A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Pacher Friedrich. He was the brother of Michel Pascher who was the sculptor. Friedrich was a painter in Tyrol round 1445. Seven paintings on wood, representing the life of Peter and of Paul, were formerly in the Franciscan Convent of Tiberias. Actually the seven pictures are in the Convent of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem. (Compare: Sepp)

Pacific of Spoleto, Italy, Franciscan, martyr. The Franciscan Martyrologium has his feast-day on September 8.

Painting of the Lord, not made by hand of man. A tradition tells us King Abgar reigned in Osrhoene, Syria, and offered asylum to Christ, who was endangered in Galilee by the tetrarch Herod Antipas. The Lord made his own portrait and sent it to King Abgar V. Christ excused Himself for not accepting the hospitality offer, but He promised to send the Apostle Thaddeus (the disciple Thomas the Younger, or Addai) after His ascension. - The Melkite liturgy has on Aug 16 the translation of the painting from Syria to Constantinople, in 994, according to legend. - Abgar reigned from 4 BC to 7 AD, and from 13 to 50 AD,

Paisius. See: Plesius.

Palestina prima, secunda et tertia (seu Salutaris). The Roman Emperor Hadrian in 135 divided the country in three Palestines: Prima, the centre, including Judaea and Samaria, with capital Caesarea on sea; Secunda: Galilee, Gilad, and Golan, with capital Beth-Shean; Tertia (seu Salutaris, Healthy) with the Negev and East Jordan, with capital Petra.

Palestine: Persecutions round 1446. Sultan Jaqmaq (1438-1453) of Egypt ordered the closing of all Christian churches and the removal of the Franciscans of Mount Sion to Cairo. The Negus of Abyssinia threatened to divert the Nile. This protest calmed the Sultan.

Palladius. In his Hist. Laus. CXCVI he tells that in the flourishing years 404-409 the convent of St. Paula in Bethlehem had 3 classes of nuns: nuns of noble birth, who taught Greek and Hebrew; nuns of common birth; nuns for the manual jobs.

Palmer E. H. British traveller. He was the first European to visit the ruins of Sobota (Shivta) in the Negev in 1870, to visit in 1871 Avdat (Oboda) and Mampsis (the Arabic name is Kurnub).

Palmprocession. In 1552 the Franciscans made the paIm-procession from Bethphage to Mount Sion. In 1648 the procession was forbidden. In 1933, under the British Mandate, Patriarch Barlassina started again. It begins yearly at Bethphage at 2,30 p. m. and ends at St. Anne's Church. Pilgrims can join the Procession.

Pammegistus. See: Hellophotus.

Pamphilus, archbishop of Caesarea, Palestine, and historian. Martyred in 309-310. Eusebius of Caesarea, Palestine, took after his conversion to christianity, the name Eusebius Pamphili.

Pamphoditus. See: Heliophotus.

Panagiotes of Caesarea (Palestine?). He was born in Caesarea (Palestine?). He refused to embrace Islam. He suffered martyrdom in Constantinople by the Turks in 1765. In the Greek liturgy, on June 24.

Pancratius of Taormina. He was born in Antioch and lived during the time of the Apostles. As a young man the visited Jerusalem, where he was baptized. After his parents' death, he followed St. Peter to Antioch and Cilicia, where he met St. Paul. The latter consecrated him bishop of Taormina (Sicily). He was a powerful Preacher, and he converted the governor. He was martyred in Sicily.

Panegorius, martyr in Palestine, 3rd/4th cent. (AA.SS. Jan 29).

Pariphillus, St. priest and martyr. He was born at Beyrouth in 240. He started in Caesarea, Palestine, a library. During the persecution of Emperor Galerjus Maximianus (285-310), he was imprisoned and Governor Urbanus, and afterwards by Governor Firmilianus. He was martyred, together with 11 companions, on Feb 16, 309. - The Palestinian-Georgian calendar mentions on Feb 16: Valens, Paul, Porphyrius, Theodulus, Julianus. These five were from Caesarea. The calendar mentions also five Egyptians. Panphilius of Beyrouth was the 11th martyr. They are commemorated also on June 3, Sept 28, Nov 28. The Greek liturgy has the feast on Feb 16.

Pantaleon. See: Aaron and Pantaleon and Aelianus.

Pantaleon of Aveiro. In 1564 he has seen coats of arms of Spanish Kings at the Armenian Convent of St. James in Jerusalem.

Pantaleone, citizen of Amalfi (Italy). Accompanied by bishop Alfonso of Salerno and Bernardo of Praeneste, he went, between 1062 and 1066, to Constantinople, thence to Jerusalem. There, through the generosity of his father Mauro, a hostel was established in the Muristan, for the citizens of Amalfi.

Paolo, Franciscan. He was the guardian in the Franciscan Convent of Acre round 1290 (GBB I, 327)

Papadopoulos Benedictus. This Greek-Orthodox Patriarch was elected on Jan 29, 1957 on the same day as the Jordanian Government approved the new statute, regulating an old dispute between the higher Hellenic monks (Confraternity of the Holy Sepulchre) and the native Arab members of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Paphnutius, St. Martyr in Jerusalem. He was martyred under Diocletian (284-313) (Mart. Rom. April 19). - Paphnutius and his daughter, Euphrosyne of Alexandria, are mentioned by Greek Synaxaries on Feb 15; by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Feb 20.

Paphnutius, bishop, martyr, patriarch of Jerusalem (?), without year in the 11th century. (AA.SS. April 19).

Parasceve, virgin and martyr. The name Parasceve means 'preparation' (for the Sabbath) and indicates that a person was born on a Friday. A virgin with the name Parasceve was beheaded about 140 under Emperor Antoninus Pius. She was the daughter of Agathon and Politia. The Melkite liturgy has her feast on July 26.

Paraskeve, sister or cousin of the Samaritan woman, Photine. A Paraskeve, who was martyred, is listed together with Photine in the Roman Martyrology on March 20. (Perhaps to be identified with Parasceve)

Paraskeve, Virgin. In the Greek liturgy her feast is on Oct 14. She was born in Epivates, Thrace, of wealthy parents. At the age of ten she exchanged her clothes with a poor girl. She left home, went to Constantinople, then to Heraclion, where she stayed for five years. She travelled to the Holy Land and stayed at a convent in the Jordan-Valley. She returned to Constantinople and finally went to the Church of the Holy Apostles at Kallikratia, where she died.

Parker, Englishman. He came in 1909 to Palestine. In 1911, he clandestinely investigated at night in the Haram Dome of the Rock. It is told that Parker entered the stables of Solomon through a rock-hewn passage that runs southward. Parker slipped away at night from the harbour of Jaffa and escaped persecution for his not authorized investigations.

Parmenas the Deacon. He was one of the seven deacons, who were appointed by the Apostles in Jerusalem. (Acts 6, 5) Later hewent to preach the Gospel in foreign countries and suffered martyrdom at Philippi in Macedonia under Emperor Trajan (97-117). The Melkite liturgy implies that Parmenas died under the eyes of the apostles in the exercise of his function. He is venerated by the Greek Church on July 28; by the Roman Martyrology on Jan 23.

Parricides. They were obliged to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the 9th to 11th centuries. (Mirac. S. Swithuni, c. II, n. 32; AA.SS. July 2; Mirac. S. Bavonis, lib III, n. 44; AA.SS. Oct 1)

Parricides of England. Girls who had murdered their parents, came with their brother to Palestine in 1009. (Miraculum S. Mansueti) (AA.SS. Sept 3)

Pasarion. Perhaps he was archimandrite of the monks in Palestine. Cyril of Scythopolis tells that Pasarion died, seven months after the dedication of the church of the Laura of St. Euthymius. This dedication was on March 7, 428. The death of Pasarion was at the end of October, 428. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the feast of Pasarion on June 7.

Pasarion and his Foundation(s). (May 10, June 7, Nov 3, Nov 21)1n Ptochio, of the priest Pasarion': The Syriac life of Peter the Iberian (BHO, 955) places Ptochium outside a east gate of Jerusalem. But Pasarion founded besides a big monastery inside the walls. - Ptochium means 'little, poor'. The Ptochium-foundation is named on Nov 21, in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The 'Ptochium' on the east side of the city was perhaps an orphanage.

Passionist Fathers of France. They built a monastery at Bethany in 1903.

Patriarch. A patriarch was burned to death, before the Crusades, in the atrium of Constantine (= the atrium before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, which was built by Constantine). (Yahia of Antioch, Annales, I, 1, 2).

Patriarcha quidem Hierolymitanus. 1439 (AA.SS. May 25).

Patriarch, Greek. After 1919, during the construction of the Latin Church of Agony in Gethsemane, the Greek Patriarch obliged or allowed the Franciscan Custos of the Holy Land to relocate the column of the Prayer Pater Mou, My Father, about 15 meters to the north, outside the limits of the Byzantine Church of Agony. This relocation was in order to place this granit column alongside the path, for making the stone more accessible to all christians. This column is near the Rock of the Three Apostles (Peter, James, John), who fell asleep during the Agony and the Prayer of Jesus.

Patriarchates in order of precedence. In 325 the Council of Nicaea accorded to the bishop of Jerusalem certain honorary privileges,  but he remained subject to the Metropolitan of Caesarea, who himself was subject to the Patriarch of Antioch. At 325 there were 3 Patriarchates: Rome, Alexandria, Antioch. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 accorded to Jerusalem and to Constantinople the rank of Patriarchate. in 587 John IV in Constantinople (582-595) took the title of Oecumenical Patriarch, against the rebuke of Pope Gregory I of Rome. (Gregory the Great). In 883 the order of precedence was Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem.

Patriarchs of the Latin Kingdom in Jerusalem (1099-1187): 1099-1107 Daimbertus; 1107-1112 Gobelinus; 1112-1115 Arnulf us; 1118-1128 Gormundus; 1128-1130 Stephanus; 1130-1145 Wilhelmus; 1145-1157 Fulcherius; 1158-1180 Amalricus; 1180-1191 Heraclius.

Patriarchs of the Latin Kingdom in Acre, (till 1291): 1191-1194 Sulpicius; 1194-1202 Monachus; 1204-1214 Albertus (April 8); 1214-1216 Rudolphus; 1216-1225 Lotharius. 1222 S. Johannes, S. Angeli frater, falsus, died 1222 (mentioned, July 13, AA.SS.); 1227 S. Enoch, falsus (Aug 12, in AA.SS.) died 1227, - 1225-1240 Giraidus; 1240-1254 Robertus; 1255-1261 Jacobus Pantaleo; 1263-1270 Guillelmus. 1272 Bartholomaeus de Bregancia, falsus, died July 1, 1272, AA.SS. - 1272-1276 Thomas Agni (Thomas de Lentino); 1279-1287 Elias; 1288-1291 Nicolaus de Hanapis, who was killed at the capitulation of Acre.

Patriarchs of the Restored Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem: 1847-1872 Valerga Giuseppe; 1873-1889 Bracco Vincenzo; 1889-1905 Piavi Ludovico; 1906-1919 Camassei Filippo; 1920-1947 Barlassina Luigi; 1947-1970 Gori Teofilo; 1970 Beltritti Giacomo.

Patricia, a matron of Constantinople. In Palestine, in the 5th/6th century. (Miracula B. V. Mariae in Choziba, auct. Antonio Chozebitae: Analecta Bollandiana, VII, 360)

Patrimonio M., consul of France in Jerusalem. He obtained from the Sublime Porte in Constantinople the permission to repair the damages, which were done by the Greeks on April 25, 1873, in the Grotto of Nativity in Bethlehem. Therefore, in 1874, Mac-Mahon, president of France, sent the amianth-tapestry.

Patrobas, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Puteoli, Campania in Italy, according to the Greek list. Patrobas, together with Philologus, is in the Roman Martyrology on Nov 4. Patrobas and Philologus are greeted by the apostle Paul in his letter to the Romans, 16, 15.

Patrophilus, St. This first bishop of Scythopolis (Beth-Shean) was at the Council of Nicaea (325). Beth-Shean was then the metropolitan see of Palestina Secunda.

Paul, the Apostle. The commemoration of Paul was on June 30; on June 29 is actually the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul. The altar of St. Paul is the first on the right side in the Chapel of the Flagellation. The altar recalls that Paul was once a prisoner in the nearby Fortress Antonia (Acts 21, 23). From this prison Paul was brought Antipatris (Aphek) (Acts 23, 31) to Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea on the sea). There he remained a prisoner during two years, under procurator Felix and under his successor, procurator Festus. Paul defended himself before King Herod Agrippa II and before Festus and appealed to the Emperor Nero. Therefore Paul was sent from Caesarea, Palestine, to Rome for trial.

A commemoration of Paul on April 30 was in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Perhaps the commemoration refers to a monastery of SS. Peter and Paul of the Byzantines. This monastery was founded about 550, next to the Mount of Olives.

St. Paul's Anglican Church in Shivtei Israel Street is rented by an Ecumenical Group.

St. Paul's Hospice outside Damascus Gate. The construction began in 1901. In 1910 St. Paul's was opened as a Pilgrim Hospice. In 1950, the building became the Schmidt's College (Schmidt Girls' College). In 1957 St. Paul's Hospice was enlarged. In the premises is the library of the Görresgesellschaft.

Paul, the Armenian in Mar Sabas. See: Jeremiah, an Armenian.

Paul, noble man of Eleutheropolis. He built in 352 a shrine near the grotto in the valley of Kedron, where the relics of James, the Less, and of Symeon (the Elder), and of Zacharias (the father of the Baptist) had been discovered. The shrine is mentioned in the liturgies on May 25 and on Dec 1.

Paul, St., martyr of Palestine. He was arrested near Gaza under Emperor Galerius Maximianus (285---310) by the Governor Firmilianus and beheaded in 308. Before the execution he was allowed some time for prayer. He prayed for his Christian companions, for the Jews, for the heathens, for the crowd around, for the judge and for the executors. The Mart. Rom. has his feast on July 25.

Paul and Juliane of Ptolemais. They were brother and sister, they resided in Ptolemais (Acre). They bore witness for their faith and were martyred under Emperor Aurelianus (271-275). Their feast is in the Rom. Mart. and in Greece on Aug 17. Their executioners, Quadratus, Acacius and Stratonicus, were converted and were martyred. (Georgian liturgy Oct 11).

Paul of Elousa. He wrote the life of St. Theognius, bishop of Betylion (Betelia) in Palestine. Paul wrote a letter to Eutropius, the founder of the monastery of the Eunuchs, near Jericho (5th/6th cent) (Analecta Bollandiana, X[, 477).

Paul VI, Pope. (died 1978). He visited the Holy Land in January 1964. He was the first Pope, who from Rome pilgrimated to Jerusalem. On account of the enthusiastic crowds in the narrow Via Dolorosa, he sought shelter in the Chapel of the Vith Station (Veronica wipes the face of Jesus). A marble slab on the south wall of the chapel recalls this unplanned visit. Pope Paul met Athenagoras, the Patriarch of Constantinople, at the pilgrimage in Jerusalem. Paul was the honour-guest of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch Benedictos in his residence Viri Galilaei on Mount of Olives. Both were sitting on the same height. (The Pope not on a higher seat!). The Pope crossed the frontier between Jordan and Israel, not at the Mandelbaum Gate in Jerusalem, but on the way near Megiddo. There he was welcomed by the President of Israel. - Later on Jan 15, 1973 Golda Meir as Prime Minister visited Pope Paul VI in Rome. She reminded him that the Jewish people had suffered much from the Cross (the Christians).

Paula, St. (Paula Senior; Paula, the Elder). The Greek liturgy has her feast on Jan 26. Paula was born at Rome on May 5, 347; she died at Bethlehem on Jan 26. (Rom. Mart. feast Jan 26) Paula was born into a rich patrician and Christian family. At the age of 15 she married Toxotius, and they had five children: Eustochium, Blesilla, Paulina (the wife of Senator Pammachius), Rufina and Toxotius. A widow at 31, Paula consecrated her household to an ascetic way of life, together with similar groups of noble Roman women. St. Jerome was their spiritual director. With her eldest daughter Eustochium, she followed Jerome to the Orient in 385, she visited Palestine and the monks of Nitria under his guidance, and in 386 settled in Bethlehem, where she used her wealth to construct a convent for nuns, a monastery for monks, and a guesthouse for pilgrims. Paula died on Jan 26, 404. Jerome wrote her eulogy. Her granddaughter, Paula, who was the daughter of her son Toxotius and of Laeta Caecina, cared for Jerome in his old age at Bethlehem. - In a grotto, north of the Basilica of the Nativity, is shown the common tomb of SS. Paula and her daughter Eustochium, and facing it that of St. Jerome. The bronze doors at the entrance of the Latin Parish Church St. Catherine, have reliefs of St. Jerome and of SS. Paula and Eustochium. The bronze-plated doors were made in 1949.

Saint Paula Hill. This hill (774 meters) between Bethlehem and Jerusalem is locally known as Jebel Abu Ghunneim. On this hill are sections of the aqueduct which Pontius Pilate repaired to bring more water to Jerusalem. The hill is near the village Umm Tuba.

Paula, junior, Saint. She was the granddaughter of Paula, the Senior. Paula junior visited Palestine before 417. (AA.SS. June 1)

Paula, Serapion, Jerome, Marcella. Paula, the Elder, died in Bethlehem in 404; Jerome died in Bethlehem in 4191420; Marcella died in Rome in 410. These four persons are commemorated for their deposit, on Aug 28 in the Georgian lectionnaries.

Pauline de Nicolay, marquess, servant of God. She was born at Paris in 1811. From Rome she went to Palestine in 1858. In 1861 she bought the area that surrounded the sanctuary of Emmaus (El Qubeibeh). There the Franciscans, since 1852, had renewed the pilgrimage that preserved a medieval tradition of the manifestation of the Risen Christ to the two disciples of Emmaus (Luke 24, 13-35). In 1863 Pauline de Nicolay donated her property of Emmaus (El Qubeibeh) to the Custody of the Holy Land. She continued to live in Emmaus till May, 1868; she died in Jerusalem on June 9, 1868. In 1872 her body was brought to Emmaus and reburied at the south end of the sanctuary. A marble slab inside the church that was erected in 1901, recalls the donation. The 'cause' of Pauline de Nicolay has been introduced in Rome. - Father Bagatti Bellarmino excavated in 1940-45 a Roman street, which runs along the northside of the Church.

Paulinios (Paulinianus, Paulinius). He was the brother of St. Jerome, and he was ordained a priest in Bethlehem by bishop Epiphanes, who was bishop of Constantia in the island of Cyprus and on visit to Bethlehem. The ordination happened without the permission of John II (389-415), bishop of Jerusalem. John excommunicated St. Jerome and his monks, because they recognized this ordination as valid. John tried to expel Jerome out of Palestine with the help of the prefect of Constantinople, but the death of the prefect on Nov 27, 395, impeded the expulsion.

Paulus Helladicus. See: Paul of Elousa. (Anal. Boll. X, 75-76).

Paulus Hildegardus, count of Carinth (Austria). He visited Palestine, round 1020. (AA.SS. Feb 5)

Pausides, St. Martyr in Caesarea, in 304. (AA.SS. March 24)

Pax, St. The word Pax (Latin) means Peace, Paix, Friede, Vrede. The word can also signify a personal name. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has on Oct 21: Erene (Greek) and Pax (Latin). (Compare with Salaphta, which is translated in the Greek language as Erene (Pax in Latin).

Peki'in. The Arabic name for this small village, which is about 30 Kms east of Nahariyya, is Bukeia (little valley). According to tradition, a Jewish community has always lived in Peki'in. In Peki'in are actually also Druses and Christians.

Pelagia, martyr. In Mart. Rom. her memory is on March 23. She was martyred in Caesarea, Palestine. The Ethiopian Synaxarium venerates the martyrs Bacchus and Pelagia on Tekemt 8. (Bacchus was a soldier, the brother of Sergius. Both brothers were martyred in 297 by Galerius, who was Emperor from 305 to 311.)

Pelagia, the Penitent. She was born in Antioch and was a licentious dancing girl. Hearing a sermon of bishop Nonnus of Edessa, Pelagia repented and was baptized. She went to Jerusalem disguised as a man and she lived as a solitary on the Mount of Olives under the name of Pelagius. There she died in 457. A grotto on the Mount of Olives is venerated by the Christians as her tomb. The same grotto is held by some Jews to be the tomb of Hulda, the prophetess. The Moslems venerate in this grotto of Pelagia, the memory of the mystic woman Rabi'a el Adawiyya. The Greek liturgy honours Pelagia on Oct 8; the Mart. Rom. has her memory on Oct 8; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Oct 7. (Compare Margaret, the actress; Mary of Egypt.)

Pelagia of Tyre, round 600. Feast on Jan 23. (Leontius, Vita S. Joh. Eleemosyn.)

Pelagius, the male name for Pelagia, the Penitent.

Pelagius Morgan of England. He was summoned in 415 by the Metropolitan of Caesarea, Palestine, to the Council of Lydda, where 14 bishops were assembled. Pelagius was absolved, but his doctrine was condemned. Pelagius is the founder of the Pelagianism-heresy. St. Jerome of Bethlehem attacked the heresy of Pelagius. The followers of Pelagius burned therefore the monastery of St. Jerome at Bethlehem. St. Jerome and the nuns fled to a strong tower. This place of safety was perhaps the tower of Jacob at the Shepherds' Fields.

Pelagius, (Luca Campano) Cardinal. He was a Cistercian monk. He was the archbishop of Cosenza (1203-1224). He was Papal Delegate for the Crusade (5th Crusade). He was in 1217 as Papal (De)legate at Messina (Sicily) where a part of the Crusaders (5th Crusade) embarked for Damietta. This Crusade was under Pope Honorius III (1216-1227). Pelagius arrived at Damietta in September 1218. He was with the Crusaders before Damietta (Nov 1219), he marched on Cairo, conquered the town in 1219, but in August 1221 he was enforced to evacuate Egypt. Pelagius, the Cardinal and the Legate of the Pope, was against the initiative of St. Francis of Assisi to cross the front-lines in order to contact the Moslems with an arrangement of peace. Notwithstanding the opposition, St. Francis crossed the lines, and contacted the Sultan and returned to the Crusaders. (C. Donovan, Pelagius and the Fifth Crusade, Philadelphia, 1950)

Pèlerinages de Pénitence. They were organised by the Assumptionists Fathers of France. The pilgrims were lodged in the Notre Dame de France, outside the New Gate. - The second pilgrimage of penitence (1883) donated a bronze statue of St. Peter to the Franciscan Church of Tiberias. In 1895 the pilgrimage came with its own ship 'Notre Dame de Salut'. In 1903, at the Eucharistic Congress at Jerusalem, the 28th Pèlerinage de Pénitence brought 300 pilgrims.

Peleus, bishop, martyr in Palestine. The Mart. Rom. has his feast on Sept 19; the Coptic calendar on Sept 12.

Peleus, Nilus, Elijah, SS. bishops of Egypt, martyred in Palestine in 310. The Mart Rom. has the memory on Sept 19. The Mart. Rom. adds on Feb 20: the martyrdom was under the military commander Veturius. They were killed in Tyr (Phoenicia). The AA.SS. mention Peleus and Nilus, on Sept 19, the death was in 310.

Pellegrino da Follorone, Blessed, Franciscan. According to tradition, he visited Palestine round 1222133. He died in the convent of S. Severino in Italy about 1233. (GBB I, 150-151)

Penitent pilgrims visited Palestine in the 9th cent. (Miracula S. Florentii, c. II, n. 19) (AA.SS. Sept 22)

Pentecostal Church of God's Prophecy. Has put up a memorial on the Horns of Hattin. On this height, the Crusaders lost the battle on July 4, 1187, against Saladin.

Penuel: See Phanuel, the archangel.

Penuel (as a site). The site (Gn 32, 31) is near Nahr ez Zerqa (the blue river, the biblical Jaboc) in East Jordan. At this place Jacob wrestled with the being (the angel), who donated to Jacob the new name, Israel. - Jacob named the site of the wrestling Penuel.

Peregrinus, St. In the 4th/5th century he came to Palestine. (AA.SS. Aug 1) (Acta (fabulosa), n. 5-11).

Perdiccas. This Greek pilgrim mentions in 1250 the Tomb of David in the lower Chapel, on Mount Sion.

Pereyre family. de Saulcy had cleared the Tombs of the Kings in 1863. The family Pereyre bought the site in 1879, and donated it to France in 1886. It belongs now to the French government. - Tombs of the Kings are the burial place of the family of Helen, the Queen of Adiabene. Helen had converted to Judaism and had come to Jerusalem about 45 AD. She died in Adiabene but her remains were brought from Adiabene to Jerusalem.

Parrot Jean M., French archaeologist. He uncovered in 1954 two viilages, southeast of Beersheva: one at Bir Abu Matar, the second at Bir es Safadi. The villages are of the Chalcolithic period.

Pesenti. He describes the procession of the Franciscans to the Grotto of Nativity and the nearby sanctuaries, as it was done on Sunday April 14, 1613.

Pest. The names of 74 Franciscans who fell as victims by caring for the pestilence stricken, figure in 'Libro d'Oro' p. 644-648. This list extends from 1566 to 1902.

Peter, the Apostle. The Roman liturgy has the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul on June 29. In the Gospel of John (1, 40-42) the call of Peter occurred near the Jordan; in the Synoptic Gospels the call occurred at the Sea of Galilee. Jesus cured the mother-in-law of Peter at Capharnaum (Mt 8514); Peter attempted to walk on the water of the Sea of Galilee. (Mt 14, 28-31); Mount Tabor recalls the transfiguration of Jesus, which Peter with James and John witnessed. - In Jerusalem the Church St. Peter in Gallicantu recalls the repentance of Peter after his threefold denial. Peter was delivered by an angel from the prison in Jerusalem. The present church in the Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark is supposed to occupy the site of the house of Mary, mother of the disciple and evangelist Mark John (Acts 12, 3). To this house Peter went after his escape from the prison. The Kanater Mar Boutros (St. Peter's Street) reflects this supposition.

Peter (St) in chains. The Mart. Rom. has at Rome in Exquiliis, Dedicatio sancti Petri Apostoli ad Vincula, on Aug 1. - Peter was imprisoned by King Herod Agrippa I (41-44), in Jerusalem, but an Angel rescued him, leading him out the prison (Acts 12, 11-23). South of the Daûd Street is the Street Haret ed Dawyeh. The actual name of the street is St. Mark Road. Fifty metres, more to the south, is Deir es-Syrian Road, that slopes down to Suq el Hussor. A subterranean chamber in the basement of a house in the Haret ed Dawyeh was, according to monkish tradition, the prison, in which Peter was bound. (Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement, Oct 1906, p. 298-301). The part of Harat ed Dawyeh that slopes down to Suq el Hussor, was sometimes named Tariq Mar Botros (path of St. Peter). At the east end of the downsloping Tariq Mar Botros, on the opposite side of Suq e) Hussor, a displaced Corinthian capital and some old stones are, according to some traditions, the vestiges of the Porta Ferrea, or the iron Gate. (Acts 12, 10)

Chains of St. Peter: In the Greek liturgy on Jan 16. St. Peter was imprisoned in Jerusalem by king Herod Agrippa I, but he escaped from this prison. The chain of Jerusalem was transferred in 437 to Constantinople by the Empress Eudocia. It was placed in the Chapel of St. Peter, inside the Great Church of Constantinople. In Rome a small church was built by Pope Sixtus III (432-440) on the Esquilinian hill. This church in Rome was built with the finances of Eudocia, the Younger. In this church in Rome the chain with which St. Peter was bound in the prison of Rome at the time of Emperor Nero, is venerated. Since the 6th century this church has been named St. Peter ad Vincula. Its dedication is on Aug. 1

The liberation of Peter from the prison of Jerusalem, is remembered on Jan 16, in the Greek liturgy.

St. Peter's Street (Kanater Mar Boutros). The St. Peter's Street (near the Road St. Mark) descends into Harat al Jaouny (Quarter ot the Jawany (Greeks). The lower end of Harat al Jaouny is known as Suq el Hussor. (straw mats). There straw mats are sold.

St. Peter's Church in the Muslim Ouarter. Between Herod's Gate and the beginning of the Via Dolorosa, was in ancient days a church in honour of St. Peter. The site was at or near the mosque ei Mathone el-Hamra. See: Mertens A. What, when, where in the Holy Land, Map of the mosques, p. 32.

St. Peter's Church at the palace of Caiphas. Its dedication was on Aug 17. A house of Caiphas is claimed by the Armenians on Mount Sion.

St. Peter and St. Paul. Feast on June 29. The first vocation of Peter is recalled near the Jordan; another call was on the Lake of Galilee. - The Franciscan community of Nazareth makes a pilgrimage to the Church of St. Peter in Tiberias, near the lake, and celebrates there Holy Mass. In the evening a pilgrimage goes to the River Jordan (south of the Lake) and reads there the Gospel of Matthew 3, 13-17. - Peter and Paul, apostles, are venerated on Dec 28 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The 'Dedication of St. Peter' (Jan 21) probably refers to a church of SS. Peter and Paul in the monastery of the Byzantines. This monastery was founded about 550 by a certain Abraham. The monastery was on the Mount of Olives (Palestinian-Georgian calendar).

Peter Absalon (Apselamos). He was born in Anea, near Eleutheropolls. He was martyred as a young man in 309. (Eusebius, PG 20, 1497) Synaxarium Armen. describes Peter as an 'athlet' for God. He was martyred on the 11th of the month of Auduneos, which corresponds to the 3th before the Ides of January (the 11th of Jan) 309. Petrus Apselamos was the only one of the Palestinian martyrs known from the persecution of Diocletian, who has his name in the Jerusalem calendar.

Peter, archbishop of Damascus, martyr under Caliph Walid II (743-744). Feast on Jan 28. Perhaps this Peter is a double of Peter of Capitolias. A Greek synaxary has Petrus, archbishop of Damascus, on Feb 9.

Peter, archbishop of Jerusalem (524-552). He succeeded John of Jerusalem in 524. Peter accepted the appointment of Anthimius as patriarch of Constantinople; but he was reproached by Pope Agapetus I for doing so, and he accepted the rebuke. Troubled by the Origenistic monks in Palestine, who were supported by Theodore Ascidas and Domitian, Peter complained secretly against them. Called to Gaza in 539, he took part in the synod that deposed Paul of Alexandria and that appointed Zoilus as the new patriarch. Peter welcomed the Roman deacon and future pape, Pelagius I, to Jerusalem and had his monks provide him with information that resulted in the condemnation of Origen by Justinian I (543). Peter was called to Constantinople, and, at the insistence of Theodore Ascidas, he accepted two Origenistic syncelli (counsellors), who aided the Isochristic monks in their attempt to have Origen's doctrine accepted by the Palestinian monks. - Peter sent St. Sabas to the Emperor Justinian (527-565), with the prayer to obtain the construction of a hospital (bimarestan) for the foreigners, and the finishing of the church Nea. The prayer was exauced by the Emperor Justinian. The Lectionary of Latal has the feast of Peter on July 7. A Peter, patriarch of Jerusalem, is commemorated in the Church of the Apostles on Nov 26 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Peter the Armenian in Mar Sabas. See: Jeremiah, an Armenian.

Peter I of Nazareth. This archbishop of Nazareth was expelled by the Moslems from the Holy Land in 1291, and reached Padua. Pope Clement V ordered the Benedictine monastery of Sancta Justina in Padua to provide for the maintenance of Peter, a sum equal to that of the maintenance of two monks. (Prawer J. Crusader Tomb from Acre, in Isr. Expl. Journal, 24, 1974, p. 248) Peter died circa 1326.

Peter II of Nazareth. He was a Dominican Father, he was elected in Italy in 1329 as archbishop of Nazareth in succession of Yve. (Prawer, Isr. Expl. Journal, 24, 1974, p. 249)

Peter Catanus, Blessed, Franciscan. He visited Palestine, together with Franciscus, in 1219-20; he died in Assisi, on March 10, 1221.

Peter of Capitolias. (Perhaps Petrus, archbishop of Damascus). He was born in Capitolias in East Jordan, he married and became father of three children. After the death of his wife, he became a monk and later was ordained a priest. He suffered martyrdom from the Saracens, on Jan 13, 715. He is mentioned in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar as bishop, on Nov 23. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Oct 4. Some scholars mean that Peter was consecrated bishop of Busra, Hauran.

Peter of Eleutheropolis. He lived in the latter part of the 3th century. He was known for his physical strength and piety. He helped the poor and suffered martyrdom, during the Diocletian persecution (284-313). The Greek liturgy has his feast on Oct 14. (Probably to be identified with Peter Absalon)

Peter of Gaza. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on Takhshash relates: Peter was of the city of Roha (Edessa) and belonged to a noble family, and his parents gave him to the Emperor Theodosius so that he might appoint him a governor. He became a monk in a monastery. The bishops, against his will, made him bishop of Gaza. And when they brought the body of Saint James the 'dismembered', he took it and dwelt in one of the monasteries of Jerusalem. In the days of Marcion the heretic, he fled to Egypt, and with him was the body of James the 'dismembered', and he dwelt in a monastery. When the days of Marcion the infidel, were ended, Peter returned to Palestine. Zeno, the Emperor, wished to see him, but Peter fled. Then he came to the shore of the lake (or sea) of Gawer and dwelt there... Salutation to Peter, for when he broke the bread of the Offering, blood distilled there from until the whole of the paten was filled therewith.

Peter, second bishop of Jamnia. He was at the Council of Nicaea (325). Peter was the successor of bishop Macrinus.

Peter of Santolo, Blessed, Franciscan. He was from Spain. He lived a certain time on Mount Sion in Jerusalem. He returned to his country, Castilla, and died in the convent of Valladolid, on April 7, 1431. The Martyrologium Franciscanum commemorates him on April 7.

Peter of Sebaste, brother of St. Basil the Great. Peter wrote in 381: The Church of the Holy Mount Sion testifies that the Messias has taken the Jewish Passah in the Upper Room, on the feast of the Jewish Passover. (Text, discovered in 1902 by Don J. Marta, priest of the Latin Patriarchate in Jerusalem.) (Review AI-Machriq, Beyrouth, 1902, Nr 1). Peter mentions a church near the Gate of the Sheep, where Jesus healed the paralytic man. This Peter, who was a bishop of Sebaste in Armenia, mentions a church of Zachariah in the territory of Aelia (Jerusalem). Peter died in 392.

Peter, St., near Aulon. The Martyrology of Rome mentions on Jan 3: near Aulon in Palestina, martyrdom of St. Peter, who was crucified. (Compare: Peter the sign-bearer)

Peter of Caphar Baricha (today Beni Nalm). He founded the Archontics. Peter composed a book with the title 'Symphonia'. The Archontics are mentioned by St. Epiphanius in his book 'Panarion'. The village Beni Naim is about 6 Kms, southeast of Hebron.

Peter, the Count, Inscription. See: Zosimus-inscription.

Peter, the Hermit. This leader of the First Crusade reached Palestine, but he returned to Europe in 1101, and he died at an advanced age in 1115. He is mentioned in AA.SS. on July 7, July 8, July 15. (Vita Petri, e calendario Carmelit.) (Compare: Conon, count of Montaigu in Auvergne)

Peter, the Iberian. This Monophysite bishop of Maiuma near Gaza, was born in Georgia (Iberia) in 409. He died in Jamnia in 488. He came in 422 to Constantinople, fled in 429-430 to Jerusalem, together with John the Eunuch. There Peter became a monk about 430, in the monastery that was founded by St. Melania on Mt of Olives. He himself founded the Iberian (Georgian) monastery near the Tower of David. He was persecuted for his Monophysite doctrine, and he fled in 438 to Gaza. There he was ordained a priest in 446, and he became bishop of Gaza in 453. He was expelled and he went to Egypt. Eighteen years later he returned to Palestine. He founded a monastery, perhaps that of Bir el-Qatt, south of Jerusalem. He died in 488 in Jamnia or in Gaza. In the 'Foundation of Peter' (perhaps near the Tower of David) was held by the Georgians the commemoration of the Forty Saints on Oct 13. (Compare James torn to pieces, Intercisus)

Peter, the Hesychast. The Greek liturgy has his feast on November 25. He was born near the Black Sea, and he devoted his life to mysticism and prayer. He visited Galatia, Palestine, and Antioch where he gained fame on account of his ascetic life. There he died.

Peter, the priest. He is mentioned in an inscription in the Greek-Orthodox Church of Abud (5th/6th century).

Peter, the Sign-bearer. He was born in Eleutheropolis. He was crucified near Hebron in 311. His relics repose in the Church of St. Zacharias in Atroa. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Jan 3.

Peter, the Soldier. The Ethiopian Synaxarium relates on Sane 19 about five soldiers: Arsonphis, Peter, Ascarion, Arengis, and Belfeyos, who lived in the Palace of Diospolis. (Probably not Lydda in Palestine, but Thebes in Egypt). The five were tied up in the hide of an animal, and shut up in a chamber to die of hunger and thirst.

Peter and Abraham the physician. Peter died on the first of the month Artemesios, 3rd indiction. Abraham the physician died on Artemisios 18, in the 12th indiction, 365th year (= 564 CE). Peter perhaps died in 555 CE. Their marble tombstone with Greek inscription is in Museum of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem. (Revue Biblique, 1905, p. 248). The tombstone came from Hebron.

Peter I, bishop of the Camps. See: Petros Aspebet.

Peter II, bishop of the Camps. His bishopric of Bedouin camps formed an enclave in the diocese of Jerusalem.

Peter III, bishop of the Camps. He participated in the Council of Jerusalem in 536.

Peter I, King of Cyprus. He attacked in 1365 Alexandria. The Franciscans of Mount Sion were arrested and brought to Damascus. Peace was concluded in 1370. In 1377 the Guardian of Mount Sion became independent of the Provincial of Cyprus, and dependent immediately of the General of the Franciscan Order.

Peter IV of Aragon. A letter of Pope Clement VI (Avignon, 1342-1352) to Peter IV of Aragon in 1345 proves that there were difficulties on Mount Sion.

Peter of Bordeaux. This Franciscan of Mount Sion witnessed the martyrdom of 4 Franciscans at Jerusalem on Nov 14, 1391.

Peter-Matthew de Lara Barnuevo, Franciscan. He was born in Buscalanze near Cordova (Spain); at the age of 34 years, he died in Jerusalem, on Sept 21, 1671.

Petrocus, abbot, St. He came to Palestine round 550. (Vita S. Petroci, auct. Joh. Tinmonth., n. 4) (AA.SS. June 4)

Petronilla, St. Name given to the supposed daughter of St. Peter, the Apostle.

Petronilla, Lady. She bought from the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre for 420 bezants a property, west of the 7th Station. The site belongs actually to the Franciscans. Moudjir-el-Din, the Arabian historian, called the site the Borghohyeh (Bulgarian) Hospice. There or nearby was the Hungarian Hospice.

Petronius. The apocryphal Gospel of Peter gives the name Petronius to the centurion who was in charge of the soldiers who watched the sepulchre where Jesus had been buried. (Mt 27, 62-66)

Petronius, bishop of Bologna. St. He came to Palestine round 420. (Vita S. Petronii, c. II, n. 12-14; Vita alia ex Mart. Rom. Galesinii) (AA.SS. Oct 4)

Petros. See: Aspebet-Petros, bishop of the Camps. After his conversion to christianity, Aspebet, who was from Persia, adopted the name of Petros. An inscription in Greek letters on a reused slab contains the name of Petros. The reused slab closed the entrance to a sepulchral vault in the laura of St. Euthymius (Khan el Ahmar) in the desert of Judaea. The excavations were made by Yannis Meimaris, and he was helped by the architect Christos Katzimbinis, round 1975.

Petros, Abuna, archbishop of Gondar (Ethiopia). He came to Jerusalem for medical treatment. He died there in 1969. He was buried at the St. Takle Haymanot Monastery at Bethany.

Petros, who made this cross. This Armenian is mentioned in an inscription on a marble urn in Jerusalem.

Petrus Athonita, Saint, 8th century. He was at war with the Saracens. Gregorius Palamas wrote 'Vita S. Petri' gr. et lat. The feast is on June 12 (AA.SS.)

Petrus, bishop of Roeskilde in Scandinavia. The AA.SS. (Jan 8) mention him in 1153 in the Holy Land.

Petrus Diaconus. He was librarian of the Convent of Cassino, he wrote in 1137 'Liber de Locis Sanctis'. He borrowed from St. Beda the Venerable (720) and from Aetheria (385-388). - Petrus mentions the centre of the world inside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Petrus, episcopus Anagninus, Sanctus. He is mentioned round 1106, in AA.SS. Aug 3. (Vita S. Petri, c. 2)

Petrus, episcopus Nazarenus. Round 1317 (AA.SS. May 22) (Probably Peter I of Nazareth).

Petrus, Graecus, abbas Sucae. He died 546. (AA.SS. Sept 29)

Petrus, martyr, Majumae near Gaza, 743. (AA.SS. Feb 21)

Petrus of Penna, O. P. (1350) Compare: Buttadeus.

Petrus, patriarch of Jerusalem, died 544. (AA.SS.)

Petrus, priest of Rome. He came to Palestine round 595. (Vita S. Gregorii, auct. Johanne Diacono. I, II, c. VI, n. 15) (AA.SS. March 12)

Petrus Soler, Blessed, Franciscan. Martyred in Damascus in 1860. The feast is on July 10.

Petrus Telonearius, St. Round 540 he came to Palestine. (Vita S. Petri Tel., lat. vers.; Vita S. Joh. Eleeemos., auct. Leontio et Simeone Metaphr., lat. vers., c. VII, n. 39) (AA.SS. Jan 20, Jan 23)

Petrus Thomasius, Saint, archbishop of Constantinople. He was in Palestine, 1357-1358. (Vita, auct. Philippo Mazzerio) (AA.SS. Jan 29)

Petrus Vivus, Saint. The 'Chronica S. Petri Vivi' mentions Alexander, capellanus Stephani Blesensis, in the first crusade. (AA.SS. April 23)

Pfintzing (1436). He speaks about the Way of the Passion. He sees the Chapel of the Angels in the house of Annas in the Armenian quarter. Quaresmius later claimed to have read in an old document: the Angels veiled their face, when Jesus at the trial in the house of the Highpriest received a stroke from the hand of a servant.

Phaletrus, Lemovicensis, St. At the end of the 5th century, he was in Palestine. (AA.SS. Nov 23)

Phanuel, the Archangel. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on Takhshash 3: 'Salutation to thy office in the court of God, o Phanuel, thou ladder of prayer, and expeller of Satan'. The salutation refers to the wrestling of Jacob. (Gen 32, 31). Jacob called the site of the wrestling Peniel. - The site of the dream with the ladder was called by Jacob Bethel (Gen 28, 19). (Compare Penuel)

Phanurius, Sanctus. In the book 'Miracula S. Phanurii' is told Greek priests are taken prisoners by the Saracens in the 8th century in Palestine. (AA.SS. Mai 27)

Phasael. He was a brother of Herod the Great. Phasael was in 40 BC by Antigonus lured out of the besieged Jerusalem, and he was taken prisoner. Phasael leaped in his prison in Ecdippa (Akhziv, the Arab village of Es Zib) to an abyss and perished. Herod dedicated round 23 BC the biggest of the three towers at the Citadel of David, to the memory of his brother Phasael. The foundations of the Tower of Phasael still exist.

Philastrius, episcopus Brixiensis, Saint. The AA.SS. on July 18 tell that Philastrius visited Palestine in 375. (De virtutibus S. Philastrii, auct. S. Gaudentio; Officium S. Philastrii)

Philemon. He was a disciple of St. Paul. After being consecrated bishop of Gaza, he visited Colossae, in Phrygia, where he preached together with Archippus, Aphia and Onesimus. They were imprisoned and sent to Rome, where they suffered martyrdom. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the feast of Philemon on Nov 21; the Roman Martyrology and the Greek liturgy venerate Philemon on Nov 22.

Philemon and Paul. In his Epistle to Philemon (circa 62-63) Paul asks that Philemon should receive Onesimus the slave who had fled.

Philip the Apostle. St. Martyr. The feast of the Apostles Philip and James (James the Lesser) is in the Roman church on May 3. Philip was from Bethsaida, which is on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee. Philip became an Apostle, and he brought Nathanael to Christ (Jn 1, 43-48). Philip engaged in a dialogue with Jesus at the multiplication of the loaves (Jn 6, 5-7); Philip introduced the Hellenistic Jews to Jesus Qn 12, 21); he asked Jesus to show the Father to the Apostles (Jn 14, 8). Philip is said to have preached in Phrygia, where he was martyred: he was fixed to a cross and then stoned near Gerapolis in Phrygia (Turkey) (Gerapolis = Hierapolis). Philip was buried in Hierapolis (Eus. Hist. Eccl. 111, 31). The Greek liturgy has his feast on Nov 14. Phillp and James, Apostles, have their feast on May 3 in the reformed calendar of the Latin liturgy. Formerly the feast was on May 1.

Philip and Thomas and Bartholomaeus, apostles, and Matthew, evangelist. The lectionary of Paris gives to this four a memory in the village of Bethphage, on Aug 24.

Philip, St. deacon. Philip is one of the seven, who were chosen to assist the apostles in Jerusalem (Acts 6, 5). The deacon Philip was the first to announce the Gospel in Samaria (Acts 8, 5-13), where he converted Simon, the magician. Philip baptized the eunuch of the queen of Ethiopia on a journey from Jerusalem to Gaza (Acts 8, 26-40), and from there he announced the Gospel in the coastal plain, especially in Azotus (now Ashdod). Philip accorded hospitality to St. Paul in Caesarea, Palestine (Acts 21, 8). There he had four unmarried daughters, who prophesied. Perhaps the expression means: singing and dancing in a estatic manner.

Fountain of Philip. The baptism of the eunuch is recalled by the Fountain, Ain-el-Dirweh (Fountain of the Crest), which is on the left side alongside the way Bethlehem to Hebron. There is a small mosque. There are also remains of a Christian church.

Three daughters of Philip, were buried near their Father (Mart. Rom. June 6).

Fourth daughter of Philip. Her name was Hermione. She died in Ephesus (Mart. Rom. June 6).

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. (1419-1467) He financed the building of a hospice in Ramla (Ramleh). The Franciscans had a house there, already in 1296. Philip received from Pope Nicolas V (1447-1455) the permission for the repairing of the roof the Basilica of the Nativity at Bethlehem. Edouard IV, King of England, should donate the lead-plates; the Republic of Venice should transport the materials to Jaffa; the Franciscans should supervise the repairs. - Philip the Good legated his heart to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. But the heart never reached Jerusalem.

Philip of Alsatia. He brought in 1178 a relic to Europe. In Kortrijk (Belgium) there is on Ascension a procession of the Sacred Hearts.

Philip of Aubigny. This English knight was tutor to Henry III, king of England. Philip was also governor of Jersey. He came to the East in 1222, and he accompanied Emperor Frederick II to Jerusalem in 1228. The tomb of Philip is outside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, under the bench, which is outside the western aisle of the double gate. The tomb was discovered in 1867. - A tradition tells that not Philip, but another knight is buried there. (Compare: Wigger)

Philippe de France. He made peace with Henry II, king (1154-1189) of England. Philip took the Cross in 1188.

Philippe d'Annecy en France. St. Anthony of Padua during his stay in France, foretold his birth to the pregnant mother. Philip joined the Franciscan Order, he joined the Crusaders, he was martyred in 1280 in Azot (Ashdod) in Palestine. (AA.SS. March 7)

Philippe de Puy en Velay. Franciscan, Blessed. St. Anthony of Padua was in the years 1224 to 1227 Superior in the convent of the Franciscans at Le Puy en Velay, France. He foretold to a pregnant mother that her son would be a Franciscan and a martyr. In 1265 her son, who had joined an army of Crusaders, fell in an ambush near Gaza. He refused to become a Muslim, and was beheaded. He was about 40 years old. He was martyred at Arsuf (G BB 11, 460; Van der Vat 93-94). Arsuf is on the Mediterranean coast. (Compare Philippe d'Annecy)

Philippe le Bel, King of France, (1285-1314). He persecuted the Jews in 1306. Philippe made a process against the Templars. It ended in 1312 with the suppression of the Order of the Templars.

Philippus Brosserius (1285-1290). He mentions a piece of the column of the Flagellation in the Cenacle on Mount Sion, and another piece in the Palace of Caiphas.

Philippus, 9th bishop of Jerusalem, died round 124. (AA.SS. Aug 4)

Philippus Huart, Franciscan, probably from Belgium. Philippus was in Scandarona (= Alexandretta) the last day of June 1665. So it is related in a letter written by Pater Lambertus Benoict to Father Gonsales Antonio on Juli 17, 1665. - Pater Lambertus (of Belgium) died in Alexandretta on Aug 20, 1665.

Philippus, Martyr, Franciscan. (Miraculum S. Antonii cle Padua, AA.SS. June 13) Philippus was martyred in Azot in 1280. (AA.SS. March 7) (Compare: Philippe d'Annecy; Philippe de Puy)

Philistines. They are named Pelistim in 1 Sam 14, 1. Their region is Philistia in Palestine. Philistia was the coastal plain north of Gaza. The Philistines introduced the use of iron into Palestine. The name Philistia for the total territory west of the Jordan was adopted in the Roman and Byzantine times, and survives in the name Palestine.

Philodemus (friend of the people). It is the surname of Aretas IV, king of the Nabataeans. An inscription in Aramaic language with Nabataean script was discovered at Madaba in 1880. (now in the Vatican) Aretas (AD 9-40) ruled over Damascus. (Acts 9, 23 ff)

Philologus, one of the 70 disciples, according to the Greeks. The Roman Martyrology has on Nov 4: Philologus and Patrobas. Both are greeted by Paul in his letter to the Romans 16, 14-15.

Philonilla, sister of Zenais. Both were relatives of Paul and followed his teaching. Feast on Oct 9.

Philoromus, St. He visited Palestine round 362. (AA.SS. June 14)

Philotheus, martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, under Maximianus (305. 311) The feast is on Nov 5, together with Domninus, Theotimus, Dorotheus, Casterius and Silvanus of Emesa.

Phinees. The Gospel of Nikodemus (XIV, 1) tells: 'Phinees, a priest, and Adas, a teacher, and Angaeus, a levite, came from Galilee and they informed the chiefs of the synagogue, the priests and the levites: 'We have seen Jesus, with His disciples, sitting on the mount, which is named Mamilch'.

Phinehas, grandson of Aaron the priest and son of the priest Eleazar. Phinehas is commemorated, together with them, on Sept 3 in the Georgian liturgy. Phinehas, the priest, was celebrated for his zeal. When an Israelite was having intercourse with a Midianite woman about the rites of Baal Peor, Phinehas killed both with a single trust of a spear in the genital organs (Nm 25, 7-11). For this he was promised an abiding priesthood. According to the Samaritan tradition, the high priest Eleazar and his son Phinehas were buried in Awarta. There are two tombs in this village. They are called EI Azeir (Eleazar) and & Azeirat.

Phlegon, one of the 70 disciples in the Greek list. Bishop of Marathon, Achaia. In the Roman Martyrology the feast is on April 8. Phlegon is greeted by Paul in his letter to the Romans 16, 14.

Phocas John. See: Johannes Phocas.

Phocas, Saint. Phocas was venerated in Jerusalem. There was a commemoration of St. Phocas and St. Babylas on the 'Holy Mountain' (that means the Mount of Olives), according to the lectionary of Paris, on Aug 30.

Phocius, son of Photine, the Samaritan woman.

Photides, son of Photine, the Samaritan woman.

Photine, St. Legend gives this name to the Samaritan woman of whom the Gospel of John (4, 11-42) speaks. After her conversion she, together with her 5 sisters and her 2 sons, preached the Gospel and suffered martyrdom under Nero (54-68). Her 5 sisters were Anatole, Photo, Photes, Paraskeve, and Cyriaka. Her 2 sons were Photinus (or Photides) and Joseph. - The Greek liturgy venerates Photine on Feb 26. The Mart. Rom. has the commemoration on March 20. It mentions 6 sons: Joseph, Victor, captain Sebastian, the saints Anatolius, Phozius, Photides. It relates Paraskeve and Cyriaka, as cousins of the Samaritan woman.

Photinus, a son of the Samaritan woman. (Compare Photides)

Photo, a sister of the Samaritan woman, Photine.

Plavi Ludovico. He belonged to the Franciscan Order. He was Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1889 to 1905.

Piccardo Louis, Don. (1845-1917) This priest arrived in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1870. He was an auxiliary bishop from 1902 to 1917. In 1917 he was deported by the Turks to Damascus, where he died on Dec 2, 1917, two days after his arrival.

Picavet. Born Tielt (Belgium) June 24, 1874, died as Melkite archimandrite at Nazareth, on Feb 20, 1923. (Perhaps killed by robbers).

Picchiarini L. He executed the vitrails in the Church of Agony (1924) and in the Chapel of the Flagellation (1927-29).

Pierotti Hermes, Italian architect in Palestine from 1854 to 1862. In his work 'Jerusalem Explored'(London 1864) he writes: 'Farther on (=after Veronica's house) the street Via Dolorosa is arched over, and in the side-walls are remains of ancient masonry. Here, some place the house of the WANDERING JEW. This tradition, however, (or rather legend) is not accepted by the Christians of Jerusalem. - A legend adds: the exhausted Crossbearer Jesus rested on the threshold of a house. The owner obliged him to continue his way, because he did not like that his house should be marked as having given rest to a condemned crossbearer. - A street, to the east of Nablus Road, is named after Pierotti.

Pierre d'Englisperg. After his return from Rhodos (round 1500) he imitated in Fribourg in Switzerland the way with the 7 columns (7 stations of the Via Dolorosa). The distance between the Judgment and the Stripping of the Garments accords in Fribourg to the measures of Rhodos. (Archives de la Société d'histoire de Fribourg, (1891), V, 274)

Pierre de la Roche. Franciscan Father. He was in 1225 the confessor of the crusader, Count William of Pembroke. Pierre was really in the Holy Land. (GBB I, 417; Van der Vat, 97 nota 65)

Pierre de Narbonne (France), Franciscan. He was martyred in Jerusalem, together with three other Franciscans, on Nov 14, 1391. They were canonized by Pope Paul VI, on June 21, 1970. Feast on Dec. 5.

Pietro Bardulio. The Latin rulers of Acre sent the Franciscan Father Pietro Bardulio to the Curia at Rome in 1290. And Pietro Bardulio came back in the same year 1290 with a papal edict of Pope Nicolas IV (1288-1292).

Pietro of Boreth. This Franciscan Father was in Acre round 1227. (Albericus in M. G. H., SS, XXIII, 920)

Pletro Soler, Franciscan, Blessed. He was born in Lorca, Spain, in 1827. In January 1859 he came to the Custody of the Holy Land. He suffered martyrdom by the Druses at Damascus, on July 10, 1860.

Pietruszka, Mgr. He belonged to the Polish Army of General Anders in the Second World War (1939-45). He was chaplain for the Polish christians in the Holy Land. He organised a small museum at the 3th Station. The Polish group had rented the site of the 3rd and 4th Station. Pietruszka died at Jerusalem.

Pilate, the archbishop. And on this day (9th of Nahasse, twelfth month) also is commemorated Pilate (?) the archbishop. (Ethiopian Synaxarium).

Pilate, Pontius. He was the Roman procurator of Judaea, who condemned Jesus. Pilate was a Roman equestrian of the Samnite clan of the Pontii, hence his name Pontius. The meaning of his cognomen Pilatus is uncertain; his personal or first name is not known. In 26 AD the Roman Emperor Tiberius (14-37) appointed Pilate procurator of Judaea, Samaria, and ldumea. In 1961 a Latin inscription with the words 'Pontius Pliatus praefectus Judaeae' was discovered at Caesarea, Palestine. All four Gospels describe Pilate's weak submission to the unjust accusation against Jesus. The chief apocrypha about Pilate are the ACTS of PILATE, LETTER of PILATE to CLAUDIUS, LETTER of PILATE to TIBERIUS, ANAPHORA PILATI, and PARADOSIS PILATI. The legends in these works led the Ethiopian Church to honour Pilate as a saint (feast June 25) His wife, traditionally called Claudia Procla (Procula), is venerated as a saint by the Greeks. Her feast is on Oct 27. The Copts in the 6th/7th centuries considered Pilate as a saint.

Pontius Pilate in the Ethiopian Synaxarium. On the 25th of the month Sânê Pilate, the confessor, died. Salutations to Pilate, who washed his hands of the blood of Jesus Christ (wanting in the Bodleian Manuscript). - Pilate sent soldier Longinus to Emperor Tiberius (23th of Hamle). - Pilate gave them (i.e. Joseph and Nicodemus) permission to carry Him away (1st of Nahassê) - And although the prison, in which Joseph of Arimathea was imprisoned, was sealed with the seal of Pilate, and with the seals of the High Priests, our Risen Lord Jesus came to the place where Joseph was (1st of Nahassê)

Pilate's Aqueduct. The dam that traverses Birket-es-Sultan (Germain's Lake) contains remnants of the aqueduct for the repair of which Pilate took money from the temple. - The aqueduct of Pilate passed through Bethlehem. It started at Wadi Arrub and passed at the Pools of Solomon, and continued over Bethlehem to Jerusalem. Remains of the aqueduct are still in Bethlehem and in Jerusalem to the south of the wails, outside Dung Gate and Sion Gate.

Pilgrim Arculf. (See Arculfus, and Adamnanus). This French bishop made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land at about 670. He told his story to Adam(n)anus, abbot of a monastery at Iona, which is an island off the shore of Scotland. Adam(n)anus put the story of Arculf in writing.

Pilgrim of Bordeaux. This anonymous traveller made a pilgrimage from Bordeaux in France to the Holy Land in 333. He mentions the construction of three Basilicas: Holy Sepulchre, Nativity, Ascension.

Pilgrims to Palestine, in the 9th century. They are mentioned in Miracula S. Quirini, c. II, n. 20. (AA.SS. March 25)

Pilgrims-railway. The Hejaz-railway for the pilgrims to Medina and Mecca was begun in 1901 by European engineers. The railway goes from Damascus over Deraa on the border of Syria, via Amman, and Ma'an in the direction of Medina. (1300 Kms). At Deraa an embranchment went along the valley of the Jarmuk-river. It crossed the Jordan, passed through the valley of Esdraelon, via Afula to Haifa. A narrow gauge railway, built by the Turks in 1914-15, came from Lydda over Naplus and Jenin to Afula and joined there the embranchment.

Pilon, Dr. He was born in 1917 in Indonesia, with Dutch nationality. He came from Holland to Israel in 1956 with his wife Christine and five children. He served on the staff of the Church of Scotland Hospital at Tiberias until 1960. He established Nes Ammim 'Banner of the Nations', which is a Christian settlement, near Lohamei Hageta'ot, on the way Acre to Nahariyya. Dr. Pilon died on July 14, 1975.

Pinazzo. See: Francis Pinazzo, martyr, Damascus, 1860.

Pincuret Martin, Canon. He bought the site of Dom Poiski inside the Old City, in 1907. This house belongs to the Primate of Poland.

Pinianus (or Pionius). He was the husband of Melania the Younger. She came in 417 with her husband from Rome to Jerusalem. Pinianus and Mary died both in peace. (AA.SS. S. Melania junior, Pinianus et Albina on Jan 7; Jan 31; Dec 31)

Pionius, husband of Melania the Younger. See: Pinianus.

Pionius, priest of Smyrna. He fled from the Decian persecution, and came to Palestine as a pilgrim. He defended himself before the judge Polemon, he was martyred on March 12, 250. Pionius relates about the Dead Sea, he does not mention Golgotha, and the Tomb of Christ.

Pipinus, pilgrim. Died about 1320, he speaks about Bartimaeus.

Pisans. They received from King Baldwin III the privilege to have at Jaffa their own street and their own church. - In Jerusalem the Citadel of David was called Tower of the Pisans during the rule of the Crusaders.

Pistis (Belief), daugther of Sophia (Wisdom). The feast of Pistis is on Oct 25 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Pius XI, Pope. He reestablished in 1847 the Latin Patriarchate.

Place of Trumpeting. A Hebrew inscription in a niche at the southwest corner of the Temple Mount reads: 'To the place of trumpeting'. The niche has fallen from this 'pinnacle' outwards on the Herodian street. - The inscription is now in the Museum at the Citadel.

Placidus of Varallo. This Franciscan survived the pest in Milan in 1630. He came to the Holy Land in 1632. He died in Jerusalem on July 18, 1670, at the age of 77 years.

Plain of Puthaba (or al Butaiha). It is at the north-east end of the Lake of Galilee. In this plain King Baldwin III in 1158 defeated Nurad-Din.

Planquet Fr. This priest founded in Lyon in 1875 the Sisters of Our Lady of the Apostles. These Sisters run since 1946 an Orphanage in Bethlehem.

Platonidis and two other Martyrs. They suffered martyrdom in Ascalon. (Roman Martyrology has the feast on April 6)

Plesius, martyr of Palestine. He was born in Egypt. He presented himself to Urban, the governor of Caesarea, Palestine. He confessed his faith and suffered martyrdom in 297. The Greek liturgy has his feast on March 15. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has on March 23: Agapius, two Alexanders, Dionysios, Timolaos, Paisius (Plesius).

Pliny, Cajus Plinius Secundus (Pliny, the Elder). He lived AD 23-79. He died during the eruption of the Vesuvius. He wrote Historia Naturalis. Some of the phenomena of Palestine are elucidated.

Plumer F. British High Commissioner from 1925 to 1928.

Poemenia, Roman matron. She built a church on the site of the Ascension, before 378.

Polish Hospice in, East-Jerusalem. See: Pincuret Martin.

Polish Hospice in West-Jerusalem. It was opened in 1945 in Shivtei Israel Street, with alms from the Polish Soldiers of the General Anders Army, who were trained in Palestine.

Polish Orphanage on Mount of Olives. Opened in 1967.

Polish Sisters of St. Elisabeth. They were founded by Maria and Francisca Merkert and Clara Wolf in 1840 at Nissa in Poland. In 1931 the Sisters of S. Elisabeth took over the administration of Dom Polski in the Old City. (Hospice) (See: Pincuret Martin).

Poloner (Polonus) John (1422). He mentions a devotional Way of the Passion in Jerusalem, during the night with lamps.

Polycarp, Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem (1808-1827) He restored the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, which had been damaged by fire in the night of Oct 11, 1808. (Calendar of Gregory, followed by the Latins. The Greek Church indicates the date as Sept 30, 1808)

Polychronius, bishop of Areopolis. He is mentioned in the year 518.

Polyeuctes, Saint, martyr at Melitene in Armenia round 250. He was an officer of the 12th legion. A funeral chapel of Polyeuctes was in the house of an Armenian in the Musrara Quarter, north of Damascus Gate. There was discovered, during the expedition of Bliss, in 1894-97, a mosaic with an Armenian inscription: 'For the memory and the salvation of those Armenians who fell and whose names are known only to God'. The inscription dates probably from the 5th century.

Pomenia (Pomnia, compare Poemenia). This Roman matrona was a relative of the future Emperor Theodosius I (379-395). (De Vos in Analecta Bollandiana, 1969, p. 189-212). Pomenia erected on the top of the Mount of Olives a round building (rotunda) over the site where the Ascension of Jesus was remembered.

Pontifical Biblical Institute in Jerusalem (Jesuits) was built in 1924-1927.

Pontifical Mission for the Refugees. It was established by Montini (the later Pope Paul VI) in 1949. Two members of the GRAIL are among the staff.

Pontius Pilatus. See: Pilate.

Pool of the Patriarch's Bath. Near Khan el Aqbat (Copts' Khan) which was rebuilt, in 1838, is the Pool of the Patriarch's Bath. The Pool is also named Pool of Hezekiah. It was called by Josephus (Wars V, 11, 4) Arnygdalon. This name perhaps means Pool of the Big Tower (Tower of David).

Poor Clares of Jerusalem. (1884) Compare: Harmel

Poor Clares of Nazareth. (1884) It was founded from Paray-le-Monial (France). In their convent of Nazareth worked Charles de Foucauld as gardener (1897-1900). The Sisters were exiled to Malta in World War I (1914-1918). The Poor Clares built in 1968 a new convent on the 'Mount of the Fright'. The Little Sisters of Jesus (Foucauld-Sisters) occupy the ancient convent of the Poor Clares.

Poor Clares from Algeria. These Sisters have a small convent at Nazareth, near the Melkite Seminary. They follow the Melkite rite.

Pope Clement IV (?), 1265-1268. He donated on April 1, 1255 (?) Mount Tabor to the Hospitalers of St. John.

Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769). He appealed to the Western Powers to change the firman (decree) which was stipulated by the Sublime Porte at Istambul in 1757. The action of the Pope was without result.

Pope John Paul 1 (1978). See: Luciani.

Poppo, archbishop of Trier (Germany). Together with his guest, Simon of Trier, Poppo pilgrimated (1028-1030) to the Holy Land. After their return, Poppo granted the permission to Simeon to occupy a cell in the Porta Nigra at Trier, where Simeon, after 5 years, died on June 1, 1035.

Poppo, St, Stabulensis. He came to Palestine round 1001. (Everhelmus, Vita S. Popp., C. II, n. 4-5) (AA.SS. Jan 25)

Porphyrius, Martyr. He was a relative of Panphilius, the martyr. Porphyrius and Saint Seleucus from Cappadocia were tortured: Porphyrius was burned, Seleucus was decapitated. The executions took place in Caesarea, Palestine, under Emperor Galerius (305-311). The Roman Martyrology has the feast on Feb 16.

Porphyrius, the Juggler. The Roman Martyrology on Sept 15 refers to Porphyrius the Juggler. During a performance, the was baptized and proclaimed his faith. On order of Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363), he was decapitated. This happened at Hadrianopolis in Thracia.

Porphyrius, the Mimicker. He was born in Ephesus and lived during the reign of Emperor Aurelianus (270-275). He was in the service of the Governor of Alexandria as a juggler and mimicker. He was converted and baptized while in Caesarea, Palestine. Many idolaters accepted the faith an account of his conversion. An attempt was made to force him to renounce his faith. Upon his refusal, he was decapitated. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Nov 4.

Porphyrius of Gaza. (Porphyrius Thessalonicus). He was born in Salonica in 352. He came a monk in Scetis (Egypt), and later about 392 in the Jordan Valley. Later he went to Jerusalem, where he earned his living as a shoemaker. At the age of 40 he was ordained to the priesthood and in 396 he was consecrated bishop of Gaza. During his administration, the temples and idols of Giza were destroyed. He suffered severely from the pagans, yet he christianized the population of his diocese. He died at Gaza in 420. He is venerated in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem on Feb 26. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Feb 26. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar mentions him on Feb 25, Feb 26, March 3. - Marcus Diaconus mentions a journey of Porphyrius of Gaza and of John, archbishop of Caesarea, to Rhodos and from there to Constantinople in 401. The tomb of Porphyrius is in the Greek Orthodox Church of Gaza. - The AA.SS. mention Porphyrius of Thessalonica, with Mark, his disciple. (Vita, ex Menacis) (AA.SS. Feb 26)

Portigiani. Dominic Portigiani, Dominican Father of the Convent of St. Mark in Florence, made in 1588 (?) the silver plated Latin altar. The altar was a gift of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand de Medici. The altar was intended for being placed at the Stone of Unction. But as the Latins were prevented to place it there, the altar received a place at the site where the Latins on Golgotha remember the l 'Ith Station (Crucifixion). In six silver-plated panels are represented scenes of the Passion.

Portuguese ships. They shelled Suez in 1460. The Mamluks used nitrates of the Dead Sea in the gunpowder for the defence.

Potard, Mgr. He organised the PèIerinages de St. Louis.

Potentius, Felicius, Simplicius, saints and hermits of Cologne. They came to the. Holy Land round 330. (Legenda SS. Pot., Fel., et Simpl., n. 5) (AA.SS. June 18)

Potesta, see: Gaetano Potesta. (died 1738)

Poudes (probably Pudens). One of the 70 disciples, Greek list.

Poulain. Nickname for the sons who were born in the Holy Land from a Crusader-father. The Arabic 'fulan' means ': a certain. The French word poulain means a young horse.

Poussepis Marie (1653-1744). She founded the Dominican Sisters of the Presentation. They serve in the home 'Maison d'Abraham' Jerusalem, on the Mount of Scandal (Mount of Offence).

Poveda Pedro (died 1936). He founded in 1921, with the cooperation of Maria Josepha Segovia, the Secular Institute of the Theresians. These Sisters run the Pontifical Missionary Library inside the New Gate at Jerusalem. They came in 1952 to Jerusalem.

Poyet Louis, Mgr. (1815-1893) He came to the Latin Patriarchate in 1852.

Praxius, bishop of Jerusalem. The Ethiopian Synaxarium relates on the 1st of Magabit (seventh month, March 7-April 5): Praxius was appointed bishop in the days of Alexander Caesar. During the persecution of Maximianus Caesar (305-311) he fled to the desert. Jerusalem indicated as bishop, first Dies, and later Agradinus. When the persecution had passed by, Praxius returned to Jerusalem and ruled with Agradinus for one year. After the death of Agradinus, Praxius ruled together with Iskander (Alexander), bishop of the city of Cappadocia, who was on a visit in Jerusalem. All the days of the Abba Barkisos (Praxius) were thirty-six years, and all the days of his life were one hundred and sixteen years. And he died in peace.

Praylius, 43th bishop of Jerusalem. (Died 418). Mare the Deacon in 'Vita S. Porphyrii' writes: Mare accompanied Porphyrius to Golgotha. After the veneration of the relic, Porphyrius replaced the relic of the cross in its shrine, closed it, and went out and brought back the keys to the Blessed Bishop Praylius, and went away.

Praylius, archbishop of Jerusalem (416-422) and martyr, and Arcadius, the King. The lectionary of Paris commemorates them on Aug 27. (Compare Arcadius, emperor (395-408)

Pre-Chalcedonian Orthodox. The Copts of Egypt, the Ethiopians, the Armenians accept only the first three ecumenical Councils (Nicaea in 325, Constantinople in 381, Ephesus in 431), and they reject the Christology which was defined at the fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451. The Pre-Chalcedonian Christians are Monophysites.

Premonstratensians and Jonah and Montjoye. The Premonstratensians were established in Jinis (or Kenise) near Lydda. - Jinis means perhaps Jonas (Jonah). Indeed, Jews identified Geth-Hepher, the birthplace of Jonah, with Geth near Lydda. - The Premonstratensians also settled in Montjoye (Nebi Samwil, Nebi Samuel). The site with the tomb of Prophet Samuel, was called Mons Gaudii, Montjoye. From that height the pilgrims had their first view of Jerusalem.

Presentation of the Virgin Mary in the Temple. (Proto-evangelium Jacobi, VII, 2-3). The feast is on Nov 21. Anna and Joachim brought their child Mary to the temple at the age of three years. An angel brought victuals. Mary remained in the temple till her 12th year. Then Joseph received her from the hands of the priests. - The Ethiopian Synaxarium tells on Takhshash 3:... Zacharias, the high priest, said: Let every man of the house of David, whether he be young or old, whose wife is dead, go to Jerusalem. From the staff of Joseph, the carpenter, appeared a white dove and it flew up and stood upon his head. And Zacharias said unto Joseph: Take Mary the Virgin and keep her in thy house. - The Maria Nea Church was built in Jerusalem and dedicated in Nov 543 to the Presentation of Mary. Pope Sixtus V in 1585 extended the feast of the Presentation to the Universal Church.

Priests of Heaven. 24 priests before the throne of the God of Hosts, are 'saluted' on the 24th of Khedar (third month) in the Ethiopian Synaxarium: Salutation to you, o priests of the Law.

Prince Edward of England, the later Edward I, king of England. He, came as a Crusader to Acre in 1270-71, together with Theobald Vismunti, the later Pope Gregory X. Prince Edward had joined the Crusade (8th Crusade) of King Louis. King Louis died at Carthage on Aug 26, 1270. Prince Edward conducted a crusade on his own.

Prince of Wales, the later Edward VII, king of England. He visited the Holy Land in 1862, he was allowed to visit the mosque at Hebron. He encamped at Jerusalem north of the city.

Princes Albert and George (of England). They visited the mosque of Hebron in 1882. They opened in 1882 at Nablus a school, which was founded by the C(hurch) M(issionary) S(ociety).

Priority between the Religious Communities. According to the Status Quo, the Greek-Orthodox community has the first place; the Armenians have the second place; the third place is occupied by the Latin Community. - The Latin Patriarch is not allowed to celebrate the solemn service inside the Tomb of Christ. He always celebrates before the Edicule that covers the Tomb.

Prison of Barabbas and the two thieves. It is recalled by caves to the north of the Via Dolorosa. The Greek Orthodox have there a sanctuary. It is to the west of the Arch Ecce Homo. The Convent dates from 1906. The rock-hewn caves under the Greek convent are indicated as prison of Barabbas and prison of the two thieves.

Prison of Christ, on the Via Dolorosa, near the Fortress Antonia. It is shown in the Greek-Orthodox Convent. The prison of Christ is a cave, but on a higher level as the prison of Barabbas and the thieves.

Prison of Christ, in the House of the High-priest. This sanctuary is venerated in the St. Saviour's Church of the Armenians on Mount Sion.

Prison of Christ, before his Crucifixion. In Typicon Anastasis (9th cent.) is remembered that Christ, attending his Crucifixion, was a prisoner. The Greek Chapel 'Prison of Christ' at the north side inside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, is an ancient Jewish tomb which reminds us of a prison. This sanctuary is incensed by the three communities during their processions.

Prison of Peter (Acts 12, 11-23). See: Peter in chains.

Priscianus. He was beheaded, together with his sister Fortunata and his brothers Carponius and Evaristus, in Caesarea, Palestine, in 303. The Mart. Rom. has the memory on Oct 14.

Priscus, Malchus, Alexander, martyrs in 259. These three men lived in the suburbs of Caesarea, Palestine. They went into the city and rebuked the governor for his harshness in the persecutions of the Christians. For their audacity they were thrown to the wild beasts. This happened under Emperor Valerianus (253-260). The Mart. Rom. has their memory on March 26.

Pritchard J. B. He excavated in 1952-1959 the great Pool at the Biblical Gabaon (Gibeon) (the Arabic name of the village is El Jib). At Gabaon Abner killed Asael, who was the brother of Joab. Later Joab slew treacherously Abner at the gate in Hebron. (See Joab) Gabaon later produced a false prophet, Hananias, against whom Jeremiah spoke (Jer. 28). Gabaon is north of Jerusalem, on the way Jerusalem - El Qubeibeh (Emmaus). The Wadi el Askar (valley of the soldiers) reminds us of the death of Asael.

Probus, abbot. On his insistence, he was sent by Pope Gregory I (the Great 590-604) with money to Jerusalem to erect a hospice. (Vita S. Gregorii, auct. Johanne diacono, I, II, c. II, VII, VIII, n. 11, 52, 55) Round 600 Probus was in Palestine (AA.SS. March 12). Probus was the first superior of the hospice. Perhaps its site is to be searched for near the forum where later was built Sainte Marie Latine (St. Mary of the Latins) (Mémoires de l'lnstitut National de France, XXXI, P. 153, n. 1)

Probus, martyr. He is venerated, according to the Georgian liturgy of Palestine, on June 27, July 18, Sept 28, Oct 1, Oct 11.

Probus (or Poromotus, or Promotheus) of Ascaion. Together with Ares (Aretis) and Elijah. The three were martyred at Ascalon. Their memory is on Dec 14.

Probus, martyr in 304. He was from Side in Pamphylia. He was martyred, together with Tarachus and Andronicus, in Anazarbe, in 304.

Prochorus, martyr or confessor. He was one of the seven deacons whom the people presented before the Apostles (Acts 6, 5). Prochorus was consecrated bishop of Nicomedia by St. John, and he suffered martyrdom (?) in Antioch. The Greeks have his feast on July 28. The Melkite liturgy admits that Prochorus died in peace, as a confessor, and has his feast on July 28, together with Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has the feast of confessor Prochorus on Ter. 20. (AA.SS. April 9)

Procla (Procula). She was the wife of Pontius Pilate. She became a Christian and died in peace. The Greek liturgy remembers her on Oct 27. Procla is not venerated in the Roman liturgy. Sometimes the Eastern liturgies name her Claudia Proc(u)1a.

Proclus, archbishop of Constantinople (434-446). He was a disciple of St. John Chrysostom. Proclus is venerated in the Palestinian. Georgian calendar on Nov 19, Nov 20. In the Greek synaxaries on Oct 24, Nov 20.

Procopios of Porphyre. See: Procopios the scholar (scholastikos). Not to be identified with Procopios of Caesarea, the historian.

Procopios the scholar (scholastikos). Procopios, the scholar, of Porphyre tells about the priest Zacchaeus. The two sons of Procopios studied at Caesarea, Palestine. There came at Caesarea a strong epidemy. Procopios went to priest Zacchaeus, who lived at Mount Sion in Jerusalem. Not finding Zacchaeus at Mount Sion, Procopios went to the church NEA. There he found priest Zacchaeus, praying in the atrium of the NEA church. Zacchaeus heard about the fear of Procopios and turned himself to the orient and prayed during two hours without saying anything. Then Zacchaeus turned himself to Procopios with the words: 'Your sons will not die from the epidemy. After two days the epidemy will cease in Caesarea'. (John Moschus, Pratum Spirituale, 131) The NEA church was built by Emperor Justinian I (the Great) (523-565) in 543.

Procopios of Caesarea, the historian. Round 560 he wrote 'De Aedificiis Justiniani'. Justinian I, the Great, ruled 523-565.

Procopius of the Decapolis, monk. He was a monk during the reign of Emperor Leo III, 717-740. Procopius supported the iconodules. He died in peace in 751. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Feb 27.

Procopius of Scythopolis, martyr. He was born at Jerusalem, but he lived in Scythopolis (Beth-Shean), where he was a church-reader and an interpreter of Syriac. At the time of the Diocletlan persecution, he was sent to Caesarea, Palestine. He was ordered by Flavian, the governor, to sacrifice to the idols. He refused also to sacrifice to the Emperors. Procopius was beheaded in 303, as the first victim of this Persecution in Palestine. The Martyrologium Romanum has his memory on July 8; the name of the governor is there Fabianus. The Greek liturgy remembers Procopius on Nov 22; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on June 23. The mother of Procopius was Theodosia. She was martyred under Diocletian (284-313) Her memory is on May 29.

Church of Procopius in Jerusalem. In this church was, on Oct 2, the memory of Peter and Paul, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, apostles; of Isaiah and Zachariah, prophets; of the martyrs Panteeleemon, Theodosius, Sergius, Christophorus, Mamantis. (Palestinian-Georgian calendar. -The Church of Procopius was founded probably in the 6th century. Remains of it are still on the top of Abu Tor (Jebel Deir Abu Tor = Mount of the Convent of the Father of the Bull). (Revue Biblique, 33, 1924, p. 616, Nr 26)

Church of Procopius in Scythopolis (Beth-Shean). This Procopius' Church was on Tell el Husn (Hill of the Castle), between the east side of the rivulet Jalud and Nahr el Maliha.

Church of Procopius near Mount Nebo. In the lower part of Khirbet el Mekkayyat (the little needle) is a mosaic floor in the church of SS. Lot and Procopius.

Procorius. See: Prochorus, martyr or confessor.

Procula. See: Procla, wife of Pitate.

Prodromos (Forerunner). See: John the Baptist.

Promotheus (Promus (?), Promotus, Poromotus). In the church of the Anastasis, the memory of Aretis, Promotheus (Promus?), Elias, on Dec 14. The three were from Egypt, but they were martyred at Ascalon. (De Mart. Pal., X, 1)

Prosper a Briscia, Guardianus of Mount Sion. He sent on Aug 14, 1751 his 'episcopal’ staff to the Convent of San Francisco el Grande of Madrid for making the staff lighter. The staff was entrusted to Fray Custodio de Riaza. An invoice of Nov 11, 1752 mentions the price of repair. The transformed staff was brought back to Jerusalem. (Arce A., Archivo Espanol de Arte (1973) 437-440)

Prosper of the Holy Ghost, Spanish Carmelite. In 1630 he took up on Mount Carmel his abode with two companions amid the ruins of the ancient monastery of the Carmelite Fathers. He bought rooms in Haifa and he looked after the christians, mainly sailors. The 'hermitage' of Prosper is on the sea-side slope of Mount Carmel.

Protestant Mission of America. It began in the Holy Land in 1838, it closed in 1843.

Provisional Government of France (1940-1945) in World War II. It donated the central altar to the Crusader Church of Qyriat-el-Anab (Abu Ghosh). The altar was dedicated in May 1945.

Prussia. The Crown Prince of Prussia visited the Holy Land in 1869. He took possession of the ruins of St. Mary Latin, presented to his father by Sultan Abdul Aziz.

Pseudo-Rufinus. He was the author of the second book VITARUM PATRUM. He visited Palestine round 394. (AA.SS. Oct 4)

Ptolemais. The town Acco of the tribe of Asher received in the time of the Ptolemies the name of Ptolemais. At the beginning of the Christian era, it was named Colonia Claudii Caesaris, in honour of Emperor Claudius.

Ptolemy, Claudius Ptolemaeus. This Alexandrian mathematician and geographer died in the middle of the 2nd century after Christ. His GEOGRAPHIA contains information on Palestine.

Publius, monk and martyr. He was the teacher of St. Leontius, martyr. Leontius was martyred under Vespasian (69-79). Feast June 18.

Publius, Saint, 18th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd cent. (AA.SS. Jan 21)

Pudens, one of the 70 disciples. The Melkite liturgy has on April 14: the memory of Aristarchus, Pudens, Trophimus. Pudens was a Christian of Rome. The Apostle Paul mentions Pudens in his second letter to Timotheus (2 Tim 6, 21) and greets Timotheus from the part of Pudens. According to tradition, Pudens gave hospitality to St. Peter and was baptized by St. Peter.

Puthaba. See: Plain of Puthaba.

Puydt (De) Gerardus. Franciscan preacher in Flanders. He is known under his Latinized name Rana. He pilgrimated to the Holy Land. He died at Yperen (Belgium) on Feb 15, 1608.


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