A. Mertens, "Who has a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Laban. He was the brother of Rebekah, and the father of Leah and Rachel. Laban, who had no male heirs, adopted Jacob as his son. To the nun Aetheria who came on pilgrimage to Palestine (about 385-388) a tomb (memoria) of Laban, the Syrian, the father-in-law of Jacob, was shown, 500 steps from the well of Jacob at [Harran].

Ladlimadyos (or Demadius?), the Syrian, martyr. This saint was brought up with the Persians, and learned from them the knowledge of the stars. He became a monk. He was ordained a priest against his will. He was stoned in the time of the Emperor Valens (364-378), who visited the city of Antioch. - On the fifteenth day of the month of Hamle, on the day whereon he died, the Christians built a church for Saint Ladimadyos. (Ethiopian Synaxarium)

Ladislaus, Sanctus, King of Hungary. He is mentioned, round 1106, in AA.SS. June 27.

Lagerlöf Selma, an authoress of Sweden. She visited Jerusalem and the American Colony at Jerusalem in 1900. Her novel 'Jerusalem' received the Nobel prize. Mrs Spafford of the American Colony is the heroine of this novel under the name Mrs Gordon.

Lagrange, Marie Joseph. He was born at Bourg-en-Bresse (France) in 1855. He joined the Dominican Order in 1879 and was ordained a priest in 1883. He was sent to Jerusalem in 1890 to found a Biblical School. He founded the 'Revue Biblique' in 1892. He died in 1938 at Saint-Maximin (France). His remains were transferred to Jerusalem and reburied in the Church of St. Stephen, which is near the Ecole Biblique, at Nablus Road.

Laird Patterson James. This Professor of Oxford tells us in his journal of 1850 how he and his companion were converted in Jerusalem to the Roman Catholic Church.

Lamech, the son of Methuselah. He is commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on 21st Magabit (the seventh month, March 7 April 5). Lamech was 138 years when he begot Noah; and all the days of Lamech were 753 years.

Lance (Holy). The holy lance (a false one) is discovered at Antioch in 1098. (AA.SS. March 15)

Feast of the Holy Lance. In Germany in 1355, (AA.SS. March 27). Feast of the Crown, the Lance and Nails (AA.SS. May 4).

Landas (de). This Crusader brought a Holy Thorn of the Crown to Europe.

Langénieux Ben., archbishop of Reims, cardinal. He visited Jerusalem from May 13, 1893 to May 31, 1893 as papal legate and president of the 8th International Eucharistic Congress.

Lappan Daniel. He was born in Mechelen (Belgium) in 1863. Since 1895 he was Commissar for the Holy Land. He died on the steamer 'Théophile Gautier' in the harbour of Beyrouth on April 4, 1939. He was buried on April 8, 1939, at Jerusalem on the Mount Sion.

Lateur Frank. See: Streuvels Stijn.

Latinie: Latin quarter in Jerusalem, in which the first church of St. Mary Latin and a hospice 'for all who speak the Latin tongue' were built under Emperor Charlemagne. Bernard of Mont St. Michel stayed in the Latin quarter in 870.

Latin Kingdom of Constantinople (1204-1261):

- Baldwin I, first emperor of Constantinople (1204-1205) (= Baldwin of Flanders, Baldwin IX)
- Baldwin II, born at Constantinople in 1217. He was emperor of Constantinople from 1240 till 1261. Then he was obliged to flee from Constantinople which fell under the rule of the Greek Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologus. Baldwin II died in 1273.

Latin Kings of Jerusalem. They lived in the Greek-Orthodox Patriarchate, which is west of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. It was reconstituted in 1847. The actual residence was inaugurated in 1868. The con-cathedral was consecrated in 1872.

Latin Patriarchs during the Latin Kingdom (1099-1187) at Jerusalem. They lived in the buildings to the north of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, where is now the Mosque el Khanqeh.

Latin Quarter in Jerusalem. see: Latinie.

Lauentius. The Ethiopian name for Leontius, who was a martyr in the city of Terablos (Tripoli?). A church in honour of Lauentius was consecrated on the first day of the month Sane. (Eth. Synax.)

Laurent le Dominicain. He was sent by Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254). This Pope wrote in August 1247 to him a letter about the peace between the Latin and the Greek Orthodox clergy of Syria.

Laurentius, who was on the Mount of Olives. Not identified. He is mentioned in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Oct 18. Perhaps the expression 'in Sancto Laurentio' means the hospice on Mount of Olives, that was built by Pope Gregory I (the Great, 590-614) at the instigation of the priest Probus. (John Deacon, Vita S. Gregorii, 11, 52; PIL 75, col 110 A)

Laurentius. He was sent in 1259 (?) by Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254) to Cyprus and to the Holy Land. (AA.SS. March 19)

Lavigerie Charles Martial, Cardinal, archbishop of Algiers and of Carthage, founder oft he White Fathers (of Africa) and of the White Sisters (of Africa). He was born in Bayonne (France) Oct 31, 1825; he died in Algiers, Nov 26, 1892. In 1860, at the time of the massacres by the Druses in Syria, he made a trip to the East. The French government granted the sanctuary of St. Anne in Jerusalem to the White Fathers in 1877. Rome confirmed this responsibility in February 1878. - A bust of Cardinal Lavigerie is in the courtyard, south of the Church of St. Anne in Jerusalem.

Lavinius, Blessed. He was of French origin. He was accepted into the Franciscan Order by the (Blessed) Adam at the convent on Mount Sion. In 1345 Lavinius was in Cairo. On account of his preaching he was beheaded in 1345. The Franciscan Martyrology has his memory on August 1.

Lawrence, Thomas Edward (1888-1935) This English archaeologist visited the Near East in 1909 to prepare his study on Crusader architecture. He mapped the Negev and the Sinai Desert. In 1916 he was charged with exploiting Arab national ambitions for British war aims against the Turks. Lawrence directed the military operations of the Arab rebels who destroyed Turkish military installations, captured Aqaba (1917), and ultimately entered Damascus (1918). He became the adviser of Emir Feisal, who represented Arab interests. - The American psychologist John Mack published on Lawrence the book 'A prince of our disorder'. Mack suggests: Lawrence at the age of 21 years was declined by a girl, whom he asked for marriage. Then he choose for the Arab world in which the women are separated. He never married. Lawrence died in 1935 by a motorcycle ancident.

Lazarus of Bethany. (Greek liturgy on March 17). He lived in Bethany, 6 Kms east of Jerusalem. He was raised by Christ from the dead. Later he became the first bishop of Citium, the present Larnaca in Cyprus. There his tomb was discovered in 890. His relics were removed by the Emperor to Constantinople. From there the relics were transferred by the French to Marseille. The Martyrologium Romanum has his feast in Marseille on Dec 17. - The raising of Lazarus (Jn 11, 1-57; 12, 1-11) from the dead is the seventh and last of the Johannine 'signs'. The three Synoptic Gospels make no mention of Lazarus. - Modern Bethany is called El-Azaryeh. It is the Arabic form of the Latin word Lazarium, which was the 4th-century Christian name for the village that gradually surrounded the church above the tomb of Lazarus.

Lazarus in the Ethiopian Synaxarium. Salutation to our Lord's journey from Jerusalem to Bethany, when he raised Lazarus. (20th of Magabit, the seventh month, March 7-April 5). (According to the Gospel of John II, 1-57, Jesus said to his disciples: 'Let us go into Judaea again' (v. 7) - The Synaxarium has on 21st Magabit: on this day the Lord came with his disciples to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom he raised from the dead; he was one of those who sat at table with Him. Martha, his sister, ministered, and Mary, the other sister, began to anoint our Lord's feet. - On 21st Magabit is recalled the plot of the highpriests (John II, 45-54).

Lazarus, the beggar. He is mentioned in the Gospel of Luke 16, 20; he is commemorated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 27th of the month Sane. - In the parable Jesus gave the name Lazarus to the man who lay sick and miserable at the rich man's gate, longing in vain for 'the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table'. This is the only New Testament parable in which a character is given a name. The rich man is popularly called Dives, which is merely the Latin word for 'rich man'. - In the Middle ages, the poor man of the parable became a Saint, Saint Lazarus, the patron of beggars and lepers (known also as lazars). Medieval devotion indicated a poor house, opposite the fourth station of the Via Dolorosa, as the house of Lazarus. Further on to the south, the house that overspans a road was named the house of Dives, the rich man. The humorist Mark Twain remarks in his book 'Innocents Abroad'that both houses were close to each other in the same quarter.

St. Lazarus' Church. This church (1187) was outside the walls, between Damascus Gate and the now New Gate. The church belonged to the French Branch of St. Lazarus' Order. The site was before 1948 occupied by the Church of the Syrian-Catholics. After 1967 the site was transformed into a garden along the city-wall.

St. Lazarus' Church. This church was in 1187 outside the walls between Damascus Gate and the actual New Gate. The church belonged to the French Order of St. Lazarus. Before 1848 the site was occupied by the Church of the Syrian-Catholics. After 1967 the site was transformed in a park along the wall.

St. Lazarus' Order. The semi-military order of St. Lazarus possessed in Jerusalem the St. Stephen's Armenian monastery (on the slope of Mount Sion) as a hospital for lepers. In the past centuries the area of the lepers was called Dar-el-Masakin (House of the Poors). The hovels were dismantled and by 1850 were moved outside the walls. During the Crusades an Armenian Archbishop was in charge of the St. Lazarus' Order. The Order bears a green cross as its emblem.

Lazarus, the martyr, and his wife Salome and their seven children. They are venerated in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 8th day of Nahasse. Lazarus was one of the teachers of the Law of Moses, and his father was one of the 70 or 72 who translated the Book of the Law and the Prophets for Ptolemy 11 Philadelphus (283-246 BC), king of Egypt. The seven sons of Lazarus and of Salome were martyred by Antioch, king of Syria (= Antioch IV, Epiphanes, 175164 BC). Then Lazarus and his wife Salome were also martyred. (Compare Maccabeans)

Lazarus of Mount Galesion. (Greek liturgy, Nov 7) He was born in Magnesia in 967. He went to Jerusalem, became a monk and joined the monastery of St. Sabas. He was ordained a priest and he returned to the monastery of Orovai, from which he had started in 1005. He travelled from there to Mount Galesion near Colophon. He lived in a cave near the summit, where he built a church and later a monastery. He received support from the Emperor Constantine X, Monomachus. Lazarus died in 1053 in Galesion.

Lazes. These Georgians from Lazistan in South Russia founded at the end of the 5th century, the Convent of the Cross in Jerusalem. (Compare: Tatian, king of Georgia)

Leah, first wife of patriarch Jacob. She is named among the 'Just of the Old Testament' on the first Sunday of Advent in the Eastern Churches. Her cenotaph is venerated opposite that of her husband Jacob in the Haram el Khalil (the sanctuary at Hebron).

Lebbaeus. (John I4, 2; Matt. 10, 3) see: Thaddeus.

Lecomte Matthieu. This French Dominican Father was a friend of Alphonse Ratisbonne. Lecomte founded St. Stephen's Convent. He bought the site in 1882.

Lefèvre, Theo. He was born at Gent in 1914; he died in 1973. When he was Prime Minister of Belgium (1961-1965), the 'Fondation belge en Terre Sainte - Belgische Stichting in het Heilig Land' rented for 25 years the crypt under the church of the 4th Station, from the Armenian-Catholic Community. Lefèvre as Minister of Culture visited Jerusalem after the Six Days War.

Legates of Alexander, the bishop of Alexandria. They came to the bishops of Palestine in 317. (Epistola Alexandri) (AA.SS. Feb 26)

Legates of Emperor Theodosius. Were sent to Jerusalem, round 381. (Vita S. Heliodori, c. II, n. 10) (AA.SS. July 3)

Legates of St. Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis. Were sent circa 394 to John II, the bishop of Jerusalem. (Epistolae S. Epiphanii fragm., [at. vers.) (AA.SS. May 12) (Ferrarius, Vita S. Eusebii, c. IV, n. 20: March 5)

Legates of Emperor Theodosius the Younger. Were sent in 428 to Palestine. (AA.SS. Sept 10)

Legates of St. Gregory the Pope. They were sent to Mount Sinai in 591. (Vita S. Gregorii, auct. anonymo, c. III, n. 15) (AA.SS. March 12)

Legates of Carolus Magnus. Came to the Holy Land in the 8th century. (Eginh. Vita Karoli, c. VIII, n. 32) (AA.SS. Jan 28; Oct 8)

Lekotes, one of the shepherds (Luke 2, 8). Legend gives the names of Arnias and Lekotes. - Compare: Three shepherds.

Lemaire Paulin, Franciscan Father. He was born at Bieret-Tavigny (Belgium) on Sept 23, 1896. He was Director at Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem from 1932 to 1939. He died at Jerusalem on April 19, 1962. He was buried at Gethsemane.

Lemoine, Dominican Father (1918-1975). He conducted the excursions of Ecole Biblique, he died at Jerusalem.

Leo III. King of Armenia. He carried out repairs in 1286. (inscription on one of the pillars of the Church St. James in Jerusalem.)

Leo IV, King of Armenia. He presented in 1329 a Bible to the Armenian Church of St. George in Kerak (East Jordan). (Bogharian, Arch. Norair, Grand Catalogue of St. James' Manuscripts, vol VI, 1972, p. 190-195)

Leonardo. This Franciscan returned, together with St. Francis of Assisi, from Syria to Italy in 1220 (II Celano, Nr 31).

Leonori Aristides, architect. He visited the Holy Land and took measurements and photographs of the Holy Places. He erected a huge wooden Cross on the hilltop in Brookland near Washington, where today is situated the Franciscan Cemetery, directly behind the Monastery of the Holy Sepulchre. The wooden Cross has since been replaced by a massive Crucifixion group in granite. The Roman architect Leonori was engaged by Father Schilling Godfrey. The Mc Ceeney estate, on which the Monastery of the Holy Sepulchre stands; was acquired by the Franciscans in 1897.

Leontatian, king of the Georgians. He restored in 1644 the Monastery of the Cross (Deir-el-Musallabeh) in Jerusalem. The Georgians had recovered this monastery in 1305. (Compare: Lazes)

Leontius Cyprius. He wrote: Vita S. Johannis Eleemos., and mentions in the Chapters II and VI that the Persians overran Syria in 606, 608, and 614.

Leontius, bishop of Madaba, about 603.

Leontius, hegumen of the monastery of Nea in Jerusalem. (Pratum Spirituale, nr. 61) He was 45 years in the church of Nea. He is called 'Leontius of Cilicia'.

Leontius, martyr at Tripoli (Phoenicia). His feast is on June 18. Leontius was a disciple of the monk and martyr Publius. (Feast of Publius is on June 18). Leontius was martyred under Emperor Vespasian (69-79). Two servants, with the name Hypatus and Theodoulos, were ordered to arrest Leontius. But they converted during the process and were beheaded by the governor Adrianus. The commemoration of Hypatus and Theodoulos is on June 18.

Leontius, St. He is mentioned by the Greek Synaxaries, together with Anthimus and Euprepius, and on the same date (Oct 17) as Cosmas and Damian. Leontius (Leon) was, with Anthimus and Euprepius, one of the unmercenary saints of Arabia. Anthimus suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution (285-313).

Leontius of Cilicia, priest and hegumen at the Church Nea in Jerusalem.

Leontius' Church. The 'Commemoratorium de casis Dei' of 808 mentions: in the valley of Josaphat in St. Leontius. - Bernard the Monk in his Itinerarium (of 870) mentions: in the valley of Josaphat is a church of St. Leontius, where the Lord is expected to return for the judgment.

Leontius of Neapolis. He has written the life of Symeon Salus (the Fool) (BHG, 1677), The feast of Symeon Salus in on July 21.

Leontius II, Greek-Orthodox patriarch of Jerusalem from 1170 to 1190. He was born in Tiberioupolis. He joined the monastic life in Constantinople; later he went to Patmos, to Cyprus and to Crete. He was consecrated Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1170. Later he became the hegumen (hegumenos, superior, leader) of the monastery of St. John the Theologian in Patmos. He died in 1190.

Leopard Belluci. He was born in 1881 at Osimo (Italy); in 1918 he became a missionary in the Custody. He worked in the Franciscan College of Aleppo. On a journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, he was murdered by Arabs in the railway-station of Kherbet Ghazale, Syria, on Aug 20, 1920.

Leopold of Austria. As a crusader he came to Acre in 1217, together with Andrew, king of Hungary.

Leopold, Duke of Brabant (the later King Leopold II of Belgium, 1865-1909). He was born at Brussel in 1835. He married in 1853 the archduchess Marie Henriette of Austria. He visited in 1854 Italy, Austria, Egypt, the Near East. In 1855 he was in the Holy Land. He returned via Greece, Sicily and the Pontifical States. Leopold, together with his wife, was in 1855 the first European traveller to visit publicly the Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem. It was on Holy Saturday, April 7. In 1869 the Duke of Brabant went to Constantinople to meet the Sultan. He returned over Greece. He went again to Egypt, where the digging of the Canal of Suez made on him a deep impression. (Compare Mislin)

Lepers, healed by Jesus. Ten lepers were healed by Jesus (Luke 17, 11-19) 'as He passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee'. One was a Samaritan. Only he returned and gave glory to God. According to a tradition, it was at Engannin (now Jenin) that Jesus healed the ten lepers. Near Jenin is the village of Burkin, which claims the honour of the miracle. Burkin is on the left side of the way Jenin to Haifa.

Lequeux M. of the~French Consulate. He opened on Nov 1, 1851 the French Hospital (of St. Louis), north of the walls. Patriarch Valerga took it over in 1852 with the help of the French Sisters of St. Joseph of the Apparition. - Hôpital St. Louis in Jaffa was opened in 1877; the Hôpital Français in Nazareth in 1887.

Lercaro, Cardinal, archbishop of Bologna. Visited Jerusalem July 4, 1964.

Lesseps (de) Ferdinand. (1805-1894). This French engineer visited Jerusalem in 1861. He came from his work at the digging of the Suez-canal, he had passed the desert of El-Arish in a four-wheeled carriage drawn by camels. Then they had continued by dromedary and afterwards by horses to Jerusalem. This visit was between January and March 1861 (Mrs Finn, Reminiscences p. 227). Lesseps passed again in Jerusalem in 1866. He arrived there on March 25, 1866; he was at the Casa Nova of the Franciscans in Jerusalem. On April 1, 1886 he departed for Nazareth. He had as guide the Belgian lay brother, Liévin of Hamme, for his trip to Nazareth.

Leucius: Tradition believes that Leucius lived in the days of the Apostles, and that he wrote the apocryphal work 'Gesta Apostolorum' wherein he mentioned the death of the Holy Virgin (Moraldi, Apocryphes du Nouveau Testament, p. 870).

Levi. Levi in Mk 2, 14 and Lk 5, 27 is another name of Matthew.

Levi. He appears in the Lucan genealogy of Jesus (Lk 3, 24, 29)

Levi, Saint, 12th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd cent. (AA.SS. March 1)

Lewenstein: see Loewenstein.

Lewis, Francis Clerk. Among the 25000 pilgrims who came to Bethlehem at Christmas 1976 was the Londoner, Francis Clark Lewis. In 16 months he walked from London to Bethlehem, through Turkey, Syria and Jordan.

Lewis. He interpreted the papyri that were found by Colt H. D. at Nitzana in 1935.

Liberatus of Tiser (Italy), lay brother. He was born in 1858. In 1892 he entered the Franciscan Order at Jerusalem. He acted as sacristan in the basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem. There on October 26, 1893, around 4,30 p. m. a watchman of Montenegro, who was in the service of the Turkish authorities, accompanied two Russian pilgrims to the Grotto of Nativity. The sacristan Liberatus asked the watchman to leave the place, because he needed to fill the oil-lamps for the daily procession of the Franciscans. The watchman hesitated, and stood. Oil of a lamp now spoiled his uniform. The watchman killed the sacristan with a pistol.

Lietbertus, St. Carneracensis. (Cambrai in France) He was in Palestine, 1054-1056. (Radulphus, mon. S. Sepulchri Cam., Vita S. Lietb., c. IV-V, n. 27-41) (AA.SS. June 23)

Liévin de Hamme, Colleman. He was born at Hamme (Flanders) in 1822. His brother served (round 1860-1870) as papal zouave-soldier. Liévin died at Jerusalem on Sept 23, 1898. He guided Lesseps in 1866. He helped in the discovery of the cubical stone of Bethphage in 1876 and in acquiring the site in 1880. In 1869 appeared at Jerusalem his 'Guide Indicateur des Lieux saints'. It was in one volume of 698 pages. In 1876 was published at Leuven (Belgium) the 2nd edition in 3 volumes. (Terre Sainte, 1969, p. 322-328)

Linköping (Sweden). Pilgrims of Linköping came to Palestine in 1372. (Bertholdus, Vita S. Brigittae, 1, 111, c. 3) (AA.SS. Oct 8)

Linus. One of the 70 disciples, according to the Greek list. Bishop of Rome, pope after Peter. In the Roman Martyrology his feast is on Sept 23.

Lion's Cave. Near Birket Mamillah, the traveller Bernard (870) mentions a church Saint Mamilia. The church was built over a grotto. In this grotto bodies of the victims of the Persian invasion of 614 were buried. According to a legend a lion has brought the bodies of the slain in this grotto. The grotto is on the west side of Birket Mamillah.

Lions' Gate. The Stephen's Gate to the east of the city is called in the Hebrew language Lions' Gate. Indeed on both sides above the doors is sculpted a pair of lions. Perhaps the lions are related to Baybars, who conquered Jerusalem and inaugurated the Mamluk dominion (1260-1517) over Palestine. Baybars had in his armour a lion. - According to legend Sultan Suleiman II - he rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem in 1539-1542 - dreamt that lions would attack the city from the desert, i.e. from the eastside. Therefore he ornamented the east Gate (Stephen's Gate) with four sculpted lions in high relief. The four lions should appease the attacking lions.

Lions as Guards. Emperor Decius (249-251) brought lions to Palestine, to defend the eastern frontier against Arab invaders from the desert.

Lisbon. A small fleet, consisting of Germans, Flemings and English, setting sail from Dartmouth on May 25, 1147 took Lisbon from the Moors in their passage to the Holy Land, in the 2nd Crusade. (Analecta Bollandiana, 1, 273)

Lithgow William. He visited Jerusalem in 1612. He always travelled on foot. He published in 1632 'The totall discourse of the rare adventures and paineful peregrinations of William Lithgow'. Paineful refers to the tattooing of pilgrims in Jerusalem.

Lochner (1435). This traveller mentions the Veronica-episode.

Loebe Paul, president of the German Reichstag. He was a passenger in the first passage of the Graf Zeppelin dirigible over Jerusalem at the end of March 1929. The dirigible arrived on Tuesday, March 26, and departed on Holy Saturday, March 30, 1929.

Löwenstein Albertus, Count. His name is inscribed in 'Navis Peregrinorum: ein Pilgerverzeichnis aus Jerusalem von 1561 bis 1695' on Aug 23, 1561. He is mentioned together as Baro (baron) in Scharffenneck. Rohrscheidt relates: Graf Albrecht zu Löwenstein started on March 30, 1561. He was back on Aug 16, 1562. The journey of Löwenstein appeared in Reissbuch 1584, 188a-212a.

Longinus, monk, 5th century. He was a compatriot of Theodosius Coenobiarchos of Cappadocia. Longinus spent some time with Theodosius in the monastery of the Tower of David at the Jaffa Gate.

Longinus, the soldier or the centurion. He pierced the Lord Jesus with a spear. He was standing with the guards when the tomb was sealed, he was filled with surprise when the Lord rose. Longinus was converted by the Apostle Peter; he departed to the country of Cappadocia and he preached the Lord, like the Apostles did. When Pilate heard about this, he was exceedingly wroth, and reported him to Tiberius, and this emperor cut off his head, and sent it to Pilate in Jerusalem as a proof that he had been beheaded. Salutation to Longinus. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, 23th of the month Hamle). - The Greek liturgy venerates Longinus on Oct 16. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem has his feast on March 15. The Georgian calendar mentions him on Feb 11, April 24, July 17, Sept 10, Oct 15.

Chapel of Longinus. In the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, in its northern ambulatory, the Greek Orthodox have a chapel of St. Longinus. Right of it is the Armenian chapel of the Division of the Raiment. And to the right of this Armenian chapel a staircase descends to the Armenian Church of St. Helen and to the Latin Chapel of the Finding of the Cross.

L(ondon) J(ews) S(ociety). It began in 1820 or 1823. It built in Jerusalem the Christ's Church inside Jaffa Gate in 1849. This was the first totally new church to be built in the Holy Land. The church of the Latin Patriarchate (the patriarchate was reconstituted in 1847) was consecrated in 1872. The London Jews Society built houses in the Old City in the Street of the Jews.

Lopez: see Francis Trifon Lopez (died 1857).

Lopez Diego. After the death of his father, Lopez was obliged to leave his homeland Portugal. He sought shelter in the Holy Land. He died in Jerusalem from the plague on Aug 15, 1670, after a life of penitence.

Lot, the Just. He was the nephew of Abraham. Because of his hospitality toward the two heavenly messengers, Lot was spared with his family from the destruction of Sodom (Gen 19, 1-26). Georgian and Greek liturgies have the feast of Abraham and Lot on Oct 9. -At the east end of the village of Caphar Barucha (now Beni Naim, about 6 kms east of Hebron) is a mosque built over the ruins over the Byzantine church. In the centre courtyard of the mosque stands the supposed Tomb of Lot, Cabr L0t. Yet the common opinion is that the tomb of Lot in Beni Naim is the tomb of just another Moslem saint. According to tradition, Lot was buried in Segor (in Hebrew Soar), which lies on the southwestern point of the Dead Sea. John of Würzburg (1165) visited the tomb of Lot at Caphar Barucha.

Lot, church of SS. Lot and Procopius. This church is in El-Mukkayyet, near Mount Nebo, in the lower part of Khirbet Al Mukhayyet (the little needle). On the higher part of the site are the remains of a church which was dedicated to St. George.

Lotharingia (partly Lorraine, France). A noble lady of Lotharingia came to Palestine round 1225. (Nicoiaus Cantipr., Supplementum ad Vitam B. Mariae Oigniac., c. III, n. 18) (AA.SS. June 23)

Lotharius, patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, 1216-1225. (AA.SS.)

Loti Pierre, French writer (1850-1923). His description of Jerusalem is made from the terrace of the Convent Sisters of Sion near the Arch Ecce Home in Via Dolorosa.

Louis of Ospedaletto. He was born in the Kingdom of Naples in 1226. In the Holy Land he was Superior of the Franciscan Hospice of Ramleh (1666) and of the Convent of Nazareth (1669). He died in Jerusalem from the plague on Aug 18, 1670.

Louis IXth, King of France, St. He reigned from 1226 to 1270. His feast is on Aug 25. Louis took the cross during an illness in 1244. He tried to reconcile Pope Innocent IV and the Emperor Frederick II, who was excommunicated in 1245, but Pope Innocent refused. Louis started for the Crusade in August 1248. The crusaders surprised the city of Damietta in June 1249. Louis advanced on Cairo, but the army was cut off from Damietta. Louis negotiated the release of his whole army for the surrender of Damietta and the payment of a ransom. He went to Acre to await the completion of the treaty and he remained in Syria for 4 years. Louis himself recognized that he, unaided, could achieve nothing more, and he returned to France in 1254. During the 1260's, Louis became disturbed by Moslem advances in Syria, and announced his intention to lead another crusade in 1267. Louis' brother, Charles of Anjou, diverted Louis' crusade to Tunis. The French army was depleted by disease within a month of landing, and Louis himself died on Aug 26, 1270. The crusaders returned promptly to France, carrying Louis' bones. - Louis built the Sainte Chapelle at Paris as a shrine for the Crown of Thorns. An the courtyard of the Franciscan monastery of St. Peter at Jaffa is a statue of St. Louis. Louis stayed in Jaffa in 1252.

Louis (Frère) of Marseilles and Frère Antoine, servants of God. Louis was a gardener, he arrived in the Holy Land in 1617. After two years he died in Jerusalem in 1619. Antoine lived in the same convent of St. Saviour as a door-keeper, during more than 20 years.

Louis IV. He was a son of Herman I, landgrave of Thuringia. Louis married Elizabeth of Hungary (Saint), who was at the moment of her marriage 14 years. Louis IV died as a crusader at Brindisi in 1227 on Emperor Frederick Ws crusade.

Louis Canali of Parma. After the 8th Eucharistic Congress which lasted from May 13 to May 22, 1893, he came to Jerusalem on June 1, 1893. He was the first General Superior of the Franciscans to visit the Holy Land. A statue in stone in the pare which is inside St. Saviour's Convent remembers his visit.

Louis Philippe (Phélippiaux). This French royalist was at Brienne a classmate of Napoléon. He was familiar with the siege-technique which was used by Napoléon against Acre. Louis Philippe helped the defenders of Acre in 1799, against Napoléon.

Loupias Marle Odile. She was of French origin. She, together with Jeanne Bidaud, decorated in 1953 the Chapel of the 6th Station (Veronica wipes the face of Christ). The Little Sisters of Jesus (Foucauld Sisters) take care of this sanctuary.

Lowie José. Died at Brugge 1979. He was archimandrite of Galilee.

Lucas, abbas Carbonensis in Calabria. He came to Palestine in 1059. (AA.SS. April 2)

Lucia, virgin, Poor Clare. Together with sisters of the same Order, martyred by the Mamluks in 1289 in Tripoli, Lebanon.

Lucian (Lucius) of Tripoli. Not identified, perhaps Lucianus (Lucius) of Baalbek (Lebanon).

Luciani, Pope John Paul I. This Patriarch of Venice became the successor of Pope Paul VI on Aug 26, 1978. He adopted the double name of Pope John Paul I. He died after 6 weeks of rule, on Thursday evening, Sept 28, 1978. - On Tuesday, Oct 3, 1978 the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Beltritti, held a Latin funeral service before the Edicule in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. On Wednesday Oct 4, 1978 (feast of St. Francis) there was at Rome the burial service. - Luciani had visited the Holy Land.

Lucianus, St. (Lucius). He suffered martyrdom in Baalbek (Heliopolis) in Lebanon. Bishop Codratus of Heliopolis built a church in honour of St. Lucianus on the site of the martyrdom. The date of the martyrdom was August 22. On this date the Georgian Liturgy has the commemoration.

Lucianus, priest. This priest in Antioch suffered martyrdom under Diocletian (285-313). Lucianus mentioned before his judge the cleft in Golgotha. The Greek Synaxaries have his feast on Oct 15; the Georgian calendar on Oct 14; the Syriac calendar on Jan 7. The date of January 7 is confirmed by the panegyric that was spoken by St. John Chrysostom (BHG 998). The Roman Martyrology has his feast on Jan 7. It mentions that the priest Lucianus of Antioch was martyred in Nicomedia, under the persecution of Galerius Maximian (305-311), and buried in Helenopolis in Bithynia.

Lucianus, Metrobius, Paulus, Zenobius, Theotimus, Drusus and companions. Without year, Dec 24, martyrs in Tripoli (Phoenicia). (AA.SS.) In many martyrologies in June, or in Nov. (Analecta Boll. 1, 48; 11, 34)

Lucifer of Cagliari. Bishop at Eleutheropolis, 4th century.

Lucios (Lucius) (Loukios). One of the 70 disciples, bishop of Laodicea in the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology has the feast on April 22: Apelles and Lucius, of the first disciples of Christ, in Smyrna.

Lucius, St., of Cyrene in Libya, Martyr. He is sometimes identified with Lucianus, the martyr of Baalbek in Phoenicia. - Lucius of Cyrene is remembered in Greek Synaxaries on Aug 22, the same date as is accorded by Georgian liturgy for Lucianus of Baalbek.

Ludanus of Scotland, St. He came to Palestine in the 12th century. (AA.SS. Feb 12)

Ludolphe of Sudheim. He found in 1336 the Chapel Dominus Flevit at Jerusalem in ruin,

Ludolphe the Carthusian (died 1370). He places the Meeting of the Lamenting Daughters of Jerusalem (presently the 8th Station) at the site where Jesus received the help of Simon (presently the 5th Station). - Probably to be identified with Ludolphe of Sudheim.

Ludolphus of Westiphalla. He was the leader of the crusaders of Loon and Limburg. (Compare: Gerbert of Wintershoven)

Ludovicus, landgrave of Thuringia. In 1191 the started for the third crusade (1189-1192). He is mentioned in AA.SS. on Sept 11 and Nov 19. (Compare: Louis IV)

Luigi Esparza, Franciscan. He came from Spain. During 25 years he worked in the Custody of the Holy Land. He witnessed the fire that in 1808 destroyed the big cupola and the rotunda above the Holy Sepulchre. He died at Nazareth on Aug 31, 1825.

Luke, St., evangelist. St. Luke is called by St. Paul, 'our most dear physician' (Col 4, 14). In 2 Tim 4, 11 Luke is Paul's only companion shortly before the Apostle's death. - Early Christian tradition identifies Luke as the author of the third Gospel and the Acts. Luke was a Greek-speaking convert of pagan origin. He was not himself an eyewitness of what he writes (Lk 1, 2) and, therefore, not one of the 72 disciples (Lk 10, 1), nor Cleophas' unnamed companion on the way to Emmaus (Lk 24, 8). Luke first met St. Paul at Troas (Acts 16, 10), rejoined him at Philippi some years later, accompanied him to Jerusalem (Acts 21, 1-8) and remained with Paul during his imprisonment in Caesarea in Palestine and Rome (Acts 27, 1; 28, 16). According to tradition, Luke never married, and he lived to the age of 84. He died in Achaia (or Bithynia, or Egypt). His feast is on Oct 18 in Mart. Romanum. - An ancient painting of the Blessed Virgin hangs against the southern wall of the church in the Syrian-Orthodox Convent of St. Mark in Jerusalem. Theodore of Constantinople (6th century) is the first to attribute this painting to St. Luke. In Christian iconography St. Luke is portrayed either as a man, or a writer, or a bull. The bull is the third symbolic animal that was seen in the vision of Prophet Ezechiel (1, 10). The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four Gospels. The Gospel of Luke begins with the Old Testament, in which the bull was the main sacrificial animal.

Luke, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Laodicea (Asia), in the Greek list. He is not mentioned in the Roman martyrology.

Luke, brother of Marinus and disciple of St. Euthymius. Luke built after 411, a monastery in Metopa, south of Jerusalem. There was on June 14 the commemoration of three Egyptian martyrs: Aretis, Poromotus, Elijah, who were martyred in Ascalon.

Lull Raymond, Blessed. He was born in Majorca round 1235. He died, probably in Tunis, in 1316. The Franciscan Order has his feast on July 3. His cult was confirmed by Plus ]X in 1858. He never took Holy Orders. According to tradition he joined the Third Order of St. Francis. - Lull wrote several books on philosophy and mysticism. He persuaded King James 11 of Majorca to establish a school for Oriental languages. Lull's journeys included visits to Tunis in 1282, 1292 and 1316. According to pious legend, he suffered martyrdom by stoning in 1316. Perhaps he visited the Holy Land in 1302.

Lulu el-Hajeb. This Armenian chief of the naval forces of Saladin defeated in 118211183 the ships of Renald de Châtillon in the Red Sea before the battle of Hattin (1197).

Lunghi. see: Charles Lunghi (died 1849).

Lupus, St., Martyr. Together with Saturninus, in 303, at Caesarea, Palestine. (Memory Oct 14 in Mart. Roman.)


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