A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Nabataeans. This Arabic tribe is mentioned in 1 Macc 5, 25; 9, 35 as friends of the Macchabean party. The Nabataeans settled in the former territory of Edom and Moab. They built caravan cities. Their capital was Petra in East Jordan. Nelson Glueck explored the Nabataean civilization. The Nabataeans created carefully constructed systems of water conservation and irrigation.

Nabataean King, Aretas lV (9 BC - 40 AD) and tetrarch Herod Antipas. Aretas had his daughter married to tetrarch Herod Antipas, It was a political marriage, which was wished by Emperor Augustus. Herod Antipas dismissed the Nabataean princess to take Herodias. The dismissed princess returned to her father. In 36 AD Aretas IV attacked troops of Herodes on the frontier and defeated them. The people interpreted the defeat of Herod Antipas as a punishment because he had beheaded John the Baptist.

The king of the Nabataeans and Paul. Emperor Caligula (37-41) leased Damascus to Aretas W, king of the Nabataens. This king sent, round 38, orders to arrest the apostle Paul in Damascus. Paul escaped in a basket. (Acts 9, 20; 2 Cor 11, 33)

Nabataens and Magi. Perhaps the Magi who visited Jesus in Bethlehem ware in relation with the caravan-traders, the Nabataeans.

Naboth. And on this day (Takhshash l.) also died Naboth the Jezreelite. This Naboth owned a vineyard near the threshing floor of Ahab, the king of Samaria.... Salutation to Naboth who was killed by King Ahab for the sake of his vineyard. (Ethiopian Synaxarium). - Yezre'el (the Biblical Jezree;) was chosen as the second capital of Israel. King Ahab (871-852 BC) had there a palace near the vineyard of Naboth. The King confiscated this vineyard (1 Kings 21). At Jezreel, general Jehu killed the descendants of Ahab; and there queen Jezabel was thrown through the window. (2 Kings 9, 37). Yezre'el is about 12 Kms southeast of Afula, north (=right) of the highway from AfWa to Beit-Shean.

Nacer Moussa. He was the first teacher in the parish school of the Latin Patriarchate, in Bir-Zeit, in the days of priest Maccagno, round 1870. Moussa became afterwards Protestant. The family of Nacer developed the Protestant College of Bir-Zeit, which has became an university in 1975.

Nahum, Prophet, St. He is the 7th of the minor prophets. He was an 'Elkoshite'. A place called AI Qush, containing a grave said to be that of Nahum, is located in the neighbourhood of Mosul, near ancient Niniveh, whose ruin Nahum depicts. St. Jerome in his commentary on Nahum, records that the prophet was a native of a village in Galilee, which in Jerome's time was called Elcesi and is identified with el-Qauze, west of Tibnin. Tibnin is the talmudic Taphnith on the way from the northern Jordan valley to the Phoenician coast. Other scholars locate Elkosh at Capernaum, 'village of Na(h)um'. Pseudo-Epiphanius mentions (De Vitis Prophetarum) a Judaean Elkesi, 'yonder', i.e. south of Eleutheropolis. - Nahum's literary activity took place after the capture of the Egyptian Thebes (Biblical No-Amon) by Ashurbanipal in 663 BC, an event which is alluded to in Nahum 3, 13-10. Perhaps the Book of Nahum was composed in the year 612 BC, shortly before Niniveh's downfall. The Martyrologium Romanum indicates Begabar as the place of his tomb. The Greek liturgy has the feast of Nahum on Dec 1. Also the Mart. Rom. on Dec 1. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has Nahum on Takhshash 4.

Nails of the Crucifixion. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 9th day of the month Genbot: Helena took the honourable Cross and the nails and gave them to Constantine, her son. And he made for the Cross a case of gold, decorated with pearl-stones, and he worked some of the nails in his helmet, and some of them he placed in the bridle of his horse, in order that there might be fulfilled that which was written: 'Salvation shall be in the bridle of the King'.

Naim, where Jesus arose from dead the son of the widow (Luke 7, 11). The Franciscans erected in 1880 a chapel upon the foundations of an sanctuary. The veneration of Naim was never very important. A Greek sanctuary is not mentioned in the guide-books. The raising of Lazarus (John 11, 21-27) at Bethany always received more importance than the raising of the dead son at Naim. The miracle at Naim was a beneficence for the mother. The miracle at Bethany was a 'sign' for the people of Jerusalem.

Najdek Szymon. He was born in 1898 in Borislav, Galicia, in Poland. He saved Jews during the years 1942 to 1945. He planted a tree in the Lane of the Righteous Gentiles on Tues, Sept 28, 1976.

Naphtali. See: Nephtall.

Naoum, Mgr. Many Syrian-Catholics emigrated from Turkey in 1890. Also Naoum emigrated. The Syrian-Catholics had in 1895 a church outside the walls between Damascus Gate and the actual New Gate. The church was damaged in 1948 by the action of war. After the Six Days War in June 1967 the site was transformed into a Public Garden along the wall. Mgr Naoum erected in 1974 a prayer house in the Chaldean Street, which is opposite Ecole Biblique, Nablus Road. Shortly after the inauguration of his prayer-house, Mgr Naoum died at Jerusalem.

Naples (Lady of Naples). The 'Itinerary of a Certain Englishman' (1344) tells how a certain Lady of Naples, even when she put off her clothes, could not pass through the 'columns of ordeal’ at the shrine of the Ascension.

Napoléon in the Holy Land. Napoléon came from Egypt, the took Jaffa on March 7, 1799. He lodged in the Armenian Convent of St. Nicolas, he had an observation post in a vault inside the monastery of St. Peter that overlooks the sea. Napoleon had come over Ramleh and had lodged in the Franciscan Convent. He lodged also in the Franciscan Convent of Nazareth. A marble slab, in the museum of the Nazareth-convent, recalls his visit there. Napoléon never came to Jerusalem. The Turks had assembled Christians in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre and threatened to burn them with the building, if Napoléon would attack Jerusalem. Napoléon won the battle near Cana (April 8, 1799), he won the battle near Mount Tabor (April 16, 1799). But after a siege of 60 days, Napoléon was obliged to retreat from Acre (May 29, 1799).

Napoléon and the persecutions of the Christians. From the 'White Tower' in Ramleh Napoléon directed his army against Jaffa. This led later to the sacking of the Franciscan Convent in Ramleh by the Turks. - The Carmelite convent on Mount Carmel was a hospital for the French soldiers, who were wounded before Acre. After the retreat of Napoléon, the Carmelite monks and the French soldiers were massacred. The artillery of Napoléon was placed on Tell el Fuqar before Acre. A small pyramid, outside the church on Mount Carmel, reminds us of the death of the French soldiers.

Narciss, bishop of Jerusalem (197- circa 212). Because he was calumniated, he retired into a hermitage. After several years he was reclaimed by his clergy and he again occupied his see. He died in 222 (?) at the age of 116 (Mart. Rom) or 120 years (other tradition). His 'Vita' has his feast on Oct 29 (Anal. Boll., XI, 343) (AA.SS. Feb 26)

Narcissus, one of the 70 disciples. His feast is in the Greek liturgy on Oct 31. He was bishop of Athens. The Roman Martyrology has on Oct 31: Ampliatus, Urbanus, NARCISSUS. - The three are greeted by St. Paul in his letter to the Romans (Rm 16, 8-10).

Narjotus de Tociano. He came to Palestine before 1010. (Epistola Humbaldi, ep. Autissiod.) (AA.SS. Oct 20)

Nathan, the prophet. He rebuked King David for his adultery with Bathsheba and for his murder of the general Urias. Nathan is mmentioned in the book of Jesus Sirach (Ecclesiasticus). Nathan is named in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Genbot 16.

Nathanael. He was summoned by Philip to Jesus, and his unbelief was expressed by the words: 'Can anything good come from Nazareth? Philip said to him, 'Come and see'. Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him and said of him, 'Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!' Nathanael said to him, 'How do you know me?' Jesus answered him, 'Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, 1 saw you. ' Nathanael answered him, 'Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!' (John I, 43-49). Nathanael saw the apparition of the Risen Jesus at the Sea of Galilee. (Jn 21, 1). Nathanael is not named in the list of the Twelve Apostles. Nathanael is easily identified with Bartholemew. But some scholars suggest that Nathanael is the same as Matthias, who afterwards was indicated by the lot. (Acts 1, 23). - Epiphanius, in his book Haer. 23, 6, 5, considers the 'unnamed disciple of Emmaus' (Luke 24, 13) as Nathanael.

National Association for Italian Missionaries. This organisation has a hospital (1920) in Haifa, which is served by Franciscan Sisters. The Association owns the shrine Mount of Beatitudes near the Lake of Galilee. (Compare: Schiapparelli Ernesto)

Nativity of the Lord Jesus Christ. The solemn festival is commemorated on the 28th of the month Takhshash. The feast is celebrated on the next day, 29th. - The Ethiopian liturgy has on the 29th of each month the commemoration of the feast of the Nativity.

Nau. This French Father accompanied Marquis de Nointel on his fact-finding journey through the Holy Land in 1674 on behalf of the French King.

Nauar. The name means Tziganes, gipseys. Gipsies exist also in the Nomadic Arab society.

Navigators: Vasco da Gama (Portuguese), Christopher Columbus (Italian), Albuquerque (Portuguese) and others dreamed that they worked for the delivrance of the Holy Land in a certain manner, and they bore the Cross on their breasts, alike the Crusaders.

Navoni Teobaldo (1848-1898). This Italian priest arrived in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1874. He was missionar at Hoson in East Jordan.

Nazareth. 'Salutation to thee, O thou who dost hide in the city of Nazareth' (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Ter g).

Franciscans expelled from Nazareth: In 1263 Bybars destroyed the Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth, but the Christians continued to visit the Grotto. During this period the 'pious tradition of the House of Mary in Loreto' arose. The transfer of the house of Nazareth to Loreto by angels, was recalled in the liturgy on Dec 10. - The Franciscans were expelled from Nazareth in 1385; a second time in 1448. In 1548 was a third expulsion. The Franciscans handed the key of the Grotto to a Christian with the name of Issa. In 1632, 1634, 1638 there were new persecutions against the Franciscans of Nazareth.

Nazarius (meaning, from Nazareth?), martyr. His parents were converts of the Apostle Peter in Rome. Nazarius distributed all his property and left his home to preach. In Milano he met with Gervasius and with Protasius. Later in Gaul a mother gave to Nazarius her three year old child to become a Christian. Nazarius was arrested by Anolinus under Emperor Nero (54-68). He was beheaded with Gervasius and Protasius and with the young boy Celsus. The Roman Martyrology has the feast on July 28; the Greek liturgy on Oct 14.

Nazianzenus (meaning: of Nazianze, town in Cappadocia). See: Gregorius Nazianzenus, sanctus (AA.SS. May g).

Nebi Samuel. This hill (895 meters) has a shrine with the Tomb of Prophet Samuel. The hill, north of Jerusalem, is above the Plain of Gibeon (Gabaon). David agreed that in revenge the Gibeonites could crucify seven of the stock of Saul. And so were crucified on the hill the two sons of Rizpah, who was the concubine of Saul, and the five sons of Merab, who was the daughter of Saul. (2 Sam 21, 10)

Nebo, Mount. The Franciscan Father Michael Piccirillo unearthed on Mount Nebo in 1976 a Byzantine mosaic of the year 526. (Aug 526) From Mount Nebo in East Jordan Moses had a view on the Promised Land which is on the west shore of the Dead Sea and on the west bank of the Jordan.

Negus: a title of Selassie I, the emperor of Ethiopia.

Neon, martyr. St. Feast on April 28.

Neon, martyr. Together with Leontius, Longinus and Eusebius, Neon witnessed the martyrdom of St. George of Lydda under Diocletian (284-305) and they converted. The Greek liturgy has their feast on April 24.

Neophytus. He was born in 1134 in Kato Drys in poverty. When he was 17, his parents betrothed him. Seven months after his betrothal, he fled to the monastery of St. Chrysostomos on Mount Coutzouvendi. After a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he returned to Cyprus, where he settled in a cave, his 'Encleistra' near Paphos. At the age of 36, he was ordained priest by the bishop of Paphos, and he founded a monastery around his cave. He engaged in writings on monastic discipline. He died at the age of 85 in 1219. The Greek liturgy has his feast on April 12.

Nephtali. He was the son of Jacob and Bilha, who was the slave of Rachel. Tobias was from the tribe of Nephtali in Galifea. Nepthali is mentioned in Isaiah 8, 23. The emblem of Nepthali is the hind. The tribe of Nephtali is mentioned in Mt 4, 13. (Compare Zebulon).

Neronias. King Agrippa II changed the name of Caesarea Philippi to Neronias in honour of Emperor Nero (54-68).

Nestabus, St. Martyr. The Mart. Rom. on Sept 8 mentions Nestabus, together with Eusebius and Zenon. Nestabus was martyred in Gaza under Emperor Julian the Apostate (355-363) (See: Nestor)

Nestor, St. Martyr. The Mart. Rom. on Sept 8 relates that Nestor was killed by the crowd in Gaza under Emperor Julian the Apostate.

Nestorian hermitage. Remains of it were discovered in 1933 in Jericho, right of the way from Jericho to Allenby bridge.

Netherlands. Artists of the Netherlands have several decorations in the Grotto of Milk at Bethlehem: a sculpture 'The Flight to Egypt'; a sculpture above the main altar; wooden sculptures at the backside of the chapel.

Nettekoven, Mgr. This prelate of Cologne (he was vicarius generalis in the diocesis of Cologne) was Director of 'Verein des Heiligen Landes'. He came several times to the Holy Land. He was nominated as a bishop, but had not yet received the ordination. When on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he died in 1978 at Jerusalem. His corpse was flown to Cologne.

Neuville. This Frenchman explored in 1928 the cave 'Umm Qatafa' near Khirbet Khareitoun at Tekoa.

New Gate. This breach in the wall was made in 1887. The Gate is also called Gate Abdul Hamid, because the breach was made under Sultan Abdul Hamid. The gate was sealed in 1948 during the Hashemite rule over Jerusalem. After the Six Days War of June 1967 the Israelis reopened the New Gate.

Nicanor, one of the seven deacons. A tradition tells that Nicanor died on the same date on which St. Stephen was stoned to death. The Melkite liturgy has on July 28: the deacons, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, and Parmenas.

Nicanor Ascanio, martyr. He was born in VIIIarejo de Salvanes, Spain, in 1814. At 16 he entered the Franciscan Order. He came to the Custody and was sent to Damascus. There he was martyred by the Druses on July 10, 1860.

Niccaci Rufino. Italian Franciscan of the Province of Assisi. Born 1911. He received on April 19, 1974 the honour to plant a tree in the lane of the Just Gentiles near the Yad Vashem monument, because he saved Jews in 1943-45. He died Oct 16, 1976 at Marsciano (Italy).

Niccolo of Poggibonsi (Italy) (1346-1350). He writes that the Golden Gate was covered with iron plates, but the Christian pilgrims were removing the nails as souvenirs. (Compare: Fabri Felix).

Nicephorus, martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, in 308. In Mart. Rom. on Nov 13.

Nicephorus, patriarch of Jerusalem, after 1012. See: Theophilus.

Nicholas (or Nicolas).

Nicholas, child of Cologne. Led, round 1212, an army of children into Italy for a Crusade to the East. This expedition is recalled by the legend of the 'Pied Piper of Hamein'.

Nicholas, Czar of Russia. He asked in 1850 the Sultan to make no change in the regulations of 1757 about the Holy Places. The Sultan in 1852 issued a firman (order) directing that the regulations of 1757 should be maintained. (Statu Quo).

Nicholas, St. Greek Orthodox Convent of St. Nicholas in Haret Deir er Roum (Christian Quarter) in Jerusalem.

Church of St. Nicholas in Tekoa. Ruins of the Byzantine church are about 30 meters east of the baptismal font.

Nicholas of Myra, St. (also called Nicholas, the wonderworker) Bishop of Myra in Lycia, first half of the 4th century. His feast is on Dec 6. His relics were translated to Bari (Italy); there is his feast on May 9. Legends have him born in the Lycian town of Patara, imprisoned in the Diocletian persecution, and present at the Council of Nicaea in 325, and fix his death at 345 or 352. Justinian I built a church in his honour in the early 6th century. (Procopius, De aedificiis 1, 6) Legend tells that Nicholas visited Palestine round 325. (Vita S. Nicol., c. 13) (Analecta Bollandiana, 11, 148) - The Georgian liturgy commemorates Nicholas on Golgotha on Dec 6. - A church of St. Nicholas over the Grotto of Milk in Bethlehem, occurs in a Bull of Pope Gregory XI in 1375. The bull 'Inter cunctos' is dispatched from Avignon on Nov 25, 1375. Only in 1871 the Franciscans were able to build the oratory and the convent at the Grotto of Milk.

Nicholas, Francis, and Peter, martyrs. Blessed. These three Franciscans were martyred in Cairo 1358, April 4, Tuesday after Easter.

Nicholas of Sebenic (Dalmatia) and companions. Nicholas was of the family Tavelic.

Nicholas Tavelic and three companions: Deodat de Rodez (France), Pierre de Narbone (France), Stephen di Cuneo (Italy). Nicholas was born in Dalmatia. He came to Palestine. In 1391 he, together with his three companions of the Franciscan Order, held a demonstration and preach before a mosque in Jerusalem. After three days he was beheaded, together with his three companions on Nov 14, 1391. The four were canonized by Pope Paul V1, on 21 June 1970. In the Austrian hospice opposite the 3rd Station in the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, is a mosaic in the apse of the chapel. On the right side Nicholas is represented on his knees and bearing a palm. Behind him stands the Blessed Engelbert Kolland (who was martyred in Damascus in 1860). Kolland bears a palm in his right hand. On the right side of the apse is a cartouche. It mentions that Nicholas Tavelic was born in Sebenic (Dalmatia) and was martyred in Jerusalem in 1391, and that Pope Leo XIll (1878-1903) confirmed his cult as Blessed. - In the Chapel of the Apostolic Delegation, on the slope of the Mount of Olives, is an altar, dedicated to Nicholas Tavelic. The altar was erected in 1936. The feast of Nicholas is on Dec 5, together with his three companions. Only Tavelic enjoyed in his country a continuous veneration. Only he received in 1889 the official title of Blessed. The three other companions did not enjoy a special veneration in their countries.

Nicholaus, in Carmelo, circa 1000. (AA.SS. May 22).

Nicodemus. He is mentioned only in the Gospel of John (Jn 3, 1; Jn 7, 50; Jn 19, 39). The Georgian calendar mentions him on Aug 31. The 'Apocryphal’ Gospel of Nicodemus or Acts of Pilate tells the trial of Jesus before Pilate. The book was composed in the 4th century. - According to legend Nicodemus was a member of family (cousin or nephew?) of Gamaliel I, who died circa 50 AD. - Nicodemus, who believed in the Son of Mary, is 'saluted' in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Nahasse I.

Church of St. Nicodemus. The Greek Orthodox Church west of the Aqabat Darwish, and north of the Chapel of the Flagellation, is dedicated to St. Nicodemus. Another name of the site is Deir el Ades. Some pilgrims during the Middle Ages sought in this surrounding the palace (or the house) of tetrarch Herod Antipas, who mocked Jesus by a white garment.

Sepulchre of Nicodemus. The southern rock of a sepulchral chamber that is in the Syrian Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre Basilica, has a niche. The niche is indicated as the Sepulchre of Nicodemus.

Finding of his tomb, in 415 by the priest Lucian. Nicodemus, a 'ruler of the Jews' and a 'teacher in Israel’ came to Jesus at night, to converse with him. When some of the Pharisees wished to have Jesus arrested, Nicodemus spoke in His defence and suggested that Jesus should be given a hearing (Jn 7, 50-52). When Jesus was taken down from the Gross, Nicodemus assisted Joseph of Arimathea in preparing His body for burial, for which he contributed a large amount of myrrh and aloes (Jn 19, 39-40). - Tradition tells us, that his body, together with the bodies of St. Stephen, Gamaliel and Abibonis, were found in 415 by the priest Lucian in the village Kafargamala (Beit-Jimal) in Judaea. (Mart. Rom. Aug 3)

Nicodemus, Greek Orthodox Patriarch in Jerusalem (1882-1891). He had for many years been the representative of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre in Moscow and was, therefore, persona grata to the Russian Government, He laid the first stone of the Russian church of St. Mary Magdalen in Gethsemane on Jan 21, 1885. With the financial help of Russia, he built the patriarchal residence 'Viri Galilei' on the Mount of Olives, and the Chapel of the Virgin Mary nearby. He collected manuscripts from ancient Orthodox monasteries at a central library in the monastery of St. Constantine and Helena which is inside the Old City. He consecrated the Church of St. Mary Magdalen in Gethsemane on Sept 29, 1888.

Nicodemus in Palestina, Martyr, 1st/2nd cent. (AA.SS. Dec 2)

Nicodemus, St., hegumen of St. Sabas. He welcomed St. John Chrysostom and St. Cosmas. Feast on March 13.

Nicola Alberga, Martyr, Blessed. He was born in Spain in 1830. He came to the Custody of the Holy Land in 1859. He was shot down by the Druses at Damascus on July 10, 1860.

Nicola da Sail. Round 1295 Nicola was Minister Provincialis of the Holy Land. Galvano di Levanto- who was the personal doctor of Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303), recommends in his ARS NAVIGATIVA SPIRITUALIS to Fra Nicola: 'Do not traverse the treacherous Mediterranean Sea from Cyprus to Italy, too often'. (Kohler, Ch. Mélanges pour servir à l'histoire de l'Orient latin et des croisades, Paris, 1900, I, 221-222)

Nicolas. St. Nicolas' Monastery of the Armenians in Jaffa served as a hospital for the plague-stricken soldiers of Napoléon in 1799. The painting by Gros, 'Les pestiférés de Jaffa' recalls this epidemic.

Nicolas de Martoni (1393). He mentions on Mount Sion the now Armenian Church of St. Saviour. In this churh is the stone, which was rolled from the tomb of Christ. (Revue de l’Orient Latin, III, p. 617)

Nicolas d'Aquirman (1483). He mentions a fall of Christ after the descent of the Scala Sancta, after leaving the Praetorium. He relates that the place of a fail (perhaps 3rd fall) was indicated by a commemoration-stone.

Nicolas de Hanapes. This last Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem at Acre was killed at the fall of Acre in 1291. (May, Prop. AA.SS.)

Nicolay, Pauline de Marchesi Born at Paris, Feb 16, 1811; she came to Palestine in 1856 with a group of pilgrims and stood in the Holy Land. She bought the site of Emmaus in 1861. She died in Jerusalem, June 9, 1868, in the Casa Nova of the Franciscans. She had donated the site of Emmaus to the Custody of the Holy Land. Her remains were reburied in Emmaus (El Qubeibeh) on Sept 24, 1902. A marble slab in the Church recalls her donation.

Nicolayson. A child of Mr. Nicolayson was buried within the precincts of the cemetery of the American Missionaries, in 1840 or 1841. (Robinson Edward, Palestine, Vol 1, p. 341, 1841)

Nicolò. This Franciscan Father, together with an anonymous companion, was present at the naval battle of Lajazzo, between Genoa and Venice in 1294. Perhaps both were from the convent of Nicosia (Cyprus).

Nicon, St. and 99 other Martyrs of Caesarea, Palestine. Their memory is on March 23 in Mart. Rom.

Nijmegen, Heilig Land Stichting. This foundation in the Netherlands erected in 1915 a church and a Way of the 14 Stations to promote the devotion to the Life of Jesus. The area of 45 hectares received imitations of the several Holy places. The Paters Montfortanen give since 1920 explanation about the several scenes. These Paters Montfortanen organize also pilgrimages to the Holy Land.

Nikolas of Thingeyrar. See: Gissur Hallson.

Nikon, the archimandrite. He welcomed Simon the Fool and John Fekru in a convent near the Jordan.

Nilus, together with Peleus and Elijah, bishops of Egypt, martyred in Palestine in 310. Mart. Rom. has their memory on Sept 19; the Coptic calendar has the feast on Sept 12.

Nilus. He built a church in Mamshit (Kurnub), 4th/6th century.

Nilus Erikousides. He was the son of John Lascaris and the nephew of the Emperor of Nicaea, Theodore I Lascaris. He went to the Monastery of Acemitos, Pontus. He was banished by Michael Paleologus (Michael VIII, 1259-1282), who usurped the throne from the boy Lascarid Emperor. Nilus began to travel to Palestine, Syria, Rhodes, Crete and Mount Athos. He established a monastery in the mountain of Thesprotia, where he died after several years.

Nine Franciscan Fathers. They were murdered in 1489 in Qariet-el Anab (now Abu Ghosh) and their church was destroyed. (Quaresmius II, 14)

Niniveh, the repenting town, and its people and its tribes are cornmemorated in the Eth. Syn. on Tekemt 3.

Nisbet. See: Bain Nisbet.

Nixon Richard, president of U.S. He visited Jerusalem in June 1974.

Noah, the hero of the deluge. He does not have a feast in the Christian liturgies. The New Testament describes Noah as a symbol of the Just (2 Petrus 2, 5), and as an example of faith in and submission to God (Heb 11, 7; Luke 17, 26-27). - Muhammed devotes the complete sura 71 in the Koran to Noah. One son of Noah stood at the side of the Ark and was drowned because he refused to enter, when Noah called. - A tomb of Noah is shown by the Moslems in Dura, 7 kms southwest of Hebron. - The birth of Noah is commemorated by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Miyazya 6. On this day were born Noah and David, the king, the father of Solomon.

Nobel H. This Dutchman offered two wood-sculptures to the Grotto of Milk in Bethlehem. One of the sculptures represents the miracle of an ass kneeling before the Eucharist in the precious monstrance that is held by St. Anthony of Padua. The second sculpture represents six knights in armour and the king on the throne. Both sculptures are made by Ramakers Brothers of Geleen (Netherlands).

Nola (Italy). Legates were sent to Nola by John II, bishop of Jerusalem. John II ruled from 386 to 417.

Noni. He painted the frescoes in the tent-like Chapel of the Shepherds' Fields. The chapel was built in 1954 with financial help of Canada.

Nonnus, deacon. A Greek inscription 'Private tomb of the deacon Nonnus Onesimus, of the Holy Anastasis of Christ and of this monastery was discovered in a tomb in the compound of the Ecole Biblique et Archéologique, north of the walled city of Jerusalem.

Norvegians. Under King Sigurd, Norvegians blocked and conquered the harbour of Sidon in. Lebanon in October 1110, at the demand of King Baldwin I.

Nosaires, religious group. See: Metawileh.

Noth Martin, German Scholar, Direktor of Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut in Jerusalem. He died in Shivta (Subeita) on May 30, 1968, during a visit to this archaeological site. He was buried on the Lutheran cemetery in Bethlehem.

Notre Dame in Jerusalem. It was constructed under the name Notre Dame de France by the Assumptionist Fathers in 1887. The building was heavily damaged by the war in 1948. The property was hold in October 1970 in New York to a company, which sold it to the Hebrew University. The Vatican contested the transaction. The property was resold to the Vatican in Februari 1972. The Vatican repaired the damages and changed the name in Notre Dame Centre de Jerusalem. In December 1978 the Centre received the rank of Praelatura Nullius, depending directly from the Vatican. The Centre has a hostel for pilgrims and rooms for cultural conferences.


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