A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land" - Encyclopedia

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Macalister R. A. S., Irish. He excavated, together with Bliss F. J., in 1898-99 the ruins of Azekah. Perhaps Tell Azekah is to be identified with Tell Zakaryeh. Azekah is in the north-west of Judah. Azekah withstood, together with the town of Lachish, the attacks of King Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 34, 7). - Macalister excavated Gezer in 19021908. - He discovered, together with Duncan, the so-called Jebusite wall of Jerusalem, in 1923-25. Macalister published in 1925 his book 'A century of Excavations in Palestine'.

Macarius Antiochenus, St. Round 1010 he came to Palestine. (AA.SS. April 10) He travelled to Gent (Belgium) in 1012. (AA.SS. May 9)

Macarius I, bishop of Jerusalem, St. 39th bishop of Jerusalem from circa 312; he died at Jerusalem round 334. His feast is on March 10 in the Rom. Mart. In Greece his feast is on Aug 16. Both Eusebius of Caesarea and Macarius attended the Council of Nicaea (325) which condemned Arius. When Arius was banished from Alexandria, he found hospitality with Eusebius and he stigmatized Macarius 'heretical and an ignoramus' (Epiphanius, Panar. 69, 6, 4). Macarius partly directed the erection of the complex over the recently rediscovered sacred sites at Jerusalem. Later tradition ascribed to him a part in the finding of the true cross (Rufinus, Hist. Eccl. 10, 7, 8)- Macarius consecrated Maximus, an upholder of Nicaea 1, to the see of Diospolis (Lydda) but he subsequently kept Maximus as his coadjutor and successor in acquiescence to the desire of the Jerusalem flock (Sozomenos, Hist. Eccl. 2, 20) -AA.SS. June 6 mention: Iter legatorum Macarii, patr. Hieros. Vesontionem, (round 350).

Macarius II, bishop of Jerusalem. He was elected bishop by the 'isochrits', he was deposed by Emperor Justinian (552) for his adherence to the doctrines of Origen. (Vita Sabae, ch. 90). Macarius died in 574. (AA.SS.) Is perhaps Macarius II commemorated on Aug 16 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar? Or refers the commemoration to Macarius I?

Macarius, Sanctus, bishop of Petra. The Martyrologium Romanum has his feast on June 20: At Petra, in Palestine, commemoration of Macarius, bishop. He suffered from the Arians, and was exiled to Africa, he died in peace. (See Arius, Macarius, Asterius, bishops of Petra, round 350. (AA.SS. June 20)

Maccabeans, seven Maccabean brothers and their mother. They were arrested and were being compelled by the king, Antiochus IV, Epiphanes (175-164 BC) to partake to unlawful swine's flesh. (2 Mac 7, 1-42) The seven sons and after them, the mother were put to death. The Martyrologium Romanum (Aug 1) tells us that the martyrdom happened in Antioch and that their relics were brought to Rome and transferred to the Church of St. Peter in Chains. Georgian and Greek liturgy have the feast on Aug 1; Their commemoration was in the Church of the Resurrection. - The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 8th day of the month Nahasse: Lazarus and his wife Salome and seven sons. - The martyrdom of the Maccabeans induced the family of the Hasmonaeans of Modein to revolt against the Syrians. The Hasmonaeans were buried in their hometown Modein (Modi'im), it is about 12 Kms east of Lydda (Lod).

Maccabees, five Maccabees. The Ethiopian Synxarium has on Takhshash 25: A man of the tribe of Benjamin, whose name was Maccabeus, had three sons, Abya, Sila, and Pantos. They were martyred under Sirusadin, the king of the Midianites (?) and Moabites. The Synaxarium salutes the five Maccabees.

Maccagno, Alessandro. This Italian priest came to the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem under the first patriarch Mgr. Valerga who ruled from 1847 to 1872.

Mac Donald. He was the first U.S. A. ambassador to Israel in 1948. A street in Netanya is named after him.

Mac Inis, Anglican bishop in Jerusalem (1914-1931). He succeeded Blyth (1887-1914), Inis was succeeded by Brown (1932-1943).

Mac Mahon, president of France. He sent in 1874 an amianthus tapestry to the Grotto of Nativity as protection against fire. On April 25, 1873 the Greek community had tried to evict the Latins from the Grotto. In the night of May 7, 1869 a fire burned a Latin picture. The Greeks were obliged to allow the Latins to hang a tapistry. The French tapistry depicts facts of the Childhood of Jesus. For the cleaning of the tapistry the Latins are controlled by the Greek community.

Macrinus, bishop of Beth-Gibrin. He was at the Council of Nicaea.

Macrinus. He was the first bishop of Jamnia. The second bishop, Peter, was at the Council of Nicaea in 325. (Onomasticum Sacrum, 106; Le Quien III, 588)

Macrobius. The son of Herod was among the killed boys. (Saturnalia II, 4, 11)

Madaba. Through the intervention of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem and the French Consul, the governor of Syria, Midhat Pacha, allowed in 1880 christians of Kerak to settle in the ruin-fields of Madaba (East Jordan). In 1896 the Greek Orthodox Community built a new church over the ruins of a Byzantine church. The pavement of the church showed in mosaic a map of Palestine with Greek inscriptions. It is called the Map of Madaba (Medaba).

Mader A. E. Fr. He excavated Mamre in 1926-28, on behalf of the German Society, Görresgesellschaft. He interpreted the site as the market where Emperor Hadrian sold the Jewish prisoners of war of the Second Jewish Revolt (132-135 CE). - Mader thought Jeta (Yutta) near Hebron to be the birthplace of John the Baptist. Mader discovered, together with Father Schneider, in 1932 at Tabgha the mosaic of the Multiplication of Loaves. Mader was Salvatorian Father (SDS); Schneider was Lazarist Father.

Mafrij, monk. He was the son of Abou-el-Kheir el Aboudi (of Abud), he travelled to the Convent of St. Catherine in Sinai. There he copied in 1104 a palestinian evangeliarium.

Magarites et socii ejus christiani. They visited Palestine in 780. (Leontius, Vita S. Stephani Sabaitae, c. IX, n. 99-102) (AA.SS. July 13)

Magdalena of the Third Order, Virgin. Verniero in his 'Chroniche di Terra Santa' libro V, cap X, tells that when Father Bonifacius of Ragusa was for the second time Custos of the Holy Land (15631565) there died in Jerusalem a virtuous lady, Magdalena. She had lived in Jerusalem for 48 years. She was buried in the cemetery of Hakeldama. She is venerated as 'a servant of God'.

Magdalene. She was born in Kalymnos in 1847, joined the monastic life in 1867. Her father who was wealthy built a monastery in which she stayed. This monastery is in Argos, Kalymnos, and was consecrated in 1867. Magdalene travelled to Jerusalem. She died at the age of 105 in 1952 in the monastery of Argos. Magdalene has not been canonized as yet.

Magdaletes, martyr in Tripoli (Lebanon) without date. (AA.SS. June 12)

Magdalvaeus, episcopus Virdunensis, St. He visited Palestine in 757. (AA.SS. Oct 4) (Hugo Flavin., Vita S. Magdalv.)

Magi: see Three Kings (Balthasar, Kaspar, Melchior).

Magundot: see Anastasius, the Persian.

Mahalaleel, son of Cainan. He lived 165 years and begat Jared. Mahalaleel was buried in the 'Cave of Treasures'. He died, according to the Ethiopjan Synaxarium, on the first day of the week, on the second day of the month of Miyazya (the eighth month).

Maitre Jourdain. He built, between 1160 and 1180, the belfry which is to the south of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Major. He was from Marocco, he served in the Roman army during the rule of Emperor Diocletian (284-313). When he was in Gaza, he confessed his faith in Christ. He suffered seven days of continuous torture before he died round 303. (Greek liturgy, Feb 15) (AA.SS. Appendixi

Makhlouf Sharbel, Maronite monk of Lebanon. The first saint from a Maronite country canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. He was canonized by Pope Paul VI on Sunday, Oct 9, 1977. Makhlouf was 70, when he died in 1898, Dec 24. He was born of peasant parents on May 8, 1828; he left for a life of prayer at the age of 23. He spent most of his life as a monk, and later as a hermit, in Anaya (north of Lebanon). The body of this Maronite saint was exhumed and transferred to a cedar-wood shrine in 1962.

Malachi, the last of the Minor Prophets. His memory is on Jan 14 in the Roman Martyrology; the Greek liturgy has it on Jan 3. According to the Ethiopian Synaxarium (Ter 8.) Malachi was born in a place which is called Sufas... And being still a young man, he died and he was buried with his fathers in his own field. Salutation to Melkeyas (Malachi). - The burial place of Malachi is venerated by Jews in the Tombs of the Prophets (Qoubour el Anbia) on the west slope of Mount of Olives, together with the burial places of the prophet Haggai and the prophet Zachariah.

Malchus, John I8, 10: Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest's slave and cut off his right ear. The slave's name was Malchus. - John I8, 26: One of the servants of the high priest, a kinsman of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked, 'Did I not see you in the garden with him? Peter again denied it. -Malchus is a Nabataean name. It is not unlikely that Malchus was a Nabataean. (Compare: Hartvik of Bremen)

Malchus, monk and prisoner. March 20. Some Synaxaries have his feast on March 26.

Malchus, Saint, monachus Maroniae prope Antiocham. Round 360, he visited Palestine. (Vita S. Malchi, auct. S. Hieronymo) (AA.SS. Oct 21)

Malchus, St., martyr Caesarea, Palestine, 259. The Mart. Rom. has his memory on March 28, together with Priscus and Alexander.

Mallon, Jesuit Father. He excavated from 1929 to 1934 Teleilat Ghassul, which is to the east of the Dead Sea.

Mamas, nephew of the Armenian Sophronius. Mamas who was in the Byzantine court donated money to hegumen Sophronius (died 542) for the church of Theotocos (= Mary, mother of God). This church was destroyed by the Persians in 614.

Mamerto Esquiu, bishop of Cordova, Argentina. He was born in 1826 at Petra Blanca. At the age of 15, he took the Franciscan habit. He was ordained a bishop at the age of 54, in 1880. In 1876 he visited the Holy Land and was there for 18 months. He died as bishop of Cordova, Argentina, on Jan 10, 1883.

Mamillah-Church. Bernard the Monk (870) visits the Church St. Mamillah. There were buried the bodies of those who were slain by the Persians in 614. The church is named after the nearby Birket Mamillah, not after a saint person.

Manasserio. This Franciscan Father was in 1238 appointed to the spiritual help of the Templars who were prisoners of the Muslims in Aleppo.

Manatha (Manetha, Mantha), woman who was martyred. Her memory in the Church of the Resurrection was on July 16, and on Nov 13, according to the Georgian liturgy. The Mart. Rom. has the memory on Nov 13. (See also: Ennatha, virgin).

Mandelbaum Gate. It was from 1948 till the Six Days War of June 1967 the only frontier-crosspoint from West Jerusalem (Israel) to East Jerusalem (Hashemite Jordanian Kingdom). This check-point, north of the Old City, was named Mandelbaum Gate after the owner of a house, which was used as office for the crossing formalities.

Manfredi Giuseppe (1845-1904). This Italian priest arrived in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1887, he was missionar in Madaba.

Manoogian, Alex and Mary. These Armenians financed the seminary of the Armenians in Jerusalem. It is built after 1967 on the grounds of the Armenian garden that faces the main gate of the Armenian monastery of St. James.

Mansour, chancellor of Abdel Melek (in 692). Mansour and his brother Celsius obtained from Caliph Abdel Melek that the columns of the Church of Agony in Gethsemane, should not be confiscated. The two brothers promised to the Caliph to give him more beautiful columns. (P.G. CVIII, 721)

Mantho, virgin, martyr in Caesarea, Palestine, in 308. She was first violated and then burned to death. (Nov 13 in Mart. Rom.) See Manatha.

Mar Abadiah (Abdias). In the village of Abud, are the ruins of a late Byzantine church. The site is called Mar Abadiah, the holy Abdias.

Marana. She came to Palestine before 440. (Compare: Cyra of Syria) (Vita, auct. Theodoreto, lat. vers., c. 4) (AA.SS. Aug 3)

Marana of Veria, Syria. (Greek liturgy, Feb 28). She was born in Veria, Syria, and lived in the first half of the 5th century. Though of noble birth, she left the life of luxury and embraced the anchoritic life. Her servants also adopted the monastic life. Marana visited Jerusalem, and fasted on her travels. (See also Kyria of Veria, Feb 28)

Marangoni. This Italian architect, on order of the three religious communities, placed in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in 1933, 400 glass-strips as spies to control the fissures caused by earthquakes.

Marcellinus, bishop of Zipporl (Sepphoris). Emperor Valens (364378) sent bishops in exile to Zippori for accepting the Council of Nicaea (325). These exiled bishops were served by Melania the Elder (342-409). Marcellinus attended as the bishop of Zippori, in 518 the Council of Jerusalem.

Marcellus, archimandr. Spelaei Inventio capitis S. Joh. Bapt., Emesae, 452. (AA.SS. June 24)

Marchioness of Milfordhaven. She attended the consecration of the Russian Church of St. Mary Magdalen in Gethsemane on Sept 29, 1888. (See: Czar Alexander 111)

Marcia, Virgin, Saint. Marcia, together with Maria, Martha, Cyria, Bareria, was converted and adopted the ascetic life. When the Governor of Palestine in Caesarea heard about them, the five women were martyred in 304. The Greek liturgy venerates Marcia on June 6; the Roman Martyrology on June 5.

Marcian, bishop of Sebaste in Samaria. Marcian was the father of John (III), bishop of Jerusalem. This John III ruled in Jerusalem from 516 to 524. (Vita Sabae, ch. 56)

Marcian, Emperor (450-457). He is listed in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on April 19 and on July 9, both times together with John III, bishop of Jerusalem.

Marcian, monk. This Monophysite monk fled out of the convent of S. Passarion in Jerusalem and founded a monastery near Bethlehem. His friend, Romanus, who had also escaped out of the convent of S. Passarion, founded a ]aura at Tekoa. Marcian converted, but he could not convert his friend Romanus. Therefore Marcian with his monks destroyed in 484 the laura of Romanus at Tekoa. Marcian died in 492. The monastery of Marcian was probably at Kenisat el Raouat,, the Shepherds' Fields of the Greek Orthodox.

Marco Polo, merchant of Venice. (1254-1324) In 1281 he travelled, together with his father and uncle, who had already visited China, to the Far East. From 1282 to 1285 he was governor of Sangui, the actual Nanking. He visited Acre in 1295. After 24 years Marco Polo returned to Venice with his father and his uncle. A street in Acre is named after Marco Polo.

Marcus, St. episcopus Atinensis. He went, in the first century, from Galilee to Atinum. (Arnulphus Capuanus, Vita S. Marci, c. ], n. 9) (AA.SS. April 28)

Margaret, an actress of Antioch. She converted by St. Nonnus of Edessa, she came to Jerusalem under the name of Pelagia, she lived on the top of the Mount of Olives and died there in 457. The Moslems venerate on this site the tomb of the mystic Rabi'a el Adawiyya. The feast of Pelagia, surnamed the Penitent, is on Oct 8 in the Mart. Rom.

Margaret, Monastery on the top of Carmel. It belonged to the Greek monks. Beside this monastery the Templars built the castle of St. Margaret (if not at Khirbet Rushmiya).

Margaret of Sicily. This lady lived in 1333 in the Hospital of St. John (near 8th Station); She bought on May 15, 1335, from the Public Treasury for 1000 silver dirham an estate on Mount Sion; on Sept 19, 1335 Fr. Roger bought from her a part of this estate for 400 dirham.

Maria, abbess on Mount of Olives, without year. (AA.SS. July 30)

Maria Ernestina de la Cruz Larrainez (Spain). She founded in 1885 'Las Hijas del Calvario' (Daughters of Calvary). The foundress wished a convent in Jerusalem. The 'Daughters of Calvary' began in 1921 a school in the Old City. They depend from the Procurator of the Custody. The Procurator is always from Spain [not in 2006].

Maria de Montfort. She was the Superior of the Franciscan Sisters Missionaries of Mary (White Sisters) at Jerusalem after World War I which was from 1914 to 1918.

Maria John of the Franciscan Sisters Missionaries of Mary. She entered this Congregation in 1897 at Rovereto. She conducted the Atelier des Arts in the Convent at Jerusalem. She painted pictures for the Franciscan Convent near the Cenacle on Mount Sion. She painted also for the Franciscan Church of St. Saviour the 'Indulgence of Portiuncula', and for the Franciscan Convent of St. Saviour (1926) the'Martyrs at Damascus'. She died in Jerusalem on July 2, 1960.

Maria I, Queen of Portugal. She donated in 1778 the Statue of the Mater Dolorosa, which is at the 13th Latin Station on Calvary. The Statue represents the prophecy of Simeon: 'Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is spoken against, and a sword will pierce through your own soul also, that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed. (Luke 2, 34).

Mariamne. According to the Greek liturgy (Feb 17), she was the sister of St. Philip the Apostle. After Christ's ascension, Philip, Bartholomew and Mariamne went to Hierapolis in Phrygia. Philip suffered martyrdom, but Bartholomew and Mariamne continued to preach in Hierapolis. Mariamne went to Lycaonia, where she died. She is known as 'the Apostolic Virgin'.

Mariamne Tower at the Citadel of David. It is the smallest of the three towers: Phasael, Hippicus, Mariamne. The three towers were added to the city wall in 27 BC to protect the palace of Herod the Great. Herod named the smallest tower in honour of Mariamne, who was one of his wives. Mariamne I was the grandaughter of Hyrcanus II and the mother of Aristobulus. This Mariamne was executed by her husband Herod in 29 BC. Mariamne II was married to Herod in 23 BC.

Marie de Jésus Crucifié (Mariam Baouardi). Carmelite Sister. This Arab sister died in the Carmel of Bethlehem on Aug 25, 1878. She was buried in Bethlehem. Her remains were exhumed there on Oct 28, 1928.

Marie Josée of Savoie, ex-queen of Italy, wife of ex-king Umberto. She visited the Holy Land in 1965. She came with her daughter on pilgrimage to Jerusalem in Sept 1976.

Marien de Maleo, Custos (1652-1658). He restored in 1665 (?) the porch (entrance) of the Grotto of Arrest in Gethsemane.

Marien Morone. (1668) He tells us that Elisabeth died in the desert, after having rescued her child John (the Baptist) from the searching by the soldiers of Herod the Great. [See Marien de Maleo]

Marin Sanuto (1322). He mentions: The Jews and the Samaritans show the tomb of Phinehas in Awerta (Awarta).

Marienschwestern of Darmstadt. They were founded in 1947 by Mother Basilea Schlink of Darmstadt (Germany). The Sisters came to Jerusalem in 1957. They have a convent in West Jerusalem, and a second house on the slope of the Mount of Olives. The Sisters of the second house help the pilgrims by leaflets with explanations of the shrines.

Marin, Armenian princess. See: Jojik.

Marina, Scanienis, in Sicilia. St. She came to Palestine in the 11th century. (AA.SS. July 17)

Marinus, St. The Martyrologium Romanum has the feast on March 3. Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 7, 15) mentions St. Marinus of Caesarea, Palestine. He was an officer in the Roman legion that was stationed there and he suffered martyrdom in the Valerian (253-260) persecutions. -- This Marinus does not seem to be identified with the St. Marinus cited by the Martyrology of Jerome for March 3. Marinus, the soldier, and Asterius, the senator, are on March 3, in the year 260 in Acta Sanctorum.

Marinus, disciple of St. Euthymius. Marinus built, after 411, a monastery in Photino, which is near Metopa, where his brother Luke has founded a monastery. Photino is to the south of Jerusalem.

Mari(n)us, first bishop of Sebaste. This Marinus or Marius boasted at the Council of Nicaea (325) that his town Sebaste in Samaria had the tomb of St. John the Baptist and the tomb of the prophets Abdias and Eliseus.

Maris. He was the brother-in-law of Aspebet-Peter, who was the sheikh and the phylarch of the Christian Bedouins in the desert of Judaea. Round 420 Maris succeeded to St. Theoctist.

Mark, Armenian Anchorite. Mark, with a certain Thaddeus, copied a Gospel in the Convent of St. Sabas (colophon dated 1455).

Mark, emperor (sic) of Rome. This saint ruled in his virginity for five years. When the people forced him to take a wife, he went up by night into the church and stood before the picture of the Virgin Mary. And then, without a ship, he passed over the sea of Jericho (?)and came to Dabra Tormak in a desert region, and he lived there for sixty years. Mark is saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 19th day of the month Sane.

Mark, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Apollonia, Palestine, according to the Greek list. (Compare Mark John).

Mark, the deacon (Marcus diaconus). He wrote the life of his bishop, Porphyrius of Gaza, who died at Gaza in 420.

Mark the Evangelist. Greek and Latin liturgy have his feast on April 25. Mark was the author of the Second Gospel. He was the son of Mary of Jerusalem, and he went with Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey, but turned back at Perge. Later he continued missionary work in Cyprus. After reconciliation with Paul, he was with him in Rome from where he wrote the Gospel. Later Mark went to Egypt and to the Pentapolis and suffered martyrdom in Alexandria in 68. His relics were brought to Venice. Afterwards the Roman Church returned the relics to the Coptic Church of Alexandria.

The emblem of Mark. The lion is the second symbolic animal in the book of the Prophet Ezechiel (1, 10). Perhaps for this reason, the Gospel of Mark, which is the second in the list of the four Gospels, has as emblem the lion.

Mark and the young man, who left his linen cloth and ran away naked. It is not certain that Mark is the young man who attempted to follow the arrest of Jesus (Mk 14, 51).

Mark, John Mark, St. He was the son of Mary, who resided in Jerusalem (Acts 12, 12) and a cousin of Barnabas (Col 4, 10). Tradition identifies John Mark with the Evangelist Mark. - Tradition makes him the bishop of Apollonias, a city on the coast between Jaffa and Caesarea. This Mark figures in the synaxary of Sirmond, Oct 20. - According to the ancient Syrian Orthodox tradition, the church and the monastery of St. Mark in Jerusalem are built over the ruins of the site of the Last Supper. The Syrian Orthodox likewise place there also the descent of the Holy Ghost on Pentecost. in the house of Mary of Jerusalem, who was the mother of Mark, the Last Supper was held.

Mark, called John, Bishop of Biblos, one of the 70 disciples, according to the Greek list of disciples.

Mark, 16th bishop of Jerusalem (135-156). His feast is on Oct 22 in the Mart. Rom. He was the first non-Jewish bishop to rule the Church of Jerusalem. He was martyred in 156 under Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161).

Mark, first bishop of the Syrian. Orthodox Church of Jerusalem. Mark was originally from Caesarea, Palestine. His episcopate might have begun during the first half of the second century, after the foundation of Aelia Capitolina. To be identified with Mark, bishop of Jerusalem (135-156).

Marmier. This Sister belonged to the 'Filles de la Charité'. She was the first Superior of Hôpital de la Sainte Famille of Bethlehem, which was founded in 1887.

Maro of Cyr. Syrian monk and spiritual father of the Maronites. He was born near Apamea on the river Orontes, Syria. Date is unknown. He died there, before 423. His feast is in the Maronite Church and in the Melkite liturgy on Feb 14. Maro attracted many disciples, who became holy hermits, such as SS. James of Cyr, Limnaeus, and Zebinas. Maro was a friend of St. John Chrysostom, and supported orthodoxy. A church was built on his tomb, and the monastery of St. Maro was later founded there. Maro's cult was approved by Benedict XV in 1573.

Maron, hermit. The hermit Maron (Maroon) lived on a mountain in the region of Apamea (Aphamiah), the actual Qal'at al-Modiq. His biographer Theodoret, bishop of Cyr (died 458), says that Maron had consecrated a pagan temple as a church. Later historians place the death of hermit Maron in 410. The group of disciples formed the nucleus of the Maronite Church. To be identified with Maro of Cyr.

Maron John, St. first Maronite Patriarch. In the 6th century there was between Apamea and Emesa a monastery that was named after St. Maro(n). The Maronite church tells that Maron John was the hegumen of this monastery. He was elected patriarch by the community of Antioch at a time when the see of Antioch had been vacant between 636 and 742, in the year 685. The Maronites defended the Council of Chalcedon. The Maronite patriarchs from the beginning held the title of Antioch.

Maronite Church in Jerusalem. The Maronite Church in Jerusalem, Old City, has a patriarchal vicar. The site was bought by the Maronites in 1895. The street is named Deir Maroun (Maronite Convent). There is a Maronite Church in Nazareth (north of the Melkite Church); also a Maronite Church in Jaffa. A few villages near the Lebanon border in Israel have a Maronite community. The Maronite Church numbers about 3000 members in Israel.

Marquis of Bute, John Patrick Crichton Stuart. He visited the mosque of Hebron in 1866. He died in Oct 1900. In Nov 1900 his wife and her 4 sons buried his heart near the Chapel 'Dominus Flevit' (built in 1891). This chapel is now transformed in a Franciscan Convent. The Stuart plaque is at the entrance to the Convent. Since the family Stuart are of royal descent, the burying of the heart was considered as fulfilling by proxy the wish of Robert Bruce, whose heart never reached Jerusalem. An iron cross marks the site of the burial. The new Chapel was built in 1955, architect Barluzzi.

Marta J. Priest of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. He discovered in 1902 a text of Peter of Sebaste (died 392) about the Upper Room on Mount Sion. (AI Machriq, Review, Beyrouth, 1902, Juin).

Martha, St. Virgin. Her feast is on July 29 in Mart. Rom. She is the sister of Mary and of Lazarus (Lk 10, 38-42; Jin 11) and she lived in Bethany. The Martha who received Jesus into her house (Luke 10, 38-42) is generally, but not necessarily, identified with the Martha, who was the sister of Lazarus (Jn 11).

Martha, the mother of St. Symeon, the Stylite, the Younger. She died on July 5, 551. Her feast is on July 11.

Martha, the virgin. The Greek liturgy has her feast on June 6. Together with Maria, Cyria, Marcia, this Martha was converted to Christianity and adopted the ascetic life. When the governor of Caesarea, Palestine, heard about them, the four were martyred in 304.

Martha, the widow. She turned her house into a habitation for pilgrims. She loved the Virgin Mary and asked the monk Theodore to buy a portrait of the Lady Mary in the city of Jerusalem. The monk returned with the portrait that produced drops of sweat. Martha and Theodore venerated this portrait in the city of Sedenya. After their death the oil in the bowl before the ikon, was augmented and the picture could not be removed to another spot. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, 10th of Maskaram, first month, Sept 8-Oct 7) - In Jerusalem, on el Kanayes Street, is the Greek Orthodox convent of Saidnaya, for there was once kept the miraculous image of the Blessed Virgin of Saidnaya, 35 kms. north of Damascus.

Martianus, Abba. (Compare Martinianus). Martianus Abba, of the convent Dabra Tabot Noha in the city of Caesarea of Palestine, is to be identified with Martinianus. The Ethiopian Synaxarion venerates Martianus on the 21st day of Gennot, the ninth month.

Martin I, Pope of Rome (649-655). Martin, a priest representing the See of Rome in Constantinople, was elected to the papacy in 649. In the same year, he assembled a council in Rome to condemn the Monophysite heresy. He appointed John, bishop of Philadelphia (Amman), as Administrator of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, after the death of its Patriarch Sophronius, who had died in 638. Martin, the Pope, made this appointment ' by the apostolic power which came to him from Jesus Christ through St. Peter. '

St. Martin's Church in Jerusalem. The Church was built by the Crusaders. Its site was nicknamed EI Maraghah (where donkeys roll). In 1227 the Jew Nachmanides reorganised the Jewish community, and acquired the ruins of St. Martin's Church. It became the Hurva (ruin) synagogue. A huge arch recalls us that this synagogue was never finished and thence received the name of Hurva(h), ruin. This synagogue is in the newly rebuilt Jewish quarter, which is to the west of the area of the Wailing Wall.

Martin of Urretta. He was born in Spain. During 20 years he worked as a Franciscan in the Holy Land. At the age of 55 years, he died in Jerusalem, on Sept 3, 1683.

Martinianus, St. He was born in Caesarea, Palestine. At the age of 18, he adopted the ascetic life. He was tempted by an evil woman, but by his witness he converted her so that she became a nun. He spent ten years on a rock in the sea. Again tempted by a woman, he left his abode and visited many holy places. Finally he went to Athens, where he died at the beginning of the 5th century. Greek calendars have his feast on Feb 13, and some on May 16. Copts and Ethiopians venerate him on May 16.

Martinus Dumiensis, St., archiepiscopus Bracarencis. He visited Palestine round 560. (AA.SS. March 20)

Martinus Legionensis (Leon in Spain), St. He visited Palestine round 1186. (AA.SS. Feb 11)

Martyr, Franciscan. An anonymous Franciscan is remembered as 'martyr' in 1392 in the Franciscan Martyrology on Aug 24.

Martyrius. In 457 Martyrius, a Cappadocian, and Elias, an Arab, fled from persecution in Egypt to the monastery of St. Euthymius (Khan el Ahmar) east of Jerusalem. Martyrius became Patriarch (478-486) of Jerusalem. He was succeeded by Sallustius (486-494), and Sallustius was succeeded in 494 by Elias. - According to Cyril of Scythopolis Martyrius died on April 13, 486. Martyrius does not appear in the Greek synaxaries. In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar Martyrius is mentioned on April 13, on June 25, and on October 27 (then together with Zachariah).

Martyrius and Zachariah, patriarchs of Jerusalem. Memory on Oct 27, Palestino-Georgian calendar. Martyrius died 486, April 13; Zachariah died in 629 during his captivity in Persia.

Martyrius' Monastery. (Khirbet-el-Murassas). It is 2 Kms west of the laura of St. Euthymius. (Khan-el-Ahmar).

Martyros, Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem (1416). Since Saladin, according to Armenian records, Calvary was in possession of the Armenians. In 1426 the Georgians, who had family links with the Mameluks, seized control of Calvary. The Armenian patriarch, Martyros, despite his advanced age, travelled to the Sultan of Egypt. In a period of 30 years, Calvary changed five times, and each time the ailing Patriarch underwent the discomforts of the long journey to Cairo. The struggle was settled in favour of the Georgians. Armenians were compensated with the Armenian Gallery which they called the Second Calvary, as it faces Calvary. Patriarch Martyros (1410) repaired the Church of the Tomb of Mary at Gethsemane after inundations. His name was found carved in Armenian script, into the rock on the right doorpost.

Martyrs (2) in Ascalon, April 6, without year (AA.SS.)

Martyrs, Franciscans (3). On May 12, 1775 Mahomet Bey conquered Jaffa, he killed the christians and 3 Franciscans (the Superior, the parish priest, and his coadjutor). Only a thirty christians escaped.

Martyrs (7), In Gaza, 420, Feb 26 (AA.SS.)

Martyrs (33), in Palestine, 1st-4th cent. (Aug 16, AA.SS.)

Martyrs (60). Sixty Christians of Gaza refused to adopt the Islamic faith; they were arrested and brought to Jerusalem in 638, and there executed. Their bodies were transferred to Eleutheropolis. There they were buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity. They had been arrested during 2 months in Eleutheropolis. (Analecta Bollandiana 23 (1904), 290-303) Feast is on Dec 19.

Martyrs (70), in Scythopolis (Beth-shean), 452 (AA.SS. June 28).

Martyrs (30, 000?), who were killed in Jerusalem by the Persians in 614. Their feast is on April 22 (AA.SS.).

Mary, mother of Jesus. Feasts about facts and titles.

Facts: Immaculate Conception of Mary (Dogma in 1854), Dec 8; Nativity of Mary (in Jerusalem), Sept 8; Mary is presented in the Temple, Nov 23; Desponsatio (Wedding) of Mary with Joseph (in the temple) Jan 23; Annunciation of the birth of Jesus, at Nazareth, March 25; Visit of Mary to Elisabeth, May 31 (formerly July 2); Mary attending childbirth, Dec 18; Mary gives birth to Jesus in Bethlehem (Christmas) Dec 25 Mary and Joseph present Jesus in the temple (Candlemas) Feb 2 Visit of the Magi at Bethlehem. (IEpiphany) Jan 6; The flight from Bethlehem to Egypt, Feb 17; Return of the Holy Family from Egypt to their country, Jan 7; Return of the Holy Family from Egypt to Galilee and Nazareth, Jan 8; Jesus of 12 years refound in the Temple, Feb 13 (Luke 2, 41-52); Intervention of Mary at the wedding in Cana, second Sunday after Epiphany. (John 2, 1-12); Seven sorrows of Mary. Sept 15.; Mary sees the Crucifixion (Mater Dolorosa, 12th Station. - Mary receives the body of Jesus, 13th Station (Pieta), Good Friday. Mary and two other Maries (three Maries) see the funeral of Jesus. Mary receives an apparition of the Risen Jesus on Easter. Seven Joys of Mary (feast special to the Franciscan Order) Aug 27; Mary at the Ascension of Jesus, on Mount of Olives, Thursday after the fifth Sunday after Easter. Mary in the Cenacle for the descent of the Holy Ghost, at Pentecost. Mary dies and is assumed into Heaven, Aug 15.

Titles: The pure heart of Mary, Saturday after the feast of the Sacred Heart.; Maternity of Mary, Oct 11; Purity of Mary, Oct 16 Humility of Mary, July 17; The Virgin of Good Counsel, April 26 The Immaculate Virgin of the Holy Medal, Nov 27; Mary of Mount Carmel, July 16; Help of Christianity, May 24; Refuge of Sinners, Aug 13 Help of the Sick, Saturday before the last Sunday of August Queen of the Apostles, Saturday in the Octave of Ascension; Mary, Queen of all Saints and Mother of the kind love, May 31; (now on May 31 is the Visit of Mary to Elisabeth). Mother of the Divine Shepherd, Sept 3; Mother of the Holy Providence, Saturday before the 3th Sunday in November; Virgin of Consolation, Saturday after the feast of St Augustin (Aug 28). Mother of Grace, June 9; Mediatrix of all graces, May 31 (but now is recorded the Visit of Mary to Elisabeth). Mother of Indulgence, Saturday before fourth Sunday of July; Virgin of Everlasting Help, June 27; The 15 mysteries of the Rosary, Oct 7; Mother of God (Theotokos) Jan 1; Mary, Queen of Heaven, Aug 22 (the eighth day after her Assumption). - Many of these feasts are particular to certain dioceses.

Cincture of the Holy Virgin. The translation of this relic to the reliquary of Chaicoprateia, is commemorated in the Melkite liturgy on Aug 31. - At the northwest corner of the Russian property at Gethsemane, at the edge of the path, the rocky ground is pointed out as the place where the Virgin, as she was assumed into heaven, let her cincture fall into the hands of St. Thomas, the apostle who arrived too late to witness the Assumption. The cincture has been found in the bishopric of Zela in Cappadocia, under Emperor Justinian (527-565); others tell that the discovery of the relic was under the Emperors Constantine and Romanus Porphyrogenetes in 941.

Mary, wearing a cloth decorated with spikes (Mary, the Virgin of the ears of corn). The title refers to the Song of Songs 7, 2. In medieval theology Mary is called a good field that produces corn, out of which is baked the bread of Heaven. (Maria im Aehrenkleid).

Mary, Three Maries, at the Funeral of Jesus. About twelve meters, west of the Stone of Unction, in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, lies a circular white marble slab. It is surmounted by an iron cage. The spot recalls the place, where the three Maries witnessed the death and especially the funeral of the Crucified. The place is the exclusive property of the Armenian community. The three Maries were: Mary, the mother of Jesus; Mary Magdalen; Mary of Joset (Mk 15, 47)

Mary, Church of the Three Maries. In the Maronite Convent Road, that leads from the Citadel to St. Mark's Road at a right angle corner, is a house, Dar Diss, where stood the Church of the Three Maries. According to tradition, here the Risen Jesus appeared to three Maries (Mary Magdalen (M~ 28, 1); Mary, mother (?) of James (Mc 16, 1) and the other Mary (Mt 28, 1) after they had learned from the angel of the Resurrection and had received the order to announce the news to the disciples (Mt 28, 8).

Mary, daughter of Abraham. She is 'saluted' together with her father, the friend of God, in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 23rd of the month Nahasse (the twelfth month, Aug 4-Sept 2).

Mary, Lady Mary and her son, Maximus. They founded a Church at Beth-Shean, round 567. The Monastery of Lady Mary is northeast of Beth-Shean. The Church in the Monastery, with the apse eastwards is paved with mosaics. For the inscription see: Elias, the priest and recluse at Beth-Shean.

Mary Magdalen, St. She was from Magdala in Galilee. Jesus expelled seven demons from Mary Magdalen. (Mk 16, 9; Luke 8, 2). An apparition of the Risen Jesus to Mary Magdalen alone is related in Mk 16, 9; Jn 20, 1-18. One of the traditions that is accepted by the Latin liturgy, identifies Mary Magdalen with the sister of Martha and Lazarus in Bethany. - The Franciscans of St. Saviour in Jerusalem make a pilgrimage on July 22 to Bethany and visit the tomb of Lazarus. They celebrate the Mass of Mary Magdalen with the Gospel of Luke 7, 36-50: anointing of Jesus by a penitent woman. - A legend (accepted by Mart. Rom.) tells that Mary Magdalen went to Marseille, where she died (Mart. Rom. July 22). The Ethiopian Synaxarium remembers Mary, the sinner, who anointed our Lord with unguent, on Yakatit 6.

Mary Magdalen and the altar of the apparition. According to tradition Mary was one of the women of Galilee who followed and ministered to Jesus. She was present at the crucifixion and she found the tomb empty. It was to her that Jesus appeared after his Resurrection. The Latin altar, which is outside the pillars of the Rotunda in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, recalls this apparition. Jesus revealed Himself by pronouncing her name 'Mary'. She replied 'Rabboni, which means, my Master' and threw herself at the feet of the Risen Christ. (Jn 20, 1-18)

Church of Mary Magdalen at Gethsemane. The church was built by Czar Alexander III in memory of his mother, the Empress Maria Magdalen Alexandrovna, wife of Czar Alexander II. The inauguration was on Sept 29, 1888. The church has seven guilded onion-shaped cupolas (Moscow-style). In the crypt of the church lies the body of the Grand Duchess Elisabeth Feodrovna. She was the sister of the late Empress Alexandra Feodrovna, and the wife of the Grand Duke Serge of Moscow. This Serge was the founder of the Russian (Imperial) Palestine Society, and he was in Jerusalem at the inauguration of the church in 1888. His wife, Elisabeth, and her sister, the Marchioness of Milfordshaven, were also present at the inauguration. Elisabeth expressed the wish to be buried in this church at Jerusalem. Her sister overheard her words. In 1905 the Grand Duke Serge was assassinated. In 1918 the Bolshevists killed his widow Elisabeth and her parents. A monk with the help of the White Army brought the body of Elisabeth to Pekin in Mongolia. Her sister, the Marchioness, with the help of the English Government, had the body of Elisabeth brought from Pekin via Vladivostok with a English ship to Jerusalem in Jan 1921. - In 1934 two Scottish ladies (Russian Orthodox) founded the monastery at Gethsemane.

Mary Magdalen's Convent in Jerusalem. see: Edessa refugees.

Mary Magdalen, the myrophore who was equal to the apostles.
In the Greek liturgy on July 22. Mary Magdalen came to the tomb, early when it was still dark. She saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb. So she reported this event to Simon Peter and to the other disciple. (Jn 20, 1-18)

Five Maries who brought ointment to the tomb of Christ. Their names are: Maria Cleophas, Maria Jacobi, Maria Magdalena, Maria Johannis, Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Greek liturgy has the memory of the five myrophores on the second Sunday after Easter. The Georgians on the second Tuesday after Easter. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has their memory in the Church of the Resurrection on April 25.

Mary, the mother of John Mark (Maria Johannis) (Acts 12, 12). The Syrian Orthodox Convent of St. Mark is supposed to occupy the site of the house of Mary, mother of John Mark. Tradition has it that it was the house where St. Peter went after being delivered by an angel from his prison. - A Syriac inscription asserts that this 'house' was dedicated for religious purposes since 73 AD. An ancient painting of the Blessed Virgin, attributed to St. Luke, hangs against the southern wall. A small monument in the form of a baptistry records the tradition that Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus is meant) was baptised by the apostles in this house.

Mary, the mother of Maria Salome, and Soba, the mother of Elisabeth, and Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary. Mary, Soba and Anne were three daughters of Mathan of Bethlehem, according to the Ethiopian Synaxarium.

Mary, Virgin. In the Greek liturgy on June 6. Together with Martha, Barberia, Cyria and Marcia, she adopted the ascetic life. When the Governor of Caesarea, Palestine, heard about them, the five women were put to death in 304.

Mary Margareth of the Holy Heart. She was Superior of the Jerusalem Convent of the Sisters Franciscans Missionaries of Mary. In 1932, she became Superior Generalis of this Institute.

Mary of Jesus Crucified. See: Marie de Jésus Crucifié.

Mary of the Trinity (Louisa Jaques) (1901-1942). She was born at Pretoria, Transvaal, from protestant parents. Her mother died at her birth. Her father, a protestant missionar, brought her to Switzerland to be educated by an aunt. Louise converted to Catholicism, she was in several monasteries. On June 30, 1938 she joined the Poor Clares Sisters at Jerusalem. There she died in 1942. Her remarkable notes have been published as 'The spiritual legacy of Sister Mary of the Trinity'.

Mary, Portuguese Tertiary. She suffered martyrdom in the atrium before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, in 11597. (AA.SS. March 27) (Compare: Cosmas a San Damiano)

Mary, the Egyptian. She was a harlot in Alexandria, born in 354. While visiting Jerusalem, she was converted by an apparition of the Holy Virgin in front of the Church of the Resurrection. She crossed the River Jordan and lived a solitary life of penance for forty years. She received the visit of St. Zosimus in 422. She died in 431. The Martyrologium Romanum has her memory on April 2. (Compare with Pelagia the Penitent, Oct 8). Mary the Egyptian is remembered on April 1 and April 6 by the synaxaries of Greece and by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Chapel of Mary the Egyptian. Right of the entrance to the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, underneath the Chapel of the Franks (which is Latin property) is a small Greek-Orthodox oratory. It is dedicated to St. Mary of Egypt, in memory of her conversion at the atrium before the Basilica.

Mary, wife of Baldwin III. She is buried on the right side of the staircase that descends to the tomb of Mary at Gethsemane.

Mary and Martha, sisters of Lazarus. In Bethany, on the mountain, dedication of the Church, memory of Mary and Martha on June 4, in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. - The Church is perhaps the place where Mary, the sister of Lazarus, met Jesus, when he came to Bethany, to call back Lazarus from the dead. Is the 'mountain' recalled by the hill Ras es Shiyah near Bethphage, where there is a Greek-Orthodox Church in ruins?

Maspéro. This French scholar means that the inscription of Siloe which was discovered in 1881 is elder as the time of King Hezekiah. The inscription does not name Hezekiah. The scholars Sayce, Marti, Stade also antedate the tunnel of Siloe. - The inscription of Siloe was brought to a museum at Istanbul.

Massabki. Three brothers Massabki of the Maronite Rite were murdered at Damascus by the Druses in 1860.

Massaia. She came to Palestine in 1169, together with St. Bona and with Gaitana. (AA.SS. May 29)

Matat of Jerusalem: Father of Elisabeth (Eth. Synax.).

Mater Dolorosa. Three Israeli youths on Aug 4, 1967 robbed the gemmed crown of the statue Mater Dolorosa (13th Station) at Calvary. On Sept 26, 1967 the crown was brought back by the police.

Matta: see Matthew and Nebi Matta.

Matta (Mattia) Maroum Fadlallah, pilgrim guide. With his help, Father Theodore Ratisbonne bought on Nov 24, 1857 the Arch Ecce Homo and the ruins north of the Via Dolorosa. On the acquired site Theodore Ratisbonne bought a convent for the Sisters of Sion.

Matteo. He belonged, round 1220, to the clergy of the Church of the Holy Cross in Acre. (GBB I, 8) According to Jacques de Vitry, Matteo joined the Franciscan Order before 1220.

Matteo, Franciscan. He was Vicarius Provincialis of the Holy Land. His name appears in the process against the Templars, on Feb 18, 1282, in Nephin, near Tripoli (Lebanon).

Matthan (Mathan) of Bethlehem. According to Apocryphes Matthan, who was the grandfather of Joseph, had three daughters: Mary, Soba, Anne. (Compare Matat of Jerusalem; Mary, the mother of Maria Salome)

Matthew of Edessa. This Armenian historian describes the misdeeds of the Crusaders. He lived in the time of the Crusades.

Matthew of Palestine (Mar Mattai) Feb 1. The Syrian miniature of a monk who has a cape over his head and who bears a Tau-shaped staff, refers perhaps to Mar Mattai, who is mentioned in Sinaiticus 34 (Garitte 123). This Mar (Saint) Mattai was the founder of the Convent Mar Mattai near Mosul, who was called 'Master of the Ascets'.

Matthew the Evangelist. He was a tax collector in Capharnaum. He is referred to as Levi. Later the preached to his fellow-Jews; then he went to Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, Media and Macedonia. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Nov 16; the Mart. Rom. mentions on Sept 21: Matthew, apostle and evangelist. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on Tekemt 12: Matthew became a martyr, in the city of the priests. The same Synaxarium has on Hamle 29: The Lord Jesus appeared to Andrew the Apostle and commanded: Rise up and depart to Matyas (Matthew) in the Cannibal city, so that thou mayest bring him out of prison, for the man of that city will in three days bring him out to eat him. -- The emblem of evangelist Matthew is a man, because his Gospel, which is the first in the series of four, begins with the genealogy of the Lord.

Matthew and Nebi Matta. The mosque in Beit Ummar (village west of the wav Bethlehem-Hebron) is dedicated to Nebi Matta, which is perhaps a corruption of Matthew. Or does Matta mean Amittai, who was the father of the prophet Jonas 2

Matthew at Acre. See: Matteo (round 1220).

Matthias, the Apostle. (Greek liturgy, Aug g). After Christ's ascension, Matthias was elected by lot to fill the place among the Twelve Apostles left vacant by Judas Ischariot. (Acts 1, 15-26). Matthias is said to have gone to Ethiopia. He suffered martyrdom. The Latin liturgy venerated Matthias on Feb 24. Since the reform, the feast is on May 14. The Latin liturgy holds that Matthias suffered martyrdom in Judaea. The mosque in Beit Ummar is dedicated to Nebi Matta. Does it mean Matthias or Matthew?

Matthias, St., eighth bishop of Jerusalem. He was persecuted by Emperor Hadrian (117-138), but he died in peace. His feast is particular to the Latin Patriarchate, on Jan 30.

Matrona of Perge. She was born of wealthy parents. At the age of fifteen, she was married and had one child. She left her husband and entered the monastic life dressed as a monk. She stayed in the monastery of Bassianus for many years, until her sex was discovered. Then she went to Emesa, to Jerusalem and to Beirut. She performed miracles and died at the age of one hundred in 492. The Greek liturgy has her feast on Nov 9. The AA.SS. mention her round 465, on Oct 10.

Matusala. See: Methuselah.

Maundeville (1332). John de Maundeville counts 28 passes between the site of the Ascension and the site of the Pater Noster.

Maura, martyr. Her memory on June 30 is attested by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. Perhaps to be identified with Maura, the woman who was martyred in Gaza, together with Thea. The Mart. Rom. relates the passion of Meura and Thea on Dec 19.

Maura, St., and Brigida, St. They are mentioned in the 6th/7th century. (AA.SS. May 5, July 13)

Maurice, Byzantine Emperor (575-602). Foundation of the Emperor Maurice in Jerusalem. The church above the Tomb of Mary in the valley of Josaphat near Gethsemani existed before Emperor Maurice. Perhaps, he repaired or embellished this church. In the building of Maurice, the emperor, was on Oct 22 the 'great dedication'; and on Oct 23 the deposit of the altar, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. - Emperor Maurice extended the feast of the Dormitio (and Assumptio) of the Holy Virgin, that was in usage in Jerusalem, to the whole Byzantine empire.

Maurice of Epidaurus, servant of God. This Franciscan served 18 years in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Died, Sept 14, 1655.

Maurice, Norwegian Franciscan Father. He left an Itinerarium (1271-1273?). Out of the fragments it is not sure that Maurice has been in the possibility to visit the Holy Places (GBB I, 279-280; 11, 413-415)

Maurus, custos of the Holy Land. He was charged in 1504 by Kansou el Ghury, sultan of Egypt, with special missions to the Pope, Jules 11 (1503-1513), to the doge of Venice and to the King of Spain. He received from the sultan the autorisation to open the Tomb of Christ, he took some parcels of rock as relics for these persons in Europe. - He is also called Maurus Hispanus. He was custos from 1501 to 1506. He was born in the village of Montalbanezo (province of Cuenca in Spain). He returned to Spain in 1506107,

Mausimas (or Maysimas), priest round 400. (AA.SS. Jan 23)

Mauss K. French architect. In 1868 he repaired the big cupola (of 1810) above the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. France, Russia and Turkey paid for the repairs. Mauss cleared in 1871 the Pool of Bethesda; he unearthed there remains of a Byzantine church.

Mauvia, Queen of the Saracens. She devastated Palestine in 371. The AA.SS. mention her on Feb 7.

Maximilian, Duke in Bavaria. He visited Jerusalem from May 9 to May 15, 1838. From Jerusalem he pilgrimated to Nazareth. There died, on May 23, 1838, his personal physician, Dr. Baier from the pest. Maximilian has given money for the altar in the Chapel of the Flagellation. This Chapel was under restoration in 1838. He wrote 'Wanderungen nach dem Orient 1838' (München, 1839). A Latin inscription on a marble slab records his donation of money. The slab is to the right outside the entrance door of the Chapel.

Maximilian Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria. He was born in 1832. He was the brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I. He visited the Holy Land in 1855, in the same year, but later as Leopold, Duke of Brabant, who came in the summer of 1855 together with his wife. Maximilian also was allowed to visit the Dome of the Rock. He donated (1857) an altar to the Latin Chapel of the Finding of the Cross, in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. To the left of the altar is a bronze statue of St. Helen. Maximilian became in 1864 Emperor of Mexico. There he was executed by the rebels in 1867.

Maximus-inscription at Beth-Shean. A Greek inscription at the entrance to the church says: 'O Christ, God, Saviour of the world, have mercy upon the Christ loving Lady Mary and her son Maximus, and grant rest to their forefathers through the prayers of all the Saints. Amen' - The church was founded about 567.

Maximus, 19th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd cent. (AA.SS.)

Maximus, 26th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd cent. (AA.SS.)

Maximus, St. 40th bishop of Jerusalem. (Maximus III). Under Emperor Galerius Maximianus (305-311) one of the eyes of Maximus was hollowed out, one of his feet was burned and he was condemned to forced labour. After his liberation, he became bishop of Jerusalem, he dedicated the newly built Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre to the Resurrection of the Lord. Maximus suffered persecutions from the Arian heretics. He died in 3481349. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem has his feast on May 5. The Georgian liturgy mentions Maximus, bishop of Jerusalem, on Aug 26.

Maximus III Mazlum, Catholic Melkite Patriarch. He was born as Michael Mazlum in Aleppo, Syria, in 1799. He died in Alexandria, Egypt, in 1885. Elected metropolitan of Aleppo (1810), he took the name of Maximus (Maximos). On April 4, 1833, he was elected patriarch. He visited his entire patriarchate, preaching and founding churches. He is known especially for settling the dispute (1847) about the ecclesiastical headdress (kalemavkion), and for securing the complete autonomy of the Melchites under the civil leadership of their patriarch in the Ottoman Empire (1848).

Maximus IV (1878-1967) (Maximos). This Melkite Patriarch died at Beyrouth on Nov 5, 1967, at the age of 89 years. He entered in 1893 the Melkite Seminary St. Anne at Jerusalem. He became Patriarch in 1947.

Maximus Symeus, Greek monk. He tells that after the destruction of the tomb of Jesus by Caliph Hakim in 1009 [and by the fire of 1808], the north and the south side of the Sepulchre, besides the rock-bank and the rock-pavement, remained.

Mayaud, Sister of 'Filles de Charité' of France. She arrived at Bethlehem in 1904. During the First World War (1914-1918), she was expulsed by the Turks, but she returned on Oct 14, 1918. She died in Palestine in February 1937.

Maysimas. See: Mausimas.

Mazabanes, 35th bishop of Jerusalem, died 266. (AA.SS.)

Mazaryik Thomas G, the first president of Czechoslovakia. He visited Jerusalem privately on April 8, 1927. The settlement Kefar Masaryk on the east side of the way Haifa-Acre, in the plain of Zevulon (Zabulon) is named after him.

Mazella Bonaventura, Franciscan. He repaired organs in the churches of the Holy Land. He constructed an organ for St. Catherine's Church in Bethlehem. He died 1953.

Medici, Ferdinand de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He donated the silver-plated bronze Latin altar at Calvary (11th Station). The bronze panels were made by Father Dominic Portigiani, Ordinis Praedicatorum. The altar was planned under Custos Bonifacius of Ragusa (1555) for the Stone of Unction, but Bonifacius was impeded to place the Latin altar at the Stone of Unction.

Meinertshagen, British officer. Hebron was occupied by the British on Dec 4, 1917. Meinertshagen then entered the Cave of Makpela under the mosque of Hebron.

Meistermann Barnabas. This Franciscan Father helped Brother Wendelinus Hinterkeuser (of Menden), who was the architect of the church at Emmaus. (consecrated in 1902). Meistermann wrote in 1907 his 'Guide de Terre Sainte'.

Mekhitar, Armenian monk. His tomb on the Armenian cemetery outside Sion Gate in Jerusalem has the inscription: This is the refuge of the just Sing Alleluia for the binder of holy books for the monk Mekhitar. (Hintlian K., History of the Armenians in the Holy Land. 1976, p. 62)

Melania the Elder (Major), born Rome 342 - died Jerusalem, round 409. At 16 she married Valerius Maximus, prefect of Rome (361-363). She was widowed at 22, and apparently lost two of her children round the same time. She departed for Egypt (372), where she aided the monks suffering in the Arian persecution. She visited Palestine in 373 and with Rufinus of Aquileia founded in 378 a double monastery in Jerusalem. In 378 her son Publicola married the noble Albina Ceionia and had in 383 a daughter, Melania the Younger. Melania, the Elder, returned to Italy (400) and looked to the ascetical training of her granddaughter in Rome. Melania the Elder returned to Jerusalem, where she died round 409, shortly after her return. Melania the Elder (the Major) is also called Melania the Roman. -Jerome's reference (Epist. 133, 3) to Melania elicited caution among later hagiographers in admitting her sanctity. The Melkite liturgy has her feast on Dec 31.

Melania Major (the Elder) and Rufinus Aquileiensis. They visited Palestine in 373. Melania visited Palestine a second time in 409. (AA.SS. Jan 7, Jan 21, Sept 30)

Melania, the Younger (Junior). She was the granddaughter of Melania, the Elder. She was born in Rome in 383. She was married to a young relative and had two children, who died early. After the death of her children, she persuaded her family to sell their property and to use the money for the emancipation of slaves. During the invasion of the Visigoths (410), she fled to Thagaste in North Africa. In 417 she went from there to Jerusalem, and she established a convent on the Mount of Olives. She died in Jerusalem in 439. The Roman Martyrology has her feast on Dec 31; the Greek liturgy also on Dec 31.

Melania junior, Saint, and Pinianus, and Albina. The three visited Palestine in or before 417. The AA.SS. mention them on Jan 7, Jan 31, Dec 31.

Melchlor, the eldest of the three Kings. In a calendar of Köln, his death is remembered on Jan 6. Melchior presented the gold. Caspar, who was the youngest, brought the incense. Balthasar donated the myrrhe. Melchor stands for Sern (Asia), Caspar represents Cham (Africa), Balthasar stands for Japhet (Europa). The feast of the three Kings is on Jan 6, Epiphany.

Melchior Flavius, Confessor, Blessed. He was born in Toulouse, France. In 1566 he dedicated one of his books to Charles IX, king of France (1560-1574). Several times he visited Palestine. He died round 1580 in Toulouse. The Martyrologium Franciscanum venerates him on March 17.

Melchisedec (Melchizedek), king of Salern (Jerusalem). Melchisedec met Abraham, gave him bread and wine, blessed him, and received one tenth of the booty of Abraham. Melchisedec was also priest of the god of the city, El Elyon. The Georgian liturgy has the feast of Melchisedec on Aug 8. He does not appear in the Greek or the Latin liturgy with a special feast. The Ethiopian Synaxarium 'salutes' him on the 3th of Paguemen, the intercalary month, Sept 3- Sept 7). Then the death of Melchisedec is remembered. (Compare: Sem and Melchisedec).

Melisend, eldest daughter of King Baldwin II. She had an Armenian mother. She was given into marriage to Fulk of Anjou; they were coronated in the Holy Sepulchre on July 2, 1129. Fulk died in 1143. Melisend was appointed regent during her son's minority. She died in 1161, and was buried in the Church of the Tomb of Mary, in a niche to the right, under the altar, that was dedicated to SS. Joachim and Anne.

Melisend Psalter (British Museum, MS, Egerton 1139). The psalter has ivory carving and is the only surviving example of work in ivory from the Crusaders' Kingdom.

Melito of Sardis, bishop. He lived until about AD 190. He came to Palestine, after the foundation of Aelia Capitolina, to find out about the Bible in the place where the events 'were proclaimed and done'.

Meliton, St. the first (?) successor of St. Sabas. Jan 3. The list of the hegumens of the monastery of St. Sabas has: Zenon, Meliton, Theodulus, Gelasius, Cassianus, Cononis, Anastasius, Stephanus, Nicodem, Thomas, John, John (a second), Stephen, Job, Constantini, Strategii, Solomon, David, Peter, …e, Anastase, Salomon. - Cyril of Scythopolis mentions Meliton.

Melkite Church (Greek-Catholic Church). Cyril V, patriarch of Antioch, recognized in 1709 the supremacy of the pope of Rome. The Uniat Greek Church is called Melkite Church. (Melek means king, ruler). This church was in union with Rome. It is considered as dissident by the Orthodox. The Greek-Orthodox Church impedes the celebration of a liturgical service by a Melkite in the sanctuaries of the Holy Sepulchre, of the Nativity, of the Assumption of Mary. There are about 35000 Melkites in the Holy Land, the majority of them in Galilee.

Melkites in Nazareth. Round 1741, the Franciscans in Nazareth bought the building 'Madraseh el Messiah' (School of the Messias) and transformed it into a chapel. At that time, 200 Greek-Orthodox came to the Greek-Catholic Church (Melkites). After 30 years, in 1771, the Propaganda in Rome ordered the Franciscans to give the chapel to the Melkites as their parish church.

Melkite Sanctuaries. In Jerusalem they have, since 1895, the site of the 6th Station (Veronica wipes the face of Christ). The chapel is run by Little Sisters of Jesus. - In Nazareth the Melkites have, since 1771, the so-called Synagogue of Christ. (Luke 4, 16-30)

Mellon, Miss. She built in 1913 a small house in front of the Franciscan property of 'Dominus Flevit' in Jerusalem.

Mena, Blessed. June 16 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar.

Mena, Saint (or Blessed). His memory was on Nov 12; In the martyrion of Mena was the deposit of Isaiah, the prophet, and the memory of the Blessed Bassa. The woman Bassa after 444 founded the martyrion (church) of St. Mena(s).

Mena(s). The Martyrion of Saint Mena(s) is a chapel in the northern annexe of the Armenian Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem.

Menen, Empress of Ethiopia, wife of Haile Selassie I. She built the monastery of the Holy Trinity at the Jordan near Jericho in 1933-34.

Mengoldus, St. He visited Palestine round 892. (Vita S. Men., c. IV, n. 19) (AA.SS. Feb 8)

Mennonite Boys' School in Belt. Jala near Bethlehem. It is one of the projects of the Mennonite Church in the Holy Land.

Mensa Christi. The Franciscans bought in 1861 from a Muslim family at Nazareth the so-called sanctuary 'Mensa Christi'. Inside this chapel an enormous block of soft limestone recalls - according to some legend - the table at which Jesus in Galilee dined with his disciples after his Resurrection (Mark 16, 14-18) - (Compare Saller, Mount of Tabor).

Merab, a daughter of King Saul. Her five sons were crucified by the Gibeonites on the hill of Gibeon (2 Sam 21, 2), together with the two sons of Rizpah, who was a concubine of Saul.

Mercator-Map of Palestine. The Map of Palestine was the first map which Mercator engraved in 1537, being then 25 years. (Bibliothèque Nationale à Paris). A photo in natural size of this map is in the Museum of St. Niklaas (Belgium).

Merchants of Amalfi. They built (or rebuilt) in the 12th cent. the Church (upper church) of St. John the Baptist in the now Christian Street of Jerusalem.

Mercurius, St. Martyr. He had his memory in the Church of the Resurrection, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar, on Sept 30. A St. Mercurius was also venerated in the convent of St. Theodora on Sept 23, in the 'Foundation of John'. Mercurius is mentioned also on Oct 24.

Mercurius, the Galilean, and Ephraim. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 30th of Hamle (eleventh month): Mercurius and Ephraim, the holy. Galileans, who became on that day martyrs. These saints were brethren in the spirit, and kinsmen in the flesh, and they were of the men of the city of Akmin. They became monks in the same monastery in Upper Egypt. The Arians beat them severely, and the soldiers trampled upon them until their bones were broken. It was in the time of the Emperor Constantine.

Merkert Maria and Francesca. They founded in 1840 the Polish Sisters of St. Elisabeth. These Sisters have three houses in Jerusalem.

Merlo. See: Boulos Bernardino Merlo.

Merö Joseph from Baja (Hungary). Merö made his pilgrimage in 1868, at the age of 60. He brought a cross of oak to Jerusalem, and offered it to Gethsemani. This cross was kept there in the Grotto of Arrest. This grotto was flooded in November 1955. When the grotto was cleaned by Father Virgilio Corbo, the cross was removed.

Mesbach. It is the Babylonian name of Azarias, one of the three youths in the furnace. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Takhshash 2)

Meshullam, Hebrew Christian. His wife was an Italian Jewess. He cooperated with Minor Mrs, in Urtas round 1849.

Metawileh (Friends of Ali) (or Nosairis). Religious group, mainly in Syria. They belong to the Shi'ite group of the Islam. Metawileh came from Lebanon to some villages in Upper Galilee. They number about 150000 members. Until 1948 the villages of Hunin, Nebi Yusha, Qadas, El Malkiya, Salha Terbikha south of the Lebanese frontier in Galilee, were completely Metawileh villages.

Methodius, St. Martyr. He was at the same time bishop of Olympus and of Patara in Lycia. Afterwards he became bishop of Tyr, Phoenicia. He was martyred in Chalcis in Coelesyria under Emperor Maximian, round 311-312. His most famous work is 'The Banquet of the Virgins'; the Melkite liturgy has his feast on June 20. The Roman Martyrology venerates him on Sept 18.

Methuselah (Matusala), the son of Henok, who begat Lamech. The days of MatusaIa were 969 years. He is commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 1st of the month Magabit.

Meura, St. and Thea, St. Both women were martyred at Gaza in 305. The Mart. Rom. commemorates them on Dec 19.

Micah, minor prophet. Micah came from Moresheth-Gath in SW. Judah. He is a contemporary of Isaiah and exhibits similarity of thought. The historian Sozomenos (he died around 450) mentions that the relics of Micah were found under Zebennos, bishop of Eleutheropolis, in the year 385. The relics were found in Birath Satia, a village near Eleutheropolis. The Melkite liturgy venerates Micah on Aug 14; the Latin Liturgy on Jan 15)

Micah and his church in Beth-Guvrin (Eleutheropolis). See J. Jeremias, Heiligengraber in Jesu Umwelt, p. 82-86)

Micah and his tomb. The Ethiopian Synaxarium commemorates him on 22nd of the month of Nahasse. Micah prophesied to Ahab, the king of Israel, saying: 'Thou shalt die in the battle of Edom, king of Gilead'. Micah was buried in the village Merata.

Michael Alexander. First Anglican bishop (1841-1846) of Jerusalem.

Michael Archangel, St. In the Gospel of Mt 18, 1-10: 1 tell you that in heaven their angels always behold the face of my Father who is in heaven. In Revelation 12, 7 Michael is the leader of the angelic hosts in the battle between the dragon and his angels. In the Christian liturgy Michael is the protector of the Church and the angel who escorts the souls of the departed into heaven. His feast was on May 8, now it is on Sept 29, together with Gabriel and Raphael. There is an oratory of St. Michael near the Holy Sepulchre. There is a Greek Orthodox Convent of St. Michael, the Archangel, on the north side of the St. Francis Street in Jerusalem.

Michael and Habakkuk. Michael carried Habakkuk by his hair, as he was carrying the food, and he brought him to the city of Babylon forthwith, and Daniel ate of the food. And Saint Michael, the glorious angel, delivered Daniel from the lions' den, and brought back Habakkuk to the land of Judaea, and straightway he stood by the reapers. Salutation to Michael (Ethiopian Synaxarium, 12th of Genbot, ninth month) - St. Michael, who slew 185000 of Sennacherib's soldiers before Jerusalem, is venerated by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 12th day of Hamle. Also on Takhshash 12.

Michael and Jacob. Michael was sent by God to Jacob-Israel, when he was afraid of his brother Esau, and he delivered Jacob from Esau, and brought Jacob over the river Jordan. And Jacob went to Laban, his mother's brother, and married two of his daughters, Leah and Rachel. And Michael brought Jacob back. And his brother Esau welcomed him with peace and love. Therefore the festival of Michael is celebrated. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Ter 12.)

Chapel of Michael. On the westside of the atrium before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre are 3 doors. The door next to the Basilica leads to the Chapel of St. Michael. (Coptic or Ethiopian property?) The low door in the centre gives access to the Armenian chapel of St. John. The high door on the right, near the row of steps, is for the Greek-Orthodox Convent of St. Abraham.

Church of St. Michael in Bethlehem. Dr. Bannurah, a native of Bethlehem, told to Father Mertens, the author of this book, in Jerusalem on Friday, Dec 16, 1977: When in Bethlehem the mosque was extended in 1954, then to the west of the mosque, under the now parking area, were discovered remains of columns of a church in honour of St. Michael.

Michael Argilas. He was martyred by the Turks in 1556. His feast is on May 17. (AA.SS.)

Michael Gobroni. He was beheaded by Abu-el-Qasim in 914 at Quelis-C'ihe on Nov 17.

Michael, monk of Sabas, Saint. Martyred in Jerusalem under Abd al Malik (685-705). The codex 57 of Iviron places his martyrdom on March 20.

Michael and Theodorus, his uncle. They were martyred in St. Sabas' Monastery, 614 or 797. (AA.SS. July 19)

Michael, Gabriel and Raphael, archangels. Feast Sept 29.

Michael, the Confessor. He was born in Jerusalem of a noble family. He lost his father at an early age and he joined the monastic life in which he excelled. He lived in the 9th century. He died at the age of 85 years. The Greek liturgy has his feast an Dec 18.

Michael the Sunkellos (Syncelle, counsellor). He was born in Jerusalem in 761. He entered the Monastery of St. Sabas in 761.

Michel of Acre. He belonged to the clergy of the Church of the Holy Cross in Acre, round 1220. (Golubovitch BB 1, 8)

Michel Carcano, Blessed. This Franciscan was from Lombardy. He helped the poor in Padua, against usurers. He was exiled and appeared in 1461 in Jerusalem. He died in Italy in 1484 or 1485. The Franciscan Martyrology remembers him on October 15.

Michel del Zio da Ruvo. He was born in Ruvo, Italy, in 1822. In 1850 he joined the Custody of the Holy Land, and he worked in Harissa (Lebanon), Ain-Karem, and Nazareth. Died in Jerusalem, on April 19, 1909.

Michelina of Pesaro, Blessed. She was born in Pesaro, Italy, in 1300. As a young widow, she entered the Third Order of St. Francis. She made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and round 1350 took care of the pilgrims in the hospice on Mount Sion. She returned to Italy and died, June 19, 1356. Her feast in the Franciscan Order is on June 20. (Marianus Florent., Vita B. Mich., c. II, n. 11)

Michigan-University. Excavated in 1931 at Sepphoris (Zippori) to the east of an Arabic tower, that was built in 1745.

Mihaic Jerome, Franciscan lay brother. He was born in Pucische (on an island of Dalmatia) on March 13, 1873. He died in Amman, June 20, 1960. He was buried on Mount Nebo. He helped to buy the site of the sanctuary of the death of Moses, for the Custody. The final transaction took place in 1932. - Brother Jerome Whaic decorated the arcade, which is north of the newly rebuilt Chapel of the 2nd Station, with a wooden cross. The cross is covered with bark of an olive-tree. The cross is planted in the stump of an olive-tree, which needed to be removed in Gethsemane in 1909 for the building of the Basilica of Agony. Probably the cross was made in 1910.

Millfordshaven. See: Marchioness of Millfordshaven.

Minghetti A. This Italian sculptor made in white marble of Carrara the high-relief, which is above the iron door of the 3rd Station. (Jesus fails the first time).

Minor Mrs. This American lady started about 1849 'The Agricultural Manual Labour School’ in Urtass which is south of Bethlehem. Minor Mrs led a band of American enthusiasts. She cooperated with Mr. Meshullam, a Hebrew Christian. The first report of the institution was entitled 'Tidings from Jerusalem'; it was printed in America.

Minores VII (7 Franciscans), in Syria, a Soldane interfecti. They are mentioned on Jan 17, 13th century. (AA.SS.)

Miriam, sister of Moses and Aaron. Miriarn is mentioned among the 'Just of the Old Testament' on the first Sunday of Advent in the Eastern Church.

Mirian (265-342). According to some tradition, the Monastery of the Cross (Deir el-Musallabeh) in Jerusalem was founded by Mirian, first Christian ruler of Georgia. He is one of the kings, depicted over the inner portal of the church in the monastery.

Mima Ali Mohammed. In 1844 he proclaimed himself the Bab (Gate) (See: Bab-el-Din). He was executed in 1850 in Tabriz; he was buried in Haifa.

Mima Hussein Ali (Baha-u-Ullah). This leader of the Bahai was exiled by the Turks to Acre, where he died in 1892. Buried in Acre.

Mima Mohammed All, leader of the Bahai. He was the son of M irza Hussein All, and the brother of Abbas Effendi. Abbas Effendi died in Haifa in 1921, and was buried beside the body of his grandfather, Mirza All Mohammed (Bab-el-Din).

Misael in the furnace. See: Three Companions, (Aug 24).

Mislin Jacques, Mgr, Belgian. He visited the Holy Land round 1848 and he described the Way of the Cross; after a second pilgrimage in 1855, he corrected his book. He guided Leopold, duke of Brabant, (the later Leopold II, king of Belgium) and his wife on their visit to the Holy Land in 1855.

Mistruzzi A. This Italian artist made the tabernacle and the lamp in the Chapel of the Flagellation, Via Dolorosa. The chapel was renovated in 1927-28 by architect Antonio Bariuzzi.

Modestus of Jerusalem, patriarch. The Greek liturgy has his memory on Dec 16. He served as hegumen in the monastery of St. Theodosius Coenobiarchus, which is east of Bethlehem. He was consecrated Patriarch of Jerusalem. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Chosroes II in 614, Modestus rebuilt the churches and the monasteries. He died in 630 or 637. (AA.SS. in 634). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar venerates him on May 17, March 29, Dec 17. The AA.SS. on Dec 16 and Oct 19. Modestus was buried in the Church of the Eleona on the Mount of Olives (Revue Eleona, avril 1961).

Memory in the 'Ovile' (sheepfold). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the memory of Modestus in the 'ovile' on Dec 18, and has there a synaxis on Dec 24.

Modsley H. He found, between 1871 and 1875, at Bishop Gobat's School, remains of the line of the First Wall of Jerusalem, at the southwest corner on the Upper City on Mount Sion.

Monachus, patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre (1194-1202) (AA.SS.)

Monald, Francis, and Anthony, three martyrs in Armenia, 1314. Monald was born in Ancona, Italy. Round 1303104 he travelled with Angelo of Spoleto, to Cairo in order to redeem Christian slaves, after the fail of Tripoli (1289) and of Acre (1291). In 1314 Monald was in Erzingan on the Euphrates in Armenia, together with Francis and with Anthony. The three were killed by the Moslems on the fourth Friday of Lent, 1314. Their memory in the Franciscan Martyrology is on March 16.

Money A, Sir, Maj. Gen. in the British Mandate, (1918-1919).

Monk of Mount of Olives, 5th century. He accepted 60 stadies as the distance from Jerusalem to Emmaus, the hamlet where the Risen Jesus manifested Himself to two disciples (Luke 24, 13-35). (Vita S. Melaniae Junioris)

Monks, martyrs, of the Monastery of St. Sabas. In 614 their convent was sacked by the Persians and 40 (44?) were killed. (Memory in Mart. Rom. on May 16?) - In 797, twenty monks were suffocated by the smoke of a fire that was made before the entrance of their grotto-church, by the Moslems. (Memory in Mart. Rom. on May 16?) The Palestinian-Georgian calendar remembers the death of the 20 suffocated monks on March 19.

Monks, martyrs, of Tekoa. Monks of the convent of Souka (Khirbet Kareitoun) near Tekoa were murdered in 404 by the Saracens in the time of Theodosius the Younger. Theodosius the Younger, (the Less, the Minor) ruled from 408 to 450. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem remembers the martyrs of Tekoa on May 28.

Monks, martyrs, in the desert of Judaea, by Alamundar, the sheikh of the Bedoulns, in 504. (Mart. Rom. on Feb 19).

Monks, martyred in Wadi el Khanka in Abud. A tradition tells that monks were martyred in the valley beneath the village of Abud. This valley bears the name Wadi el-Khanka (valley of the convent). The heads of the murdered monks were exposed on a hill, Ras Qassis (head, hill of the priests).

Monomachus Constantine, Byzantine Emperor. He restored in 1048 the damages done by Caliph Hakim in 1008 in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Montgomery, Field Marshall Viscount, Britain. He died on Wednesday, March 24, 1976 at the age of 88 years, in his home at the Hampshire County. Montgomery defeated General Erwin Rommel in the battle of El-Alamein. - Polish soldiers who were under the command of Montgomery, visited the Holy Land and were trained at Mount Tabor.

Montjoye. See: Premonstratensians and Montjoye.

Monton Antonio. This Franciscan (he died 1759) built, together with Xibiach (he died 1771), two very large organ systems, one for the Church of St. John in Ain-Karem, the second for the old church of St. Saviour in Jerusalem.

Montserrat (Spain). Since March 1971 Benedictine Fathers of Montserrat take care of the library and of the liturgical services in the Ecumenical Institute for Advanced Theological Studies at Tantur, Jerusalem (EIATS).

Morato Andrea. This Franciscan repaired organs in the Holy Land. He died in 1955.

Moravian Church. This Church, which was founded in 1457, opened a leper home 'Jesus Hilfe' in the Talbieh Quarter at Jerusalem in 1867; in the Silwan Quarter in 1875. At present the Moravians have a leper home on the way Ramallah to Birzeit on the site Sternberg.

Mordecai, paternal uncle of Esther, who reared her (Est 2, 5-8) He is mentioned by the Ethiopian Synaxarium, which 'salutes' Esther on the 24th of Takhshash.

Morétain Jean. This French priest joined the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1852. He built from 1854 to 1858 the Seminary at Beit Jala. He built in 1859 the Latin parish church at Beit-Sahur.

Morphia, Armenian princess. She was the wife of King Baldwin II in Jerusalem. She was the daughter of Gabriel, governor of Melitene in Armenia. She was the mother of Melisend. King Baldwin II ruled from 1118 to 1131.

Morsted. He made the bronze railing under the Latin altar of the 13th Station (Mater Dolorosa-altar). The railing was made in 1955. It has been replaced by a glass-screen to protect but to let visible the Rock of Calvary.

Moschus John. He was a monk and traveller, famous for his collection of vivid monastic tales, entitled Leimon or Neos Paradeisos (in Latin 'Pratum Spirituale', the spiritual grazing place). John began his monastic life at St. Theodosius' near Bethlehem in the third quarter of the sixth century. He stayed elsewhere in Palestine, Egypt, Sinai, Cyprus, Antioch, Egypt again, and finally Rome (614), usually accompanied by his disciple Sophronius the Sophist, who became later Patriarch of Jerusalem. Moschus John died 619 or 620. The stay of Moschus John and Sophronius in Alexandria and in Rome, round 615, are mentioned by Leontius, Vita S. Johann. Eleemos., c. X, n. 69, and by Simeon Metaphr., Vita ejusdem, c. V, n. 31. (AA.SS. Jan 23; March 11)

Moses, Legislator and prophet. Moses appeared, together with the prophet Elijah, during the Transfiguration; Moses saw from Mount Nebo in East Jordan the Promised Land west of the Jordan. On Mount Nebo the Franciscans have a sanctuary. Georgian, Syriac, Melkite calendars have the memory of Moses on Aug 5, the day before the feast of the Transfiguration. The Franciscans venerate Moses on Sept 4. The Franciscans, through the help of Mihaic Jerome, acquired the ruins of the sanctuary of Moses on Mount Nebo in October 1932. Father Saller Sylvester excavated the area. The first pilgrimage of the Franciscans of Jerusalem to the shrine of Moses was on Sept 5, 1966. The Six Days war of June 1967 interrupted the pilgrimage. On Sept 3, 1976 the pilgrimage (the second) was resumed. In the year 1976 Father Piccirillo M. unearthed under the shrine a Byzantine mosaic from the year 526 (August 526).

Nebi Mousa. About 2 kms, south (right) of the way from Jerusalem to Jericho is the shrine Nebi Mousa on the old pilgrim road from Jericho to Hebron. From Nebi Mousa you can see Mount Nebo in East Jordan. According to a Moslem legend, Moses, already 120 years old, fled from East Jordan to West Jordan, to Palestine on the west side of the Dead Sea. There Moses fell asleep, he died, and was buried by angels in a tomb, that was white on the outside, black and dark inside. Under the Turkish government, there was an annual Moslem procession from Jerusalem to Nebi Moussa, a Friday in the month of April. There was also the circumcision of the Moslem boys. The procession, together with the feast, lasted eight days. The procession dated from the time of Sultan Bybars, who in 1269 erected a mosque at Nebi Mousa. In 1470-80 a hospice for Moslem pilgrims was built.

Death of Moses. (Compare Joshua).

Motta, president of the Swiss Confederation. He visited Haifa and Nazareth privately on March 29, 1937.

Moyses. The Acta Sanctorum mention at the end of the 4th century on Feb 7: De S. Moyse, episcopo in Arabia, et de Saracenorum origine.

Mueller Franz. At the age of 58 years, in the Holy Year of 1933, he walked with a cross of 33 pounds (17 kilogrammes) from his village Oberwbhren, Hochstatten near Rosenheirn in Bavaria, through Italy over Rome and through Greece to the Holy Land. He started on Ashwednesday March 1, 1933. He landed at Jaffa, he was in Jerusalem on Oct 9, 1933. The weight of 33 pounds was in honour of the supposed 33 years of Christ's life. Mueller donated his Cross to the Sanctuary of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor. There it is kept in a chapel of the Basilica of the Transfiguration. By his pilgrimage of penitence, Franz Mueller imitated Franz Stocker of Prien. This Franz Stocker had carried a cross from Prien to Altötting, the Marial shrine of Bavaria, in 1887. This carrying of a cross of more than 50 kilogrammes was the fulfilment of a vote, made in 1884, when Stocker had escaped from being buried alive. The history of the pilgrimage of Mueller is written on the vertical beam of the Cross at Mount Tabor. The heavy cross of Franz Stocker with the history is conserved at the shrine of A1tötting in Bavaria. (Tierra Santa Revieuw, vol. 54, Marzo 1979, p. 54-58).

Mulligan. This Irish family donated round 1959 the altar in honour of the Assumption of Mary, which is on the north wall in the Grotto of Arrest at Gethsemane. From this north wall there was once a corridor to the nearby Church of the Assumption.

Murgan, Armenian. See: Thevas.

Musil A. He noted in 1902 a city wall, and two churches in the ruins of Mampsis (Kurnub).

Muzio Giovanni. Architect of the Basilica of Nazareth. The works began in 1955. The inauguration was in 1969, on Sunday March 23.

Myrophores (Women who brought ointment to the Tomb of Jesus). see: Maries (Five Maries) (Mk 15, 43 - 16, 8).

Studium Biblicum Franciscanum - Jerusalem
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