euthymius, St. Sabas, and St. Theodosius. After studying the rules of these monasteries, he went to Constantinople, where he consulted with Germanus I, the Patriarch, who helped him to found the monastery of Chenolakkos near Moudania in Asia Minor, where he remained until his death.

Stephen of Cuneo (Italy), St. This Franciscan was martyred in Jerusalem on Nov 14, 1391. He was canonized by Pope Paul VI, on June 21, 1970. His feast is on Dec 5.

Stephen of Dor. In September 642 Stephen was promoted by the pope as Administrator Apostolicus of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. It was after the conquest (637) of Jerusalem by the Islam.

Stephen of Melitene in Armenia. He was the brother of Gainos and of Andrew. Stephen was received in the laura by St. Sabas. Stephen became bishop of Jamnia. (Perhaps to be identified with Stephen, bishop?)

Stephen, a shepherd in France. This youth induced, round 1200, young companions to follow him for a crusade. His group was taken by slave-dealers and sold into Egypt.

Stephen, the confessor. In the Greek liturgy, Dec 17. He was ordained by Pope Agapetus 11 (946-955), he went to Constantinople where he met with the Emperor Constantine VII (912-959). Stephen proceeded to Jerusalem, from there to Egypt, where he was arrested and died.

Stephen, Franciscan Father. He came in 1219-1220 to the Holy Land and informed St. Francis of Assisi about the happenings in his Order in Italy.

Stephen, the hymnograph, (Stephen of Mar Saba, The Sabaite, The Thaumaturgist. The Melkite liturgy has the feast on Oct 28. Stephen was born in Damascus in 725. His brother was John of Damascus. Stephen entered the monastery of St. Sabas in the desert of Judaea. Later he was consecrated a bishop. For many years he withdraw to live in the desert. He performed many miracles. He is said to have walked over the water. He lived on herbs. He died on March 31, 794. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on Dec 23. Stephen has written the passion of the 20 monks who were martyred in 797 by the Moslems. The Acta Sanctorum have Stephanus, confessor and poet, on Oct 28, in the 9th century. The Acta Sanctorum have Stephanus Sabaita on July 13.

Stephen, successor of St. Gerasimos, (Vita Cyriaci, ed. Schwartz)

Stephen, Saint, King of Hungary. Round 1010 he founded buildings in Jerusalem. (Vita S. Steph., auct. Hartwico seu Carthuitio, ep. c. III, n. 18) (AA.SS. Sept 2)

Sterckx Petrus, (Petrus Potens) priest from Leuven (Belgium). After a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he erected round 1505 a Cruysganck in the streets of Leuven with 8 Stations. They are: 1) Judgment 2' First Fall; 3) Simon helps; 4) Veronica wipes the face of Jesus 5) Second Fall; 6) Daughters of Jerusalem lament Jesus; 7) Third Fall; 8) Stripped of the garments. This 8th Station was outside the gate of the city. The Cruysganck of Leuven served as model for Peter Calentijn, who published his Cruysganck in 1568. (Compare: Steenberg Matthieu of Londerzeel)

Stock Simon. See: Simon Stock of Kent (1165-1265).

Stone of Calvary. According to the Latins, the Greeks cut away on Friday July 20, 1810 a part of the rock round the hole in which the Cross stood on Calvary. The relic was destined for Constantinople. The ship, according to the Latins, shipwrecked before the coast of Syria and the relic was lost. (Compare: Maurus, custos)

Storrs Ronald. He belonged to the British Military Government. In 1918, he ordered the Greeks to remove the screen wall, that separated the east apse from the central nave in the Basilica of Nativity in Bethlehem. The Greeks had erected the screen in 1842, after an earthquake of 1834.

Strabion. A tombstone in the Armenian cemetery outside Sion Gate in Jerusalem mentions: 'This is the tomb of Strabion, the Consul of Prussia and the United States'. - In the 19th century, it was customary for governments to appoint their consuls from the native population of Palestine. Armenians provided many consuls and interpreters for the consulates of the kingdom of Prussia, and of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

Strategius, hegumen of St. Sabas. He is mentioned, round 760, in the Life of St. Stephen the Wonderworker, ch. 33. - Strategius wrote a rapport on the sack of Jerusalem by the Persians on May 20, 614. Strategius hegumen is commemorated on May 5.

Stratoni(c)us, martyr at Ptolemais. Probably to be identified with Andronicus, martyr under Aurelian (271-275) (Compare Codratus).

Streuvels Stijn (Lateur Frank), Flemish writer (born 1871, died 1969). He wrote about his pilgrimage (1935) in the Holy Land in his book 'ingooigem II (1914-1940)'. He assisted on Sept 3, 1935 in Jerusalem with the Corps Diplomatique at a funeral service for the Belgian Queen Astrid. On Friday Sept 6, 1935 the pilgrims took the train at Lydda and travelled via Gaza and El-Arish to El-Kantara, where they crossed the Suez-Canal. They continued by rail to Cairo, visited the Pyramids. They embarked at Suez on the French steamer Porthos. This ship came from China and was steaming to Marseille.

Strouthion-Pool. It is mentioned by the historian Flavius Josephus. This pool was nearby the Fortress Antonia.

Stylites in the Holy Land. Cosmas in the valley of Kidron; John in Lydda; Two stylites near Bethlehem; A stylite near the well of Jacob in Samaria; A stylite near Gethsemane; A stylite near Bethlehem is mentioned by the Russian hegumen Daniel (1106-1107); John was a stylite near St. Sabas; A stylite near the ]aura of St. Gerasimus at the Jordan; Gabriel was a stylite near St. Sabas in 1183.

Sufinus, martyr. See: Sophinos.

Sulpicius, first patriarch (1191-1194) of the Latin Patriarchate in Acre. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, after the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, survived in Acre till the fall of Acre in 1291. (AA.SS.)

Surafel, archangel. See: Afnin.

Suriel, the fourth archangel, who helped the twelve sons of Jacob. He is celebrated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 27th of the month Nahasse (the twelfth month, Aug 4-Sept 2).

Surset. This lady is saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Takhshash 10. She was a daughter of the nobles of Constantinia. She refused to be betrothed to a nobleman and she went to Jerusalem (?) and she came to the monastery of the Egyptians (?). She went in the shrine of Golgotha, and she became a nun. Silas, who was a soldier from the country of Caesarea, had a friend who was a pilgrim and a man of the desert. This friend lived in the caves of Kalamon. When Easter came, Silas went to seek his friend, but he could not find him. Silas met a person in a cave, and asked: 'Is it a woman or a eunuch?' The lady Surset revealed her story. Silas brought her food, but she would not eat, and she died. Silas buried her in her cave. Salutation to the Lady Surset.'

Surius Bernardin. This Franciscan Father, together with Brother Philippus Singeliers, started from Boetendael near Brussels, on April 15, 1644. He was in the Holy Land from 1644 to 1647. He was in Jerusalem in May 1646, he became Superior of the Franciscan convent near the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. He stayed 6 months in Jerusalem. He was back at the end of June 1647. He published: Den godvrugtigen Pelgrim ofte Jerusalemse Reyse, (1649). - Surius relates that a Flemish Franciscan priest, Mauritius, was during 25 years in the Custody of the Holy Land. Neither name of the family, nor date of birth of Mauritius are given by Surius.

Susanna (Hebrew lily), heroine in the story of Daniel 13. Susanna, the wife of Joakim, was desired by two elders of the Jewish community in Babylon. They threatened to accuse her of adultery, unless she yielded to their desires. Susanna refused, and was condemned on their accusation. On the way to execution, Daniel the prophet examined the two elders. The falsehood of the accusation was detected and both elders were executed. - The Chapter Daniel 13 does not exist in Hebrew and is not in the Jewish and Protestant Bible.

Susanna. In the Museum of the Flagellation, Jerusalem, is her tombstone (Nr 9) with a cross and with a Greek inscription. The Blessed Susanna died on the 17th of the month Artemesius in the 11th indiction. (Revue Biblique, 1903, p. 425) - The tombstone was found near Beersheva.

Susanna, St., virgin and martyr. She was the daugther of the pagan priest Artemius and of the Jewess Martha. After the death of her parents, she became Christian. Prefect Alexander tortured her by several methods. She died in 3621363, in Eleutheropolis (BeitGuvrin). Her memory is in the Rom. Martyrology on Sept 19.

Susanna, mother of Artavan. In the hall of the former Russian Museum in the Russian Convent grounds on Mount of Olives is a pavement (6, 70 by 7 meters). Its inscription in Armenian reads: 'This is the tomb of the blessed Susanna, mother of Artavan, Hori 18.' Hori is the second month in the old Armenian calendar. Artavan was a Byzantine Armenian general.

Sutuel, the remaining (one) of the prophets. See Ezra Behar, who is called the scribe of the commandments of God.

Sveinsson Eskill, admiral of Jutland, and his brother, Sveinsson Svein, bishop of Viborg in Jutland. Eskill accompanied his brother on his pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Both brothers prayed in the sanctuary of Pater Noster on Mount of Olives, and they rebuilt the chapel with the alms which they had left for this purpose. Admiral Eskill, after a bath in the cold water of the Jordan, fell ill and died. Later his brother, bishop Svein, died in March 1152. Both brothers were buried in the Church Pater Noster, which was then under construction. Their tombs were unearthed under two slabs in 1869.

Swedish Jerusalem Society. It is housed in Prophets' Street, West Jerusalem. The Society runs the Swedish Theological Institute which publishes an Annual. The Swedish Institute possesses an inscription of the excavations of Gezer.

Sylvia of Aquitanie = another name for the nun Aetheria, who visited the Holy Land round 385.

Symeon Salos (the Fool). See: Simon the Fool. Leontius of Neapolis has handed down the life of Symeon Salos (BHG 1677). Simon was born round 522 in Emesa. He came to Jerusalem, together with his companion John (of Emesa). They lived 40 years in the monastery of St. Gerasimus, west of the Jordan. Symeon returned to Emesa, feigned to be a fool, therefore the nickname 'the fool'. Symeon died at the end of the 6th century. Symeon Saios and his companion John are remembered together on July 21.

Symeon, the Younger, stylite, St. He received from Jerusalem a relic of the Cross, and a chip of the rol1stone that was before the mouth of the Holy Sepulchre (Life of Martha, BHG 1174). The dedication of this relic-stone is mentioned on May 26, in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Symeon, the Younger, is remembered on May 23, and on July 27.

Symeons, Three Symeons, stylites. The Georgian liturgy records the three on July 27. Symeon, stylite, the Elder, made by miracle an end to a drought. Symeon, stylite, the Younger, received from Jerusalem a relic of the Cross and a chip of the rol1stone. Symeon, stylite, the third, lived 4 miles away from Egee in Cilicia. (Pratum Spirituale, ch. 57; PG 87, 2912). The 'three stylites' are mentioned in a canon of the 'Holy Fathers', Saturday of the second week before Lent, in the Greek liturgy.

Symeus. See: Maximus Symeus.

Symmachus, 22nd bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd century. (AA.SS.)

Syrian Hermit, abbot of St. Elias (Deir Mar Elyas). This monk with a long beard and with the face of a saint, brought to Richard Lion-Hearted, who encamped at Beit Nuba in June 1192, a relic of the Cross, in order to sustain his offensive against Jerusalem. But Richard failed to attack.

Syrian-Catholics. They have since 1974 in Jerusalem a new prayer-house in the Chaldean Street. The Syrian-Catholics emigrated from Turkey. A lot of them settled in Bethlehem.

Syrian-Jacobites (Syrian-Orthodox). At the instigation of Jacob Barada, bishop of Edessa, (died 587), they rejected the Christology of the Council of Chalcedon (451) and they became Monophysites.

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