A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land" - Encyclopedia

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Rabinus. Unknown. He is mentioned in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Sept 26.

Rachel, second wife of the patriarch Jacob and mother of Joseph and Benjamin. Rachel is named among the 'Just in the Old Testament' on the first Sunday of Advent, in the Eastern Churches.

Tomb of Rachel. It is on the way from Jerusalem to Bethlehem. On Feb 26 and on July 18, the memory of Rachel and the 'depositio' of St. Stephen, John the Baptist, Zachariah the prophet, are mentioned, in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The memory was in the 'church of Rachel'. (Lombardi G. La Tomba di Rahel, Jerusalem, 1971; Jeremias J. Heiligengraber in Jesu Umwelt, 1958, p. 75-76) - Bernardino Amico about 1596 sketched the Tomb with the four arches not yet walled up.

Radbord Commandeur. He designed the statue of Mary on her deathbed for the crypt of the Dormitio-Church on Mount Sion.

Radulph. This Franciscan was sent in 1254 by the city of Acre to the court of England. (Perhaps to be identified with R. (the Franciscan who was sent, together with J., in 1244: See Franciscan Messengers of Acre.)

Radzwil Nicholas Christopher. This Polish prince visited on July 9, 1583, the site Fontenoid 'the spring of Emmaus' where the Knights Hospitalers had erected a church in 1142. The site is now called Abu-Ghosh. Its Hebrew name is Qariet-el-Anab.

Rafael, the archangel. See: Rufael.

Raguel, archangel. The first day of the year (of the first month Maskaram (Sept 8-Oct 7) has the feast of Raguel, the angel, one of the nine archangels. Raguel informed Enoch concerning the fire which burned and the destruction of the world. And he is the angel of lights. May the intercession of this angel be with us all. (Ethiopian Synaxarium)

Rain of ashes. A rain of ashes threatened to destroy the town of Constantinople in 466, under Emperor Leo the Great (Leo I, 457-474). The liturgy in Jerusalem recalls this fact on Nov 6. (Compare: earthquakes)

Rainerius (Raynerius) He was Prior of the Church of St. Michael in Acre. He entered the Franciscan Order round 1220.

Rainier: See Rainerius.

Raisus. An inscription on a column of the portico at the west side in Avdat mentions: 'This roof was built by Raisus, son of Avdalga.

Raithu on Mount Sion. Forty Martyrs, without year. (AA.SS. Jan 14)

Rama. ViIIage about 10 Kms west of Safed with Christians and Druses, The Latins have a parish church since 1959. The Christian group counts Armenians (50 members), Melkites (750), Greek-Orthodox (750), Latins (214), Protestants (10), Russians.

Ramakers, Brothers, from Geleen (Netherlands). The wood sculptures at the south-side of the Grotto of Milk in Bethlehem are made by the artists Ramakers. The sculptures were offered by Nobel H., Holland. The Chapel above the Grotto and the Franciscan convent were built in 1872.

Rambertus, bishop of Verdun (France). (Hugo Flavin., Vita S. Ricardi, c. VIII, n. 75) (AA.SS. June 14). He visited Palestine.

Ramleh. The tower with five storeys near the White Mosque in Ramieh is an imitation of christian clock-towers, like they were in the 12th century. (Compare: Jourdain). The construction of this tower began under Bybars in 1267 or 1268. The construction was finished by Sultan Nasir Mohamed ibn Kalaoun in 1348. The tower is named Tower of the fourty companions of the Prophet.

Ramsey Michael, archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of the Anglican Church. He visited Jerusalem an April 23, 1966.

Rana. Latinized name for PUYIDT (De).

Ransquin Rene, Belgian police-man. He hid the Jewess Rahel Weiss-Goldstein in his office in Brussel, when she fled into the building during a Gestapo street round-up. - Ransquin was honoured as a Righteous Gentile at Yad Vashem on Thursday, Jan 27, 1977.

Ranulfus, bishop of Liège (Belgium). He visited Palestine in 1189. (Analecta Bollandiana, XIII, 209-210)

Raoul. This Norman Englishman was sent as chancellor of the English King, to Bethlehem for the restoration of the Basilica in 1165-1169. After the completion, Raoul was called to Pontoise to mediate between Henry II of England (king 1154-1189) and the exiled Thomas Becket.

Raoul d'Alost (Belgium). He was killed, together with Gerard d'Avesnes and Stabelon, near Ramleh in May 1102 in a clash with the Egyptian troops. - Roger de Rozoy and Walter van Berg could escape to Jaffa.

Rasputin. This Russian monk made at Easter-time 1911 the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. A Russian ship, that was named 'Andromeda' was afterwards renamed 'Zagorsk', after the holy city of Zagorsk. Rasputin heard about the 'Andromeda' ship.

Ratisbonne Marie Alphonse, co-founder of the Congregation of Notre Dame de Sion and of Fathers of Sion. He was born in Strasbourg, France, on May 1, 1814. He died at Ain-Karem, May 6, 1884. So bitterly anti-Christian was Alphonse that he could not forgive nis elder brother Théodore for converting from Judaism to Catholicism in 1827. But Alphonse was converted by a vision of the Blessed Virgin in a church of Rome on Jan 20, 1842. He joined the Jesuits. After his ordination as a priest (1848), he left the Jesuits and collaborated with his brother Théodore for the conversion of the Jews. In 1855 Alphonse went to Palestine. He established for the Dames de Sion the Ecce Homo Convent in 1856, and later (1870) opened an orphanage in Jerusalem and another one in Ain-Karem. Alphonse died in Ain-Karem, on May 6, 1884.

Ratisbonne, Marie Théodore, co-founder of the Congregation of Notre Dame de Sion and the Fathers of Sion. Théodore was born in Strasbourg (France) on Dec 28, 1802. He was the second son of a Jewish family. He converted to catholicism in 1827. Théodore and his younger brother, Alphonse, who converted to Catholicism in 1842, founded the Congregation of Notre Dame de Sion for women (1843) and the Fathers of Sion (1852). Théodore wrote: 'La question juive' (1868). Théodore died at Paris on Jan 10, 1884.

Raymond. (Compare Lull Raymond) In 1282 and in 1292 he was in North Africa. In 1302 perhaps he came over Cyprus to Jerusalem. In 1309 he published 'De acquisitione Terrae Sanctae'. In 1311 he wrote 'Book on the birth of the Infant Jesus Christ'. In 1315, at the age of 83(?) years, he was for the third time in North Africa. He was beaten by the Muslims. Sailors of Genoa brought him to their ship. He died on sea, in view of the harbor of Palma, the capital of the island Majorca. (Terre Sainte, 1973, Novembre, p. 310)

Raymond Lulluis. To be identified with Lull Raymond. The AA.SS. mentions him on June 30.

Raymond d'Agiles. He wrote the history of the First Crusade (1096-1099).

Raymond de Saint Gillis, Count of Toulouse. He had fought in Spain against the Moors. He took the Cross in the first Crusade (1096-1099). The village Sinjil, to the left on the way from Jerusalem to Nablus, is named after him. It has two ruins: one is named Burj (Fortress, Castle), the second is called Keniseh (Church).

Raymond III of Tripoli (Lebanon). He was the garrison-commander in Tiberias, during the battle at Hattin in June 1187.

Raymond de Bourgogne, Crusader. See: Guillaume Roi.

Raymond du Puy. He was the second Grand Master of the Knights Hospitallers. He received in 1113 from Pope Pascal 11 (1099-1118) the exemption of his Knights from the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. (Compare Godechaux de Turout)

Raymundus, princeps Antiochiae. He had the same mother as Guillelmus VIII, who was dux Aquitaniae. Raymundus came to Palestine round 1136. (AA.SS. Feb 10)

Raymundus S. Aegidii (Raymond de Saint Gillis) at Albertus, prior Casae Dei. They are mentioned round 1106. (Mirac. S. Roberti Casae Dei, c. II, n. 10-11) (AA.SS. April 24)

Raymundus Lullius. He begged from England aims for the Holy Land. (AA.SS. June 30) In 1289 he tried to unite the Templars with the Knights Hospitalers. (To be identified with Lull Raymund).

Raymundus, nobilis Tolosanus. This nobleman of Toulouse visited Palestine in the 10th century. (AA.SS. Oct 6)

Raymundus Paimerius, Saint. He came to Palestine round 1169. (Vita, c. 1) (AA.SS. July 28)

Raynerius, bishop of Antloch (1216). The bull 'Si Ordinis Fratrum Minorum' of Gregory IX (1227-1241) of Feb 1, 1230 is addressed to Raynerius and Girondus. (To be identified with Rainerio, Rainier)

Raynerius Pisanus, Blessed. He came to Palestine in 1139. (AA.SS. June 17) (Fr. Benincasa, Vita B. Rayn., c. II-V, n. 22-65; c. XI, n. 119: miraculum a B. Rayn. C. P. anno 1161 patratum)

Razzo, St. Comes Andechsensis. Together with Judith, countess of Bavaria, he visited Palestine round 940. (AA.SS. Oct 8) (Innoc. Keferhoherus, Vita S. Razzonis, n. 4; AA.SS. June 19). Pilgrimages were possible before the time of the Crusades.

Rebecca (Rebekah), wife the patriarch Isaac. She is named among the 'Just of the Old Testament' on the first Sunday of Advent, in the Eastern Church. Her cenotaph is opposite that of her husband Isaac in the Haram el Khalil (Hebron).

Rebondin, Sister of 'Filles de Charité'. The Hospice at Haifa had been opened in 1899. Sister Rebondin worked in this Hospice till 1942. In 1907 she began to build the School that was finished in 1913.

Récamier, Sister of 'Filles de Charité'. She arrived in Jerusalem on Oct 9, 1918. She founded the Orphanage at Bethany in 1922; she died at Jerusalem on Sept 4, 1950.

Regenspurg. In the Cenacle (Room of the Last Supper) inside its north-west entrance, at the west wall, under the rim of the capital are incised drawings and also paintings of coat-of-arms. On a coat the name 'Regenspurg' is visible. The black graffiti have been overpainted by colours. Probably the black painting date from the Crusaders, and the colour-painting from the later redecoration by the Franciscans. (Compare: Rimler)

Reginbertus, episcopus Pataviensis. He was in Palestine in 1147. (AA.SS. Aug 8) (Monachus Gottwic., Vita S. Altmanni, c. V, n. 44)

Reinaldus, Tornodorensis comes, postea episcopus Lingon. He came to Palestine round 1060. (Translatio S. Mamantis, c. II, n. 1012) (AA.SS. Aug 17)

Reinildis, St. She visited Palestine round 670. (Vita S. Rein., c. 7) (AA.SS. July 16)

Reland. He wrote 'Palestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata', 1714.

Relic of the Cross. A relic in a shrine was discovered by the Crusaders on Aug 5, 1099, on the indications of a local christian. This (or such a) relic was afterwards lost in the battle at Hattin in June 1187.

Renan Ernest (1823-1892). This French writer visited the Holy Land and wrote 'Vie de Jésus' in 1863 and 'Histoire du peuple Juif' in 1887-1893.

Renaud de Châtillon. This Seigneur of Kerak, brought in 1182, across the desert separate pieces of ships to the Gulf of Aqaba. His fleet attacked the Muslim pilgrims to Mecca. (Compare Lulu el Hajeb) In 1184, Renaud resisted in Kerak to the attacks of Saladin. After the victory at Hattin in 1187, Saladin beheaded him.

Renaud l’évèque. The knight Renaud, who was surnamed l’évèque, (the bishop) was the nephew of Roger l’évèque of Lydda. Renaud was the marshall of the Company of St. George in the district of Lydda. Renaud was taken prisoner by the Egyptians when he was at war against the Egyptian garrison of Ascalon round 1139140.

Renier Brus. (1139-1164) The town of Belinas (Paneas, Banyas) on the Golan-heights was first held by Renier Brus. He was of the Anglo-Norman family from which Robert Bruce was descended. (Compare Bruce Robert)

Reovales. Was in Palestine in the year 569. (Vita S. Radegundis, auct. Baudanivia, c. III, n. 21-22) (AA.SS. Aug 13; Aug 17)

Reparata, St., Virgin and martyr. Under Emperor Decius (248-251) she refused to sacrifice. She was beheaded at Caesarea, Palestine. Her soul was seen taken to heaven in the form of a dove. The Mart. Rom. has her memory on Oct 8. (AA.SS. Nov 6)

Retamero Zachariah, priest, Franciscan of Spain. He was murdered by Greek pirates in 1833.

Reuben. He was Jacob's first-born son. The weli Rubin in Nahr Rubin at Jamnia (now Yabneh) is, according to Arab tradition, the tomb of Reuben. It is in Nahr Rubin at Jamnia (now Yabneh). The masjid (= small mosque) was built in the 13th century. The masjid was a place of pilgrimage.

Revoil, Joseph, priest of France. He was ordained as a priest by Patriarch Barlassina in the newly erected sanctuary of the Monastery of the Ark at Abu-Ghosh, on Nov 9, 1925. Revoil served in this shrine for 45 years till his death, on March 25, 1969. He is buried in the shrine. - The shrine was built in 1924. It belongs to the French Sisters of St. Joseph de l’Apparition. The shrine is called Notre Dame de l’Arche de l’Alliance. The building is surmounted by a statue of the Virgin Mary. The shrine recalls the site, where the Ark of the Covenant rested when sent on its way by the inhabitants of Beth Shemesh (1 Sam 7, 1). - Abbé J. Revoil had a sister, Mère de la Trinité.

Rhodos. The King of Rhodos came in 1403 to an agreement with the sultan of Egypt whereby a Consul (dragoman) and 6 Franciscans were allowed to settle at Ramleh for the service of the pilgrims.

Riant P. This French count wrote in the 19th century the book 'Scandinaves en Terre Sainte'.

Richard, Benedictine abbot of Saint Vannes. Richard pilgrimated (1023 or 1026127) to the Holy Land. There he met Simeon of Trier, who lived at that time in Palestine. Afterwards Simeon visited Richard in Verdun. Richard was then abbot of Saint Vannes.

Richard I, King of England (Richard Coeur de Lion). He wintered in Sicily in 1190191. He conquered Acre on July 12, 1191. In 1192 Richard ambushed an Egyptian caravan in Bir Khuweilifa (Round Cistern). Richard tried to marry his sister Johanna to the brother of Saladin. He met Saladin at Qariet el Enab (actually Abu Ghosh) on June 12, 1192. The plan of marrying failed. Richard left the Holy Land on Oct 9, 1192. On the return he was taken prisoner at Vienna (France) by his erstwhile Allies; he was ransomed. He died 7 years later.

Richard de Caiffa, ' He was slightly wounded in the Plain of Sharon, but he could follow the army. The army reconquered Arsur (Arabic Arsuf) on Sept 11, 1191. Arsuf was lost to Baybars in 1265.

Richard de Filangieri. Frederick Il sent in 1231 Marshall Richard as his legate to Syria.

Richard of Marseilles, Franciscan. Round 1268 Richard obtained for himself and for a companion the permit for a pilgrimage to the Orient. It is not clear if the pilgrimage took place. (GBB II, 411)

Richard II, count of Normandy. He sent, round 1023, legates with gifts to Palestine. (Compare: Richard, Benedictine abbot; Simeon of Trier). (Eberwinus, Vita S. Simeonis reclusi, c. II, n. 10) (AA.SS. June 1) (See: Simeon of Trier)

Richard of Cornwall. He was the brother of King Henry III of England. Richard sailed in 1240-41 for Acre. Richard and Theobald IV of Champagne consented to ally themselves with the Emir of Emesa against the Sultan of Egypt. But the Sultan implored the help of the Khwarismian Turks. The Egyptian army was under the command of Baybars, the later Sultan. In a battle, fought at Forbie or Hirbya near Gaza on Oct 17, 1244, Richard was defeated by Bybars.

Richardus, St., episcopus Cicestriensis. He preached the Crusade in 1248. (AA.SS. April 3) (Capgravius, Vita S. Richardi, c. III, n. 16)

Richaud, Cardinal. He opened officially on April 29, 1965 the 'Maison d'Abraham' (a hospice of Caritas Internationalis) on Mount of Scandal at Jerusalem.

Rich Man. The unnamed figure in the parable of the Rich Man and the poor Lazarus (Luke 16, 19-31) is often called 'Dives'. This word is used in the Latin Vulgate to translate the Greek word Plousios.

Ricold da Montecroce, Dominican pilgrim in 1289. He mentions the building on Mount Sion, already in ruins; part of the building is a mosque. This was the situation before the Franciscan Roger bought the site in 1335. - Ricold visited at a junction of streets the site, where Jesus halted for a while (= 3rd Station), and the site of the 'Spasm of Our Lady Mary' (4th Station), and near the site of Simon of Cyrene (5th Station) was the house that once was habited by the Franciscans. - Ricold tells that the Garden of Gethsemane was called 'Champ of Flowers'. (Compare: Burchard)

Rimler Johannes, Alsatian Crusader, knight. His armour represented a knight with the drawn sword. Of his partly erased name remain seven Gothic letters in black painting: JohRiml (sic). They are on the west face of a column which is at the north-west entrance in the Cenacle. According to a family-tradition, Rimler Johannes came in the 12th century to Jerusalem as a crusader. He was killed in action. Therefore his family received the title of 'Knight'. The armour has on blue-gold field a Crusader with drawn sword. The printed family-armour perished in a fire at the 19th century. Mertens A, at Jerusalem, clearly discovered the partly erased name. He also has seen a heraldry armour under the rim of the column. The drawing seems to show a knight with a sword. The column with the drawing is on the west side of the northern niche in the Room of the Last Supper. A relative of Rimler supplied in 1976 to Father Mertens A. the informations in connection with the name and the drawing, in the Room of the Last Supper. (Compare: Regenspurg)

Rindfleisch Peter, pilgrim of Breslau. He visited Jerusalem in 1496. He writes: A slab of white marble covers the tomb of Christ. This slab is broken in its midst. Rindfleisch mentions also a picture that is above the tomb. The painting figures the Risen Lord, it is protected by a grid of wire. - Still nowadays, six lead-filled holes (they supported once the upstanding bars of the gridframe) can be seen and touched in the rim along the length of the marble slab. The sixfold perforated rim reveals that the marble plate is still the same as in the days of Rindfleisch in 1496. The Franciscan Custos, Bonifacius of Ragusa, restored in 1555 the building above the Holy Sepulchre. Bonifacius did not change the broken marble slab. Bonifacius in his book 'Liber de Perenni Cultu' admits that he 'removed' one of the slabs that cover the Tomb and that he had seen the bare rock. (Mertens A., Una lapida rota. Tierra Santa, Nr 542, vol 49, 1974, p. 105-112)

Ripsimis, Saint, and saints companions. They were pilgrims round 301. (AA.SS. Sept 30)

Ritz E. He restored and decorated in 1944 the Latin church of St. Peter in Tiberias.

Rizpah, concubine of Saul. Her two sons were crucified by the Gibecinites on the hill. (2 Sam 21, 1) Rizpah, to prevent the birds of pray, to devour the corpses, remained on the hill from the beginning of the harvest till the rainy season. On learning of the devotion of Rizpah, David took the bones of Saul and of his son Jonathan from the people of Jabesh Gilead, which is in East Jordan, and had them buried with those of the two sons of Rizpah and with those of the five sons of Merab, in the tomb of Kish, the father of Saul, at Zela, a city of Benjamin (2 Sam 21).

Rizzari. See: Innocent Rizzari.

Robert Bruce of Scotland. His heart never reached Jerusalem. But the heart of Marquis of Bute, John Crichton Stuart, was buried by proxy in 1901 in the ground near the small chapel at Dominus Flevit on the slope of Mount of Olives. (Compare Renier Brus; Marquis of Bute)

Robert d'Eglin. He wrote Vita S. Canuti. He mentioned that Batilda, wife of Henry the Good, was buried in 1103 at Jerusalem in the church of the Assumption.

Robert, knight. This knight went to the Pope and confessed that while a captive in Egypt, during the famine at the beginning of the 13th century, he had killed his wife and his child, and had kept himself alive by eating their flesh. The pope (perhaps Innocent III, 1198-1216) ordered him to pass three years in the Holy Land.

Robert I, the Frisian. He was the son of Baldwin the Pious, count of Flanders. Robert sailed as a pirate to Galicia in Spain. There he fought against the Moors. He returned to Flanders. Afterwards he joined pilgrims for Jerusalem. He tried to found a kingdom at the Bosphorus. He failed and he sailed back to Flanders. He went to Friesland and married there in 1064 Gertrude of Saxe, who was the widow of Count Florent I. Robert was desherited by his father in 1066. Later he took the power in Flanders under the name of Robert the Frisian. He sailed again to the East. He had founded a village of fishers and a church where later would be the town of Oostende. In 1093 he abdicated in favour of his son, Robert II.

Robert II, Count of Flanders. He partook to the first Crusade (1096-1099). He was surnamed the son of Saint Georges. (Gualterius Tarv., Vita S. Karoli Boni, c. I, n. 65-67). Robert was an excellent soldier and leader, he was compared to Caesar Augustus. (Ebrardus Wattinensis, Miracula S. Donatiani, c. II, n. 227 The AA.SS. mention Robert on Oct 14, and July 1, round 1106. - During a tempest at the return, the boatsmen decided to throw in sea all the relics. Robert promised to offer his relic to a religious foundation. He donated a relic of the Cross to the Church of St. Walburgis at Veurne (Belglum). (Compare: Veurne, Boeteprocessie).

Robert of Bruges. This Hospitaller, on his own initiative, against the rules of his Order, boldly attacked the Muslims in June 1192 at Beit Nuba.

Robert of Turnham, Franciscan about 1250. He needed to follow the crusade of Henry III, King (1216-1272) of England. This expedition became a failure. Robert was perhaps in Palestine. (GBB II, 369-370; Van der Vat, 97-98)

Roberts David R. A. Scottish, (1792-1864). He was in the Holy Land in 1839 and painted a view of Bethlehem. The text was written by his friend, the Rev. G. Proly.

Robertus de Arbrissello, Sanctus. He preached in 1095 the first Crusade (1096-1099). The AA.SS. mention him on Feb 25.

Robertus Diabolus. He came to Palestine in 1035. (AA.SS. June 14) (Hugo Flavin., Vita S. Ricardi, c. VIII, n. 75)

Robertus Guiscardus. He established a Norman state in 1071 round Bari. His chaplains came to Palestine round 1085. (AA.SS. Sept 21)

Robertus, patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre 1240-1254. (May, Prop. AA.SS.)

Robinson, Abbess. Mother Mary was from Scotland. She was abbess of the Russian Convent S. Mary Magdalen at Gehsemane. She took over in 1934 the Russian Hospice at Bethany and opened there a school. Mother Mary died in 1966.

Robinson Edward. This American archaeologist was the first to visit the ruins of Mampsis (the Greek name for the Arabic town Kurnub) in 1838. He discovered in 1838 the so-called Robinson's Arch of the Royal Gate, orr the western side of the Temple Mount. He recognized the synagogue at Capharnaum in 1857. He published 'Physical Geography of the Holy Land' (1865).

Robinson, Mgr. As Visitator Apostolicus for the Union Churches (churches in union with Rome), he arrived in Jerusalem on Sept 15, 1927.

Rockefeller John D., Junior. He visited Jerusalem, together with his son, in March 1929. He asked: 'Do you remember, Mrs. Vester, whether it was one or two million dollar I donated towards the Jerusalem Museum?' (Bertha Spafford Vester, Our Jerusalem, p. 308)

Rockefeller Nelson Park. This park on the site Karem Sheikh el-Khalil was opened in 1971. The park is near the Rockefeller Museum.

Rodhain Jean, Mgr, President of Secours Catholique. He visited the Holy Land several times. He died at Lourdes (France) on Feb 1977. A holy Mass was celebrated for him in 'Maison d'Abraham' Jerusalem, on the anniversary (Feb 11, 1977) of the Apparition of Notre Dame in Lourdes. The Apparition in Lourdes happened in 1858.

Rodulphus, patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre (1214-1216) (AA.SS.)

Roehricht R. This German scholar wrote several studies on the Holy Land. He published 'Syria Sacra' in Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, Vol. X, (1887).

Roegnwaldus, count of the Orcades (Orkney islands). With crusaders out of Norway, he came to the Holy Land in 1153. He returned to Norway in 1154. The AA.SS. mention him on Aug 20.

Roger do Lydda (Roger l'évèque). His nephew, Renaud, was surnamed Renaud l’évèque. This Renaud was taken prisoner round 1139-40 near Ascalon by the Egyptians.

Roger do Rozoy. This knight from Picardy (France) received in 1100 from Godfrey de Bouillon the county of Jaffa. Roger celebrated Eastern 1102 at Jerusalem. In a clash with Egyptian troops near Ramlah (May 17, 1102) and in another clash (Oct 9, 1106) Roger could escape to Jaffa.

Roger do Rozoy-sur-Serre (France). He was killed, together with Erard II of Brienne, at Mansurah (Egypt) in February 1250.

Roger des Moulins, Grand Master of the Hospitallers. He was suggested by Gerard do Ridefort, who was the Grand Master of the Knights Templars, to attack Saladin. The same order was given to Jacques do Mailly, who was the marshall of the Templars. They took 90 Templar Knights of the castle of EI-Fouleh and some 40 Knights of the garrison of Nazareth, with their horse-men, numbering about 400. Thrice they attacked. Jacques do Mailly was killed, Roger des Moulin's was killed. Only three Templars escaped and reached Nazareth. Under these three was Gerard de Ridefort. The battle was on May 1, or on May 10, 1187, in the plain east of Sepphoris.

Roger Père, (1610). The Turks allowed the Franciscans 'every Friday to make, two by two the way of the Cross, bare-footed'.

Roger, Jean. (Père Jean Roger Hené) Born in München, 1918, from a Jewish father. He became an Assumptionist priest in 1948 in France. He emigrated from France to the newly founded State of Israel. He guided pilgrims. He died in September 1979. He was buried in the cemetery of St. Peter in Gallicantu.

Roger Garin, Franciscan of the Province of Aquitaine (France). He was the representative of Robert, King of Naples, and of Queen Sancha in the negotiations for buying a sanctuary on Mount Sion. He came to Jerusalem in 1333. He lived in the Hospital of St. John, There was at that time a hospice for pilgrims. He bought for 400 dirham on Sept 19, 1335 a part of the estate, which Lady Margaret had acquired on May 15, 1335. Friar Roger and other friars bought for 1400 dirhams more land on Feb 1, 1337, and they lived on Mount Sion. The place was Eliat Sahium, the Upper Place of Sion. A papal letter of 1343 mentions the Franciscans in the Cenacle. Perhaps the Franciscans were on Mount Sion, already in 1336. (Compare: Ricold da Montecroce, 1289)

Roger the Lombard. He possessed the Crusader Castle at Umm Khalid, just north of Netanya. Netanya on the Mediterranean coast is the capital of the Plain of Sharon. Netanya is about 30 Kms north of Jaffa. Netanya was founded in 1928 and named after Nathan Strauss.

Rogerius Fuxensis. He returned from the first crusade (1096-1099). In memory of the city of Apamea (Syria), he founded in France the city of Apamiam (Pamiers). (AA.SS. Sept 2)

Rohan Denis Michael. This Australian tourist of 28 years put fire to the EI Aqsa mosque on Aug 21, 1969. The fire destroyed the pulpit (minbar). Rohan was condemned. After several years he was sent back to Australia as insane.

Rolling Stone. A fragment of the rolling stone that closed the tomb of Jesus is conserved behind the glass cover in the marble pedestal which stands in the Chapel of the Angel, inside the Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre.

Romanus John, bishop of Bethlehem. He took away before 1244 some liturgical objects from the Basilica of Nativity for repaying debts. - In 1879 were found in Bethlehem two silver candelabra. They bear in Gothic letters the Latin inscription: 'Damned be he who takes me away from the Holy Nativity at Bethlehem'. These candlesticks are in the Museum of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa (Compare: Giovanni Romano)

Romanus, monophysite monk. The monastery in Khirbet Tequ'a (Tekoah) is believed to have been founded by Romanus, who was the friend of Marcianus. Later the followers of Marcianus attacked in 484 this convent.

Romanus of Caesarea, Palestine. He was deacon in Caesarea. His tongue was cut off, and he was strangled in the prison at Antioch in 303. The Mart. Rom. has his feast on Nov 18.

Romanus of Karpenisi. He was born in Karpenisi. He went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He returned to Salonika, where he professed his faith before the Moslems. He was tortured, but saved from death because he was sold as a slave. Later he was freed and he went to Mount Athos. In 1694 he suffered martyrdom in Constantinople. An English ship is said to have taken his body to England. The Greek liturgy remembers him on Jan 5.

Romanus the Melodist. He was born in Emesa, Syria, of Jewish parents. He converted and served as deacon in Beirut. He went to Constantinople. He wrote many hymns, though about only eighty have survived. He died in the 6th century, after 557. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on Oct 4; the Greek liturgy on Oct 1.

Romolus, St. Martyr, 304. See: Romylos.

Romylius. He was born in Lydda (Lod), Palestine, and presented himself to Urban, the governor of Caesarea. He confessed his faith and suffered martyrdom in 297. (Greek liturgy on March 15)

Romylos, martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, companion of SS. Timolaus, Agapius, etc. According to Eusebius, his death was on March 24, 304. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the feast on Feb 8 and Feb 11; and also on March 23 and on March 24.

Romylus of Damascus, goldsmith and deacon of Gethsemane. He suffered a theft. He went immediately to the martyrion (the shrine) of St. Theodosius and he Prayed there to the martyr for five days and five nights. (Vita S. Sabae, ch. 78). The shrine of St. Theodosius is identified by Dr. John Tleel of Jerusalem, as the Greek Orthodox Convent of St. Theodorus, inside the Old City, north of the hostel Casa Nova. According to a legend, in this Greek Orthodox Convent of St. Theodorus, the Holy Chalice, the Grail, was venerated. At this convent the silversmiths had a service on July 3.

Rorde (de) Macidius. This Franciscan started from Liège (Belgium) on March 3, 1666, together with Father Bartholomew Deschamps. Both went over France and Spain. They met in Benavente (Galicia) the General Superior Ildefonsus Salizanes. They received from him the permission to go to the Holy Land. They embarked at Barcelona, and landed on Aug 21, 1666 at Finale in the State of Genoa. They embarked on Sept 3 for Alexandria and landed there on Sept 20, 1666. Macidius de Rorde received letters from Jerusalem to travel with the common caravan to Jerusalem. Father Deschamps sailed with a Turkish boat to Acre, and continued to Nazareth, where he stayed till Jan 12, 1667. There Deschamps met again Macidius de Rorde.

Rosary Sisters. They were founded by Tannous Joseph. Their first school in Palestine was opened in Nablus in 1884.

Rossi Joseph. (184, 3-1890). This Franciscan painted 'St. Mary of the Fright' which is above the altar in the shrine on the mountain at Nazareth.

Rothenensis Anonymous. He came to Palestine round 1030. (P. Damianus, Vita S. Odilonis, c. X) (AA.SS. Jan 1)

Rothomagensis monachus. A monk of Rouen (France) brought a finger of St. Catherine to Rouen in the 13th (?) century. (Miracula S. Catherinae, c. 18) (Analecta Boll. cat. cod. hag. Brux., 11, 172-173)

Rouba, desert in Palestine (?). St. John Hesychast (died 558 at the age of 104 years) very often retired to the desert of Rouba (?), where he is known to have performed the miracle of the lion. (Cyril of Scythopolis)

Roum (Rûm). The Muslims in Palestine mean by Roum the Romans especially the Romans of the East-Roman Empire, the Byzantines, who are adherents of the Greek-Orthodox Church. The opposite of Roum is Franj, the Frank, the Crusader. Deir el Roum signifies Convent of the Greek Orthodox.

Rshdouniatz. In the list (7th century) of the Armenian monk Anastase Haroutioun, the monastery of St. Stephen (to the east of the Armenian Convent of the Archangels on Mount Sion) is known as Rshdouniatz. It took care of lepers in Jerusalem.

Rua Michele (1837-1910). He was the General Superior of the Salesian Fathers. He visited the Holy Land in 1890, and in 1908. Some sources indicate that he visited Jerusalem for the first time on March 3, 1895.

Rudolph of Habsburg, crownprince, Archduke of Austria. He was the son of Franz Joseph, the Emperor. Rudolph visited Palestine from the beginning of Feb 1881 to the end of April 1881. He wrote in 1884 the book 'Eine Orientreise'. He died under tragic circumstances in the night 29130 Jan 1889, at the age of 31 years, at the castle of Mayerling.

Rufael (Rafael), the archangel. He healed Tobit, the father of the travelling Tobias. Rufael is mentioned in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Maskaram 16 (first month, Sept 8-Oct 7). He is saluted on Takhshash 13 (fourth month).

Rufinus Aquileiensis. The AA.SS. mention Rufinus, together with Saint Melania Major, on Jan 7, Jan 21, Sept 30. Both visited Palestine in 373.

Rufinus, martyr, and Agabus, martyr. Perhaps both belonged to the group of Herodion, Agabus, Rufus, etc., martyrs in the time of the apostles. This group is remembered by the Greek Synaxaries on April 8. - Agabus, the prophet and apostle, is listed on April 10 or 11. Rufinus (April 9 in Rom. Mart) is perhaps a double of Rufus, martyr, who is listed on April 9.

Rufinus as Pseudo-Rufinus. Visited Palestine round 394 (AA.SS. Oct 4)

Rufus, bishop of Thebes, one of the 70 disciples (Greek list).

Rufus, the son of Simon who carried the cross. (M1k 15, 21)

Rufus of Rome. His feast is on Nov 21 in the Latin church; on April 18 in the Greek liturgy. Rufus is greeted by Paul in his letter to the Romans (16, 13) Perhaps Rufus of Rome is to be identified with Rufus, the son of the Crossbearer Simon of Cyrene.

Rufus, martyr. (Perhaps to be identified with Rufinus). The feast of Rufus, martyr, is one April 9. Rufus was martyred in the time of the Apostles. In the Greek Synaxaries, he is listed together with Herodion and Agabus on April 8.

Rufus, patronus. A Latin epitaph, that was found in 1872 and is conserved (Nr 242) in Museum Flagellation reads: Heterio Grapto, Heterius Rufus Patronus. - A certain Rufus was governor during the Revolt of Bar-Kochba (132 CE).

Ruga Armenorum. It is a long street in the South-western section of Jerusalem. It was known under this name since Byzantine times. At the very beginning of Ruga Armenorum was the church of Saint Sabas, according to John of Würzburg (1165).

Ruiz Emmanuel and Companions, martyrs at Damascus in 1860, Blessed. Ruiz was born at San Martino de las Ollas, Spain, in 1804. In 1831 this Franciscan priest came to the Custody of the Holy Land. He was martyred by the Druses at Damascus, on July 10, 1860, together with seven other Franciscans of his convent. Pope Pius XI proclaimed them 'Blessed' on Oct 10, 1926. Three brothers Massakbi, of the Maronite rite, were murdered at the same time.

Ruma. See: Arethas.

Rumanian Church and Patriarchate. In West Jerusalem, not far from the Old City, to the north, in Shivtei Israel Street Nr 46.

Rumèhe Josephine. She was born in Aspet, near Toulouse, on Oct 18, 1850. She entered the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph de l’Apparition, and came to Jerusalem in 1868. She built the Hospital St. Louis in Jerusalem, which is opposite the New Gate. She acquired a site in Kiryat-Yearim in 1903 and founded there the Sanctuary 'Our Lady of the Ark'. She died there on Sept 1, 1927.

Ruschi. See: Anselm Ruschi.

Russians in the Holy Land. The Russian Consulate was opened in Jaffa in 1820. The Russian archimandrite arrived in Jerusalem in 1844. The Imperial Palestine Society of Russia was established in 1847, primarily to help Russian pilgrims to the Holy Land. Bishop Cyril arrived on Jan 31, 1858 and was in function till 1864. He was succeeded by Archimandrite Leonid. The ground for the Russian Compound outside the walls (meidan) was bought in 1860. The Holy Trinity Cathedral was built there. in 1881-1883 was formed the Orthodox Palestine Society. The Russian Tower on Mount of Olives arose 1870-1887. The Tombs of the Prophets on the west slope of Mount of Olives was purchased in 1890. In 1888 arose the Church with the gilded onion-formed cupolas of St Mary Magdalen at Gethsemane. The Russian convent for nuns in Ain-Karem was opened in 1871.

Russian pilgrims killed in 1893. A caravan of Russian pilgrims left Jerusalem for Galilee on March 4, 1893. On March 11, 1193 they were caught in a storm round Mount Tabor. On March 17 they began the return from Nazareth to Jerusalem. In Samaria, in the vicinity of Lubban, they were surprised by a hailstorm. In the Greek Orthodox Church at Ramallah was held the burial-service for twenty-five victims. (Graham Stephen, With the Russian pilgrims to Jerusalem. London, 1911).

In 1902, Turkey granted a firman which accorded the Russians the right to open schools in Galilee: 23 schools were opened. Before World War I (1914-1918) there came yearly 10000 Russian pilgrims. The Alexander Hospice (Russian Shrine) is to the south of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. It is opposite the Lutheran Church of St. Saviour. In the Hospice is a threshold, which had belonged to a gate. After the revolution of 1917 the pilgrimages of Russia stopped. In 1921 the Russian Orthodox Church outside Russia is founded. Its headquarters are in New York since 1950.

The Russian Mission in Palestine is actually twofold: one is connected with the Patriarchate of Moscow, the second with the Russian Orthodox Church outside Russia. The first branch is in West-Jerusalem; the second branch is in East Jerusalem in the Alexander Hospice.

Rusticus (Grossus Rusticus). He was Emir of the Land of Suète. Albert d'Aix, I, p. 633 mentions: In terram Grossi Rustici, nomine Suet. - The country Land of Suhite, as-Sawad was to the east of the Lake of Galilee. King Baldwin I (1100-1118) by an accord received 1/3 or 1/2 of the harvest of the Land of Sawad.

Ruth, the heroine of the Book of Ruth. Ruth married Booz in Bethlehem. Their son was Obed, the grandfather of David. Ruth is mentioned among the Just of the Old Testament, on the first Sunday of Advent in the Eastern Church. The Field of Ruth is shown east of Bethlehem, in the fertile plain that descends to the Dead Sea.

Ryan Cornelius, the author of 'The Longest Day'. He was stationed in Jerusalem in 1946 as Bureau Chief of the London 'Daily Telegraph'. During his stay in Palestine, he covered the story of the boat-loads of Jewish refugees, who were prevented by the British Mandatory Government from landing in Palestine and were transported to Cyprus. On one occasion he look a photograph of two refugee children. The photo now (1975) hangs in the offices of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva.

Studium Biblicum Franciscanum - Jerusalem
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