A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Gabra Manfas Kedus, see Abba Gabra.

Gabriel, the Archangel.
March 25. Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible. He is one of the seven archangels in the Book of Enoch (= apocryphal book), probably one of the seven who stand before God (Tobit 12, 15; Luke 1, 19). Gabriel announced the birth of John the Baptist to Zachary (Luke 1, 19) and the conception, birth and mission of Jesus to Mary in Nazareth. (Luke 1, 26-28) - Over the FOUNTAIN OF THE VIRGIN is built the Church of St. Gabriel. The apocryphal Gospel of James tells: 'When the Virgin took the pitcher and went to draw water, behold a voice said to her: Hail Mary, full of grace. Mary saw no one; but going into her house, while she was spinning purple wool, the angel appeared and said to her: Fear not, Mary, etc... '. In 1787 the Greek Orthodox built the present church. In the crypt under the altar there is a well with the words of the salutation of the angel Gabriel. This well (=shaft) is fed by a spring which is in the slope of the mountain above the Church of St. Gabriel. Greek and Georgian Synaxaries sometimes have the Archangel Gabriel on July 13.

Gabriel, hegumenos. His hermitage was in Wadi er Rababe, which is east of the Mount of Olives. The hermitage was separated by a valley from the Church of St. Peter.

Gabriel, Saint, abbas S. Stephani Hierosol. He died round 490. His feast is on Jan 26 (AA.SS.)

Gabriel, Saint. He lived in the monastery of St. Euthyme (= Khan el Ahmar). He died in 499.

Gabriel Cornelius, servant of God. He was born in the town of Le Mans, France. In 1625 this Franciscan went to the Holy Land. In Jerusalem he was the friend and the counsellor of the venerable Father Quaresmius. Gabriel was appointed to the Latin parish of Alexandretta, Syria. He died in Aleppo in 1627.

Gaetano Potesta, servant of God. Born in Palermo (Italy) in 1654. He was Custos of the Holy Land between 1706 and 1708. At the end of 1708 he was obliged to return to Italy. There he declined a bishopric. He died in 1738.

Gaianus, 21st bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd century. (AA.SS.)

Gainos. Gainos, Stephen and Andrew were three Armenian brothers from Melitene. They were received by St. Sabas in his laura. The three brothers attained the rank of bishop: Gainos was appointed as bishop of Madaba; Andrew as hegumen of the martyrium of Saint Menas, (a chapel within the Armenian Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem); and Stephen as bishop of Jamnia.

Gaitana. She came to Palestine in 1169, together with St. Bona and with Massaia (AA.SS. May 29).

Gajus, apostle, one of the 70 disciples. The Menologium of Basilius II (11th century) mentions on Nov 4, five of the 70 disciples: Hermas, Linus, Philologus, Patrobas, and Gajus. Gajus is named a disciple of St. Timotheus. - See also Cajus.

Gajus, 23rd bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd century (AA.SS.).

Galila = Ethiopian name of Galilee.

Galla Placidia. Round 423 she visited Palestine (falsum). (AA.SS. May 4).

Galaup Jean, (1909-1974) French Lazariste. The French Lazarists Fathers replaced in 1958 the French Benedictines in the Crusader Church at Abu Ghosh. Father Galaup was buried on Saturday, June 29, 1974, on the cemetery of the Soeurs de Saint Vincent (Filles de la Charité), Jaffa Street, Jerusalem.

Gamaliel Rabban Ha-Zaken, 'the Elder', St. The Mart. Rom. has his feast on Aug 3. He was a grandson of Hillel, he lived in the first half of the first century. He was a teacher of St. Paul (Acts 22, 3). Paul probably studied under Gamaliel for the usual three or four years. Gamaliel was a member of the council which passed judgment on St. Peter and the apostles for teaching the gospel, and he advised the council to take no positive action, on the ground that the movement would collapse of itself if it were from men, but if it were from God they would be wrong in opposing it. (Acts 5, 34-39) Tradition tells that the tomb of Gamaliel was discovered in 415 in the village of Kafargamala (village of Gamaliel?). The Martyrologium Romanum calls Gamaliel 'Saint'.

Garello Giuseppe, Don. He was born in 1869 in Italy. He came as a priest to the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, he was the parish priest of AjIoun in East Jordan, and was killed in AjIoun in 1902.

Gariador. He was the Benedictin superior on Mount of Olives from Nov 24, 1907 to December 1914. Since 1903 there was on Mount of Scandal, which is a part of Mount of Olives, the Syrian Catholic Junior Seminary. It was directed by Benedictine Fathers.

Garin de Montaigu (France), Grand Master of the Hospitalers. Pope Honorius III and Emperor Frederick II invited John of Brienne to return to Italy for a consultation about the Holy Land. John of Brienne entrusted the 'Kingdom of Acre' to Eude de Montbéliard and embarked with legate Pelagius, with the patriarch Raoul, with Garin of Montaigu, grand master of the Hospitalers, and with Guillaume Cadel, the master of the Knights Templars. At the end of October 1222 the four landed at Brindisi.

Garrone, Gabriel, Cardinal. He consecrated the Basilica of the Annunciation at Nazareth, on Sunday, March 23, 1969.

Garstrang. He excavated in 1920 at Ascalon, and in 1928 at Tell Hazor. He was the Director of the British School of Archaeology at Jerusalem in 1929-1936.

Gaspar of Barge, Blessed. The Franciscan Martyrology (April 4) says that he was born in Barga (Toscana) and that he lived on Mount Sion. He died in Firenze, Italy, probably in the middle of the 15th century (round 1450).

Gate of the Field of the Fuller (Porta VIIIae Fullonis). Arculphus (round 670) mentions this gate to the north of Mount Sion. - Fabri (1483) visits this field, near the cemetery of the Saracens, where is the Pool Mamillah.

Gatt George, Don. This priest of Austria belonged to the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. He founded in 1879 the parish in Gaza.

Gatti Giuseppe, Don. (1839-1887) This priest came to the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1862, and was missionar at Salt in East Jordan.

Gaudentius Brixiensis, St., (Gaudentius of Brescia). He visited the Holy Land round 386-390. (AA.SS. Oct 25, Sept 14, March 10). The dates of his birth, of his episcopal consecration, and of his death are unknown. The main source for his life is his own Sermo de ordinatione sua. He was, round 386-390, on a journey to the East when he received the news that he had been chosen bishop of Brixia (Brescia) to succeed Filastrius. (died 397) Despite his opposition to the nomination, he was finally persuaded by St. Ambrose and other northern Italian bishops to accept the see. Gaudentius was one of the Latin bishops who were requested by Emperor Honorius and by Pope Innocent 1 to go (404-405) to Constantinople to plead with the Emperor Arcadius (383-408) for the return of St. John Chrysostom from exile, but this mission failed.

Gaudentius Novariensis, Saint (Gaudentius, bishop of Novara). Eusebius, bishop of Vercelli, and Gaudentius, bishop of Novara, visited the Holy Land round 355-359 (?). (AA.SS. May 9) Gaudentius was in Scythopolis in 355(?) and met there the exiled Eusebius of Emesa. The Mart. Rom. remembers Gaudentius on Jan 22.

Gauer Bernard. He executed the mosaics in the Upper Church of the Dormition Abbey on Mount Sion.

Gauffier, a Frankish knight. When the Jacobite Syrian monks in Jerusalem had a law suit against Gauffier, who had been in captivity during 20 years and claimed his right on the property of EI Adesijeh (House of Herod), Queen Melisend (1131-1151) gave her personal support to the Jacobite Syrians.

Gaul, Matrons. The AA.SS. on June 24 mention matrons of Gaul, in the year 31, in Palestine.

Gauthier Paul. He founded in Nazareth the Fraternité des Compagnons de Jésus Charpentier, and Compagnes de Jésus Charpentier de Nazareth. He formed a cooperative and built houses at Nazareth. The Fraternité built workers' quarters at Belt Sahur and at Bethlehem. Gauthier left the Holy Land in 1967, after the Six Days War of June 1967.

Gautier d'Avesnes. This Flemish baron contributed in 1218 with 1000 besants towards the construction of Château Pèlerin (Athlit). This fortress fell to the Moslems in 1291, but after the fall of Acre.

Gautier III of Brienne sur Aube (France). He was king of Sicily, he was duke of Apulia by his wife. His wife was Mary, called Alberie, queen of Sicily and eldest daughter of Tancred the Bâtard, who was king of Sicily. Gautier III was famous at the battle (118811189) for the reconquest (1191) of Acre. In 1202 Gautier of Brienne, prince of Tarente, was asked by the Pope Innocent lit to battle for the papal power. He died from a wound that he received at the castle of Sarno, in Apulia, in 1205. It was Gautier III, in whose army Francis of Assisi (born 1182) planned to battle. Gautier III and his wife Mary had as son Gautier IV.

Gautier IV of Brienne. He was count from 1221 to 1241. Gautier IV was the husband of Mary of Cyprus, daughter of Hugues I, king of Cyprus. Gautier was taken prisoner at the battle near Gaza (Oct 17, 1244). He was also ' Count of Jaffa. He declined to incite the defenders of Jaffa to capitulate. He was abducted to Cairo. During his captivity in Cairo, he killed in a quarrel an Egyptian emir with a chessboard. Therefore Gautier was murdered in the prison, probably before 1252.

Gautier, surnamed Mahomet. He had received from King Baldwin I the lordship over Hebron, after the death of Roger of Caiffa.

Gaza. Martyrs in Gaza in 362 under Julian the Apostate are mentioned in the Melkite liturgy on March 29. - In 402 anonymous men were sent by Empress Eudoxia to bring columns for the church at Gaza. - Sixty defending soldiers of Gaza were beheaded by the Moslems at the beginning of the 7th century, after an imprisonment of 30 days. Their memory in Rom. Mart. on December 17. -The Khwaresmians plundered Gaza after the battle of 1244. - Napoleon took Gaza in 1799. - Gaza on the Mediterranean coast was the centre of the German-Turkish defensive against the British army in 1917.

Gedeon (Gideon). He was a 'major' judge from the western tribe Manasses. He saved Israel round 1070 BC. At the waters of Ein Harod, Gedeon collected his people to fight the Midianites. Ein Harod is in the valley of Jezreel, north of the way from Afula to Beit-Shean. The spring feeds the rivulet Nahr Harod, at the foot of the Mountains Gilboa of Lower Galilee. The story of Gedeon is told in Judges 6, 1-8, 28. - The Mart. Rom. commemorates Gedeon, together with Joshua, on Sept 1. The Eastern Church has the feast of Gedeon on Sept 26; the Ethiopians on Dec 12, and on Takhshash 15. (= the fourth month).

Geissler Egidius, of Salzburg (Austria). This Franciscan Father was parish priest at Cana, during 22 years. The Latin Church was rebuilt in 1879 in a great haste on account of the opposition of the Greek Orthodox community. The Latin Church is over a sanctuary of the 6th century.

Gelasius Mimus of Heliopolis in Egypt. He belonged to a group of mimics from Libya. Instead of a mimicked baptism on the theatre, he accepted a real baptism. Therefore he was stoned to death by the spectators in Heliopolis (Egypt). - Perhaps to be identified with Genesius of Rome. Gelasius is venerated on Feb 27.

Genoveva, St., (of Paris). Barn round 422, died round 502. Round 450, merchants made possible an exchange of letters between St. Genoveva of Paris and St. Simeon the Stylite of Syria. (Vita S. Genovevae, c. VI, n. 26) (AA.SS. Jan 3)

Gentil of Matelica, Blessed. On his journey from Egypt to Persia, he probably visited the Holy Land. He was martyred in Tauris, Persia, in 1340. The Franciscan Martyrology has his feast on September 5.

George of Albania, Blessed. As a young man he joined the army of Francis Sforza in Italy. After a sermon of St. James of the Marches, George entered the Franciscan Order. He lived 50 years in the convent. Then he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He returned to Italy and died in the convent of Muro, round 1500. The Mart. Franciscanum venerates him on June 13.

George of Choziba. He was born in the latter part of the 6th century in Cyprus. He intended to join the monastery of Calamon in the plain of Jericho, where Heraclius, his brother, lived. Since George was still without beard, it means too young for the strenuous desert life, he was rejected by the hegumenos and sent to the Wadi Qilt. During the Persian invasion of 614, many of the monks fled from Wadi Qilt. George was captured by the Persians, but he was left unharmed. He died in the monastery in 620. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Jan 8. His 'Life' (Greek, with Latin translation) is contained in Analecta Bollandiana.

George of Cyprus. He left Cyprus for Ptolemais (Acre), where he was compelled to embrace Islam. Upon his refusal, he was stoned and beheaded on April 23, 1752. On April 13, 1967 his relics were transferred from Acre to Nicosia, Cyprus, where they repose in the Cathedral of St. John. Greek liturgy venerates George on April 23.

George, St, monk Salos (=fool). Not identified. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his name on Aug 15.

George of Jerusalem, St., Patriarch. He was the successor of patriarch Elias II (787-797). Elias II occupied the see of Jerusalem when 20 monks of Mar Saba were killed on March 19, 797. George of Jerusalem died in 807. Only in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar he is listed as a Saint, on April 7.

George of Lydda (Lod). He was born in Cappadocia, he became a soldier of the Roman army. In Silene in Libya, he rescued a maiden from a dragon. This fact led to the baptism of thousands of pagans, including Alexandra, the wife of Diocletian. Eventually George fell victim of Diocletian's persecution, and he was beheaded at Nicomedia. According to other traditions, George suffered martyrdom in Lydda in 303. The Roman Martyrology and the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem have his feast on April 23. The Greek church on April 23. In Lydda a tomb of George is venerated. On Nov 3 the Greek liturgy has the Dedication of the Church of St. George in Lydda, under Constantine the Great, with the deposit of relics of St. George. The Copts venerate St. George on April 18. The Ethiopian Synaxarium reads on Nahasse 16: On this day took place the transfer of the body of St. George from the country of Persia to the church of Lydda. This transfer took place at the same time as the translation (= assumption) of Our Lady Mary, and therefore those who love Mary, paint his picture with Her picture, so that it may be a port of salvation for these who pray in his name.

St. George and Abu-Gosh. During the French-German war of 1870-71, the Greek Orthodox community claimed against the Franciscans that the Church of St George at Lydda belonged to the Greek, and not to the Latin community, because the church had belonged to the Greek community before the Crusades. By an arrangement between the French government and the Ottoman government in Constantinople, the Franciscans were obliged to drop their claims, and the French government received from the Ottoman rulers the Crusaders' Church of Abu Ghosh.

St. George and Bethlehem. St. George is painted on a column of the central nave in the Basilica of Nativity in Bethlehem (painted round 1130). He is represented as a Roman soldier, without horse and without dragon. His head bears locks of wool, the short tunic is decorated with pearls. (Hamilton, The Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem, 1947, p. 77) - An icon of St. George on horseback killing the dragon, hangs on the inside face of the wooden door of the Basilica. Greek Orthodox women bow towards his icon, making the sign of the cross. -There is also a chapel in honour of George in the south-east angle of the Basilica.

St. George and El-Khader convent. On the highway Bethlehem-Hebron, 5 kms south of Bethlehem, there is on the right side a valley with the village EI Khader (= the evergreen). By this name the Arabs designate St. George. An arch on the right side of the road with a plaque of St. George, opens the street that leads to the Muslim village. This village has a Greek Orthodox Church of St. George, in which the insane used to be tied to pillars by the so-called chains of St. George. On the arch is a relief of St. George. The arch has the inscription in Arabic, Greek and Turkish: 'This road was built for the Convent of St. George in the year 1910. '-When children became sick, the parents pronounce the vow not to cut the hairlocks of the children for two or three years. Such 'vowed' children are named 'nidir'. At the expiration of the vow, on one of the two oriental feasts of St. George, April 23 or November 3, the parents bring the healed child to the Convent of St. George and they offer a wax-candle of the same length as the child. The hairlocks are cut, weighed, and a number of coins, corresponding with the hair weight, is offered. The parents offer also an animal in honour of St. Georges. They present it to the Greek monk. He gives it back in the name of the Saint. The father of the family cuts an ear of the animal 'he makes that the blood runs'. Then the animal, generally a sheep, is killed and consumed by the family.

St. George and Taybeh. St Georges is venerated in Taybeh, the Biblical Ephraim, the city near the desert, to which Jesus retired (John II, 54). To the east of the village, on a hill is El Khader, St. George, with the ruins of a Crusader Church, which stands on a Byzantine one of the 6th century. The apse of the Byzantine Church is still visible. In the ruins, people kill animals as a sacrifice and apply the blood to the walls and make crosses with blood. The name E Khader is applied equally to St. George and to the Prophet Elias.

St. George's Cathedral in Jerusalem. About 700 m. north of Damascus Gate, on both sides of the Nablus Road is the St. George's Compound. it belongs to the Anglicans. Right of the Nablus Road is St. George's Boys' School. On the same side is the House of the Anglican Archbishop. In the courtyard is St. George's Cathedral. It was consecrated in 1898. Left of the Nablus Road, opposite the courtyard is St. George's College.

St. George's Knights. The AA.SS. on April 23 mention the order of St. George, which was founded by Pseudo-Comnenus in the 11th century.

George, hegumenos. The Greek inscription in the mosaic of the Monastery of Lady Mary in Beisan mentions: The whole work of laying the mosaic was completed in the time of the priest and hegumenos George and of the deuterarius Comitas. - (The monastery was built about 567).

George of Nicomedia, archmartyr. One tradition informs us that George, the archmartyr, who was born in Cappadocia, was martyred in Nicomedia under Diocletian (284-313). According to another tradition, the beheading was at Lydda in Palestine in 303.

George of Sinai. He was a monk at Sinai in the 6th century. He is said to have been miraculously transported to Jerusalem, and to have been returned on the same manner to Sinai. The Greek liturgy mentions him on March 11.

Giorgi, Cardinal, Pontifical Legate. He consecrated the Basilica at Mount Tabor in 1924.

Georgia, Christ-loving sister of Elias. She died at the monastery of Lady Mary in Beisan (Beth-Shean). (See: Elias, priest and recluse)

Georgian Church in Palestine: Georgia is a republic in the south of the Soviet Union. Georgia was called in early times IBERIA. The first Georgian convent in Palestine was founded at Jerusalem by King Tatian (466. 499) of Georgia. Destroyed by the Persians in 614, it was restored by Emperor Justinian II (686-711). This was the Convent of the Holy Cross (Deir-el-Musallabeh). The Georgians in debt sold this monastery to the Greek Orthodox Church. - The Georgians possessed other convents: St. Nicholas, St. Sabas, St. John, the Grotto at Bethlehem, St. Abraham, St. Basil, St. Samuel in the basin of the Jordan. All these Georgian monasteries were founded between the 5th and the 9th century. - The Franciscans bought from the Georgians in 1599 the Convent Deir-el-Amoud (Convent of the Pillar). At that time this convent was occupied only by three aged Georgian nuns. The Franciscan convent is now named St. Saviour. Surrounded by the Franciscan property is still the small Greek-Orthodox convent for nuns. This small convent has as patron St. George.

Georgius, monk, martyr in Bethlehem. No year is indicated. The AA.SS. mention this monk on April 20.

Georgius, Johannes, Julianus and 57 companions, martyrs in

Jerusalem in 723. The AA.SS. mention the feast on Oct 21. The 'Passio' of Georgius is translated from the Syriac.

Georgius, nephew (germanus) of St. Johannes Climacus. They were in Palestine after 562. (AA.SS. March 30)

Geraldus, St., abbas Silvae Majoris. He came to Palestine round 1070. (Vita S. Ger., c. III, n. 17-18; Vita altera, c. I, n. 10-11) (AA.SS. April 5)

Gerard III, bishop of Bethlehem. He took a soft white stone from the Grotto of Milk in Bethlehem as a relic to the camp of King Baldwin III (1143-1162) during the siege of Ascalon in 1153.

Gerard Boccabadatus of Modena, Blessed. He was in the Holy Land from 1249 till 1251. He died at Modena in 1256.

Gerard de Ridefort. This Grand Master of the Knights Templars saved his life at Sepphoris and at Tiberias in 1187. He was taken prisoner at Acre in 1189, and then he was beheaded.

Gerard of VIIIamagna. Still a lay man he joined a Crusader knight and started for Palestine. He was taken prisoner but ransomed. He joined another Crusader. In Jerusalem, he served among the helpers of the Knights. He returned to Italy and entered the Franciscan Order. He died in May, 1242. The Breviarium Ordinis Minorum venerates him as Blessed, on May 31.

Gerardeo Mecateo, Blessed. He belonged to the Third Order of St. Francis. At his arrival in the Holy Land, he was taken prisoner by the Turks. He returned to Italy and died on May 4, 1242. (To be identified with Gerard of VIIIamagna?)

Gerardesca Pisana, Blessed. She planned a pilgrimage to Palestine, round 1240. (Vita B. Gerardescae, c. IV, n. 34-41) (AA.SS. May 29)

Gerardus, St., episcopus Chanadensis. He came to Palestine before 1000. (Vita S. Ger., n. 2; - Elogium, auct. Petro de Natalibus, Lectiones, n. 1) (AA.SS. Sept 24)

Gerardus Fr. He announced in 1250 at Constantinople the captivity of St. Louis. The AA.SS. mention Gerardus on March 19.

Gerardus, hermit of Cologne. He was met in Egypt, round 1400, by an English bishop. (AA.SS. April 14)

Gerardus, Sanctus. Circa 1000. Falsa patris S. Gerardi expeditio in Terram Sanctam (AA.SS. Sept 24).

Gerardus, Sanctus. He is mentioned, circa 1099, together with Saint Bernardus and Saint Arcanus in AA.SS. Oct 14.

Gerardus, Sanctus, Arvernensis. (Acta S. Gerardi, n. 1-4) (AA.SS. Aug 11) He lived during the first Crusade (1096-1099). He came to Palestine round 1100 (AA.SS. Aug 11; Oct 25)

Gerasimos, Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem (1891-1897) He constructed schools and sought to neutralize the effects of the proliferation of Russian schools in the Holy Land.

Gerasimos of Kepphallinia. Born in Trikkala, Peloponnesos, of pious parents in 1509. He went to Jerusalem where he was ordained a priest. Finally he went to the island of Kephalonia. There he stayed until the end of his life in an old church, which he rebuilt. He became the patron saint of Kephallinia. Died in 1579. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Oct 20.

Gerasimus near the Jordan. This anchoret was abbot of a monastery near the River Jordan. He came from Lycia (Turkey), he died in 475, March 5. He is venerated in the Latin Patriarchate on March 5. The name of Gerasimus appears in Georgian lists on Feb 9, on March 3 and 5, on Aug 23.

Gerasimus of Leondarion. In the Greek liturgy on Sept 15. He was born in Leondarion, Taygetos, in the second part of the 17th century. He went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Upon his return he founded the Monastery of the Holy Trinity of Sourvia near Makrynitsa, Volos, in 1740. His relics repose in this monastery.

Gerhard d'Avennes, Crusader. In 1099 Hebron came into the hands of the Crusaders. Gerhard d'Avennes received the city of Hebron as a fief from Godfrey de Bouillon in 1100. Gerhard was killed near Ramleh, together with Raoul of Aa1st (Belgium) and Stabelon, the ex-chamberlain of Godfrey, in a clash with the Egyptians in May 1102. Gerhard was buried in the Church of the Assumption, which is near Gethsemane.

Gerius, saint, and Effernadus, saint, de Lunello. They planned to visit Palestine, in the 13th century. (Matheus Masius, Vita SS. Gerii et Effernandi, n. 3) (AA.SS. May 25)

Geriacus of Valkenburg (Netherlands), Saint, hermit. After the death of his wife, he went on pilgrimage to Rome and to Jerusalem. A long time he lived in a hollow oak near the village Houthem St. Gerlach. Daily he went to Maastricht to assist at Holy Mass. He died in 1166. - Gerlacus, round 1150, received hospitality in the House of the Hospitalers at Jerusalem. (Vita S. Gerlaci, n. 3-6; Wilh. Crisius, Vita S. Gerlaci., c. I, III, n.1, 10) (AA.SS. Jan 5).

Gerlandus, Alamannus. Blessed. He was a Knight of St. John, in the 13th century. His 'Vita et Miracuia' are in AA.SS. on June 18.

Germain. This citizen of Jerusalem made deeper in 1185 Bir Ayoub in the valley of Kidron, during a drought. He also repaired Lake Germain (= Birket el Sultan) in the valley of Gehennah, to the west of the city.

German Hospice of St. Mary. In the Crusader period it served as a palace for the Teutonic Knights. Here was the palace of the Hashmonaeans, where the members of Herod's family afterwards took up residence. Here Jesus was mocked by Herod Antipas during the trial (Luke 23, 7). Here lived King Herod Agrippa II. The Crusaders built the church Saint Mary. In the ruins of the Hospice which is near the Church is now an Archaeological Garden.

German Hospiz in West Jerusalem. It began in 1893 as a home for the aged. The garden was acquired in 1913. The Chapel 'Regina Angelorum' (it recalls St Mary of the Germans) was built in 1936. The Hospiz is run by the Sisters of Charles Borromaeus.

Germanion. He was the 32nd bishop of Jerusalem, end of the 2nd or beginning of the 3rd century (AA.SS.)

Germanos. He was archbishop of Jerusalem, when in 248 (the first year of Emperor Decius (248-251), the general council of bishops at Rome condemned Benates (Novates, Novatus). The Ethiopian Synaxarium mentions Germanos on Takhshash 12). See Council.

Germanos, Patriarch (1534-1579) of the Greek Orthodox Church in Jerusalem. He was a Peloponnesian. He fostered the exclusively Greek character of the 'Greek Orthodox Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre'.

Germanus, bishop of Paris, Saint. Before 565 he came to Palestine. (AA.SS. May 28, April 23, Oct 21)

Germanus, Martyr, together with Antoninus and Zebinus, beheaded in Caesarea, Palestine, in 308 by governor Firmilianus. The Roman Martyrology mentions him on Nov 13, together with Antoninus, Zebinus, and with Ennatha the virgin.

Germanus, Sanctus. He came to Palestine at the beginning of the 10th cent. (Vita S. Germ., gr. et lat., c. I-II, n. 5-10) (AA.SS. May 12)

Germer-Durand J. This Frenchman discovered in 1889 remains of a

Byzantine church on the area of St Peter's in Gallicantu. He edited a photo-album on the Map of Madaba in 1897.

Germerius, St. The AA.SS. on May 16 mention: S. Germerii iter de Syria/Palestina in Galliam;(falsum) The so-called journey from Syria to France would have been at the beginning of the 6th century.

Gerontius, Blessed. This archimandrite of the monasteries of Palestine directed during 45 years the monastery of St. Melany. -Perhaps this Gerontius is meant by the Palestinian -Georgian calendar on Feb 27. This Gerontius was opposed to the Council of Chalcedon (451).

Gervasius, abbot of S. Serbian. He is mentioned in relation with the first Crusade, 1096-1099. (Gaufredus Grossus, Vita S. Bernardi Tironensis, c. II, n. 16) (AA.SS. April 14)

Gervinus, St., Centulensis abbas. He visited Palestine round 1023. (Compare Ricardus Virdunensis)

Gestas. The name of the robber on the left side of Christ, the nonpenitent robber. (Bruce M. Metzger, Names…)

Geubels Marin. (Pater Michael a Sancta Trinitate) He was born in Sinaai in East-Flanders (Belgium). He belonged to the Order of the Carmelites. He began his journey from the Convent of the Carmelites of Dendermonde on June 25, 1770. He went over Italy, Malta, Smyrna, Alexandria, Cairo to Jerusalem. There he arrived on May 12, 1772. On Nov 21, 1773 he was back in Dendermonde. His mother, Jeanne van den Eynde, published the travels of her son, in 1780 in Dendermonde, in 2 volumes under the title 'Jerusalemsche Reyze'. (St. Genois, Les Voyageurs Beiges, 11, 187-195)

Ghattas. See Alphonsine.

Ghevond of Van (town in Turkey). An inscription in the Armenian cemetery outside Sion Gate in Jerusalem mentions Ghevond of Van, 'the lover of letters, the scribe who copied so many manuscripts, old and new, copied so many colophons and now, 1 left all these in the dark'.

Giacomo da Carini. Franciscan lay brother of Italy. He served 30 years in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, he died in 1876.

Giacomo di Antiochia. He was guardian (= superior) of the Franciscan convent in Tripoli (Lebanon) in 1282.

Giacomo del Panizzari. Franciscan scholar of the Arabic language, and superior in the Holy Land, round 1270 (Salimbene 55).

Gida. She was the mother of Haraldus Severus, king of Norway. She came to Palestine round 1035. (AA.SS. July 27)

Gideon = Gedeon.

Gierlich Jacobus.
He is called Wendelinus of Walberberg (in Germany). He was the son of Heinrich Gierlich and of Regina Urfey. He was born in 1876. He was in the service of the Custody of the Holy Land from June 18, 1905. (Not to be confused with Wendelinus Hinterkeuser of Menden (Germany).

Gihon Superior. This 'Lake Superior' or Aqueduct Superior was perhaps near Birket Mamillah, near the Camp of the Assyrians (which is the site of the Russian Cathedral). Perhaps at the site to the north of the walls Salomon was crowned as a king by the priest Zadok and the prophet Nathan (1 Kings 1). Perhaps at the same site was spoken the 'sign of Emmanuel’ by the Prophet Isaias (is. 7, 315) to king Achaz (735-715 BC).

Gilbert de Morielporte (or de Tournay), Belgian. This Franciscan Father was in 1248 in the Holy Land. He was in the company of Louis IX (?). (Van der Vat, 96-97)

Gilbertus. He was 'custos minorum' in Acre, in 1286.

Gilbertus de Alberia, crusader in 1147. He was Premonstratensian abbot. (Joh. Le Paige, Vita Gilb., c. ], n. 2-5) (AA.SS. June 6)

Gilermus of Holland and Vaals. This count died on the battlefield in Mesopotamia during a Crusade. His companion, Count Wolfram of Heppeneert, brought the message of his death to Europe.

Gilles see Egidius (or Aegidius).

Giorgi Oreste, Cardinal. He consecrated in 1924 the Basilica of Mount Tabor and the Basilica at Gethsemane.

Giovanni da Parma, Blessed. In 1247 he became General of the Franciscan Order. in 1249 he was sent to the Orient to promote the Union of the Churches. He died on March 19, 1289.

Giovanni Romano, bishop of Bethlehem, round 1240. He placed the church of Bethlehem in financial difficulties.

Giovannino de Ollis di Parma. Before 1270. He was 'custos' of the Holy Land in Acre (Salimbene, 314, 551). Salimbene writes that his friend Giovannino on order of the General Superior of the Franciscan Order was asked to go to Egypt to take care of the christian captives of war (Chronica).

Giragos, Armenian anchorite. He lived at Ain-Karem (Montana). His name is found in the colophon of Codex Nr 1822 (St. James' Collection) (Bogharian, Archbp. Norair, Grand Catalogue of St. James Manuscripts, Vol. VI, 1972, pp. 190-195).

Giraldus, patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, 1225-1240. (Mai, Prop. AA.SS.)

Girondus (seu Geroldus) Valentinus Episcopus. He was Latin bishop at Jerusalem in 1227, he died round 1240. He is mentioned in the Bulla of Pope Gregory IX (1227-1230) of Feb 1, 1230 'Si Ordinis Fratrum Minorum...'. (Compare Giraldus). The Pope asks Girondus and Rainerio (Raynerius) to allow the Franciscans to have oratories at Jerusalem and to preach.

Gasser Hallos, of Iceland. Perhaps he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Perhaps he accompanied Nickels of Thingeyrar in 1150-1152.

Giustini Philip, Cardinal and Papal Legate. He visited Nazareth, Oct 19-24, 1919. On October 23, 1919 he placed the foundation for the Basilica of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor.

Gobat Samuel. He was from Switzerland. He was the Lutheran bishop of Jerusalem from 1846 to 1879. He founded Gobat's School for Boys on Mount Sion in 1853, Gobat was nominated by the King of Prussia.

Gobelinus, second patriarch (1107-1112) of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. (AA.SS. Oct 20)

Gobertus de Asperomonte, Blessed. He was a crusader in the years 1228 to 1229. (Anon. VIIIariensis, Vita B. Goberti, 1, 1, c. 1-2). The Acta Sanctorum mention Gobertus of Asperomonte on Aug 20

Godechaux de Turout. (perhaps Torhout, in Belgium?) The Knight Templar, Gautier du Mesnil, had murdered Arab ambassadors, who had received a free passage from King Amaury (1173). King Amaury sent Godechaux de Turout and Séhier de Maimendon to arrest the murderer. But the Grand Master of the Templars, Eude de St. Amand, refused to let the coupable appear before the court of King Amaury, claiming that only the Pope could judge the Knight Templar. King Amaury therefore planned to dissolve the Order of the Templars.

Godefridus, Lingon, episcopus. He took part at the crusade (11461148) of Louis VIl, King of France. (Translatio S. Mamantis, c. II, n. 12) (AA.SS. Aug 17)

Godfrey of Bouillon, duke, afterwards King of Jerusalem, Blessed. In Belgium his memory is on July 15, 16, and 17. Godfrey, together with his brothers Baldwin and Eustace, started in March 1096 for the first Crusade. He captured Jerusalem in 1099, July 15. He was elected on July 22 'Defender of the Holy Sepulchre'. He died at Jerusalem on July 18, 1100, and he was succeeded by his brother Baldwin (1). Godfrey was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, north before the Chapel of Adam. His brother Baldwin I was buried opposite, south before this Chapel. Annales Altimontenses mention: Godfrey died from poisoning. (Anal. Boll. XV, 283)

Godfrey and his camp. Where the Rockefeller Museum (formerly Palestine Museum) is now, the Crusaders encamped under Godfrey. They conquered Jerusalem on July 15, 1099, through a breach in the section of the wall running east of Herod's Gate. The Crusaders built on the camping-hill their Farm of Belveer. On the same hill Edward VII encamped when he visited Palestine in 1862 as Prince of Wales.

Godfrey and his armour. In the sacristy of the Franciscan convent which communicates with the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, are to be seen a pair of gilt spurs and a blade. It is said to be the 'sword of Godfrey of Bouillon'. The sword, the spurs and a pectoral cross are used in creating Knights of the Holy Sepulchre.

Godfrey de Prefetti, bishop of Bethlehem. He tried to repair the debts of his predecessor. He visited France and England to get funds. He was back in Palestine in 1253.

Godfroi d'Ach-en-Campine. The old crusader Gauffier (or Gonnefar, Godfroi d'Ach-en-Campine) was prisoner in Egypt for many years. Round 1136-1137 the Armenian bishop of Jerusalem, who was of the same religion as vizir Bahram, went to Cairo and obtained from Caliph Hafiz (1130-1149) the liberation of this prisoner.

Godfroi, Knight Templar. In 1167 Godfroi and Hugues of Caesarea were received by Shawar, the caliph of Cairo, to conclude the treaty between Amaury, king of Jerusalem, and Shawar against Shirkuh, whose troops invaded Egypt. At the sealing of the pact Hugues presented his 'nude' hand, but the caliph reached his 'gaunted' hand. The French étiquette obliged the caliph to present his nude hand.

Godricus, St. eremita Finchal., He came to Palestine, round 1120. (Galfridus, Vita S. Godr., c. I, n. 5, 8) (AA.SS. May 21)

Gogolj, Russian writer, 19th century. He visited Palestine. Gogol was the adversary of Bjelinskij.

Golinduch, St., martyr. July 13 in the Greek liturgy. Golinduch was born in Persia and lived in the second half of the 6th century. Her father was a magician. During an ecstasy, she was converted and baptized. She adopted the name of Mary. She was arrested and tortured, but freed by the grace of God. She left forJerusalem. Finally she suffered martyrdom near Nisibis, on July 13, 591. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has her feast on June 9.

Golubovich Hieronymus (1865-1941). This Franciscan wrote 'Bibliotheca bio-bibliographica della Terra Santa et dell’Oriente francescano'. Golubovich helped the Greek monk Kleopas Koykilides to publish the first drawings of the Madaba-Map on March 4, 1897.

Gomez Leander. This Franciscan lay brother was murdered by Greek pirates in 1833.

Gonsales Antonius, (Gonsalez or Gonzales) Franciscan (born Mechelen (Belgium) in 1604; died Venio, 1683). He was Superior in Bethlehem in 166511666. Then he was sent to Cairo, as chaplain of the French consul and of the French merchants at Cairo. After his stay in Cairo, he is appointed as second president at Tripoli (Lebanon). He declares himself as 'always beaten by his superiors as a handball'. He wrote (1673) 'Hierusalernse Reyse'. He mentions the mosque at Ain-ed-Dirweh (Fountain of St. Philip) at the place of an ancient church.

Gonsalvus Amaranthus, St. He came to Palestine round 1240. (Didactus de Rosario, Vita S. Gons., c. IV, n. 15-18) (AA.SS. Jan 10)

Contramnus, St., King. He is mentioned in AA.SS. on Sept 4 in relation with Palestine, round 579.

Gonzales Paul. This Franciscan lay brother was murdered by Greek pirates in 1833.

Gorbach, Mgr. This Austrian priest transformed at Bethany a cave into a chapel in 1944. It is now the property of the Salesian sisters. The site is to the north of Bethany, near the property of the Anglican Bishopric.

Gordius, 33th bishop of Jerusalem. He ruled at the end of the 2nd and at the beginning of the 3rd century (AA.SS.)

Gordon Charles George. As a British general he had served in Sebastopol, and in China. He resided in Gravesend near London from 1865 to 1871. He took a year's furlough in the Holy Land in 1882/1883, and he lived in a rented house in the village of Ain Karem. He believed he saw the shape of a skull in the hillside north of the city of Jerusalem. A Roman tomb was discovered there already in 1867. The site became venerated as the Garden Tomb. Gordon left Jerusalem in 1883. He was killed in Sudan in 1885, during the siege of Khartoum. Gordon had published in 1884 his book 'Reflections in Palestine'. The Committee of the Garden Tomb purchased the site with the tomb in 1892/93.

Gormundus, 4th patriarch (1118-1128) of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. (Vita S. Oidegarii, n. 27) (AA.SS. March 6)

Gothalmus, St. He came to Palestine after 1012. (Bernardus Dapif., Vita S. Goth., n. 2) (AA.SS. July 26)

Gottmann John. This Crusader sold in 1161 to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre his farmstead of Khirbet Tannur, which is near Ain Karem, close to the settlement of Mata. It is not far from the white cupolas of the now-deserted Deir es-Sheikh. (Jerusalem Post Magazine, Friday, Aug 1, 1975)

Goznata. see Hrosnata.

Graham Stephen.
This author wrote in London in 1913 in his book' With the Russian Pilgrims to Jerusalem' how in March 1893, just before the Holy Week of the Easter-feast of the Eastern Churches, many exhausted Russian pilgrims on their return from Galilee to Jerusalem for Palmsunday, were killed by a snowstorm and heavy rains in the mountains round Sinjil and Khan-el-Lubban. The corpses were buried in the Greek Orthodox cemetery of Ramallah.

Grail. The Grail is the chalice which was used during the Last Supper. A grail is venerated in the Greek Orthodox convent of St. Theodorus, which is north of Casa Nova, inside the Old City of Jerusalem. In this convent the Greek Orthodox silversmits of Jerusalem have a liturgical service on July 3. (See: Romylus of Damascus) - When Baldwin I took Caesarea on May 17, 1101 the most precious relic was a sexagonal cup, considered as the Holy Grail. It is now in Genoa (ita Wilhelm of Tyre).

Graptos (plural = Grapti) means tattooed. See: Theodore, Theophanes)

Gratus, St., Augustae Praetoriae episcopus, at Jocundus, his successor in the bishopric. They made round 470 a journey to Palestine (fabulosum) (AA.SS. June 24; Sept 7).

Greek captive of the Saracens. He came to Palestine in 840. (Vita S. Joannicii, gr., cum lat. vers., c. 50, 62) (AA.SS. Nov 4).

Greek clerics. Two Greek Orthodox clerics and one Armenian monk were killed in the night 14115 July, 1948 by a shell before the entrance of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. This shell from a gun damaged also the Chapel of the Franks.

Greek monks. They wounded 18 Franciscan monks in the courtyard in front of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in Nov 1901.

Greek pirates. They murdered on July 22, 1833 near Cyprus 6 Franciscans who were returning from the Holy Land. Two were priests: Father Isidor Baniuls, Father Zachariah Retamero. Four were lay brothers: Mattia Cebrian, Francis Antich, Paul Gonzales, Leander Gomez. The six Franciscans were from Spain.

Gregorius, Acritensis, St. He visited Palestine before 820. (AA.SS. Jan 5)

Gregorius, episcopus Azotensis, 1560. (AA.SS. Nov 3).

Gregorius, last bishop of Jericho. He partook to the synod of Jerusalem in 536. (Compare: Januarius, first bishop)

Gregorius Palamas. He wrote 'Vita S. Petri Athonitae'; Petrus was at war against the Saracens in the 8th cent. (AA.SS. June 12)

Gregory W, Pope (1227-1241). Frederick II and Melek el Kamel arranged on Feb 18, 1229 an armistice for 10 years (1228-1239). Gregory IX excommunicated Frederick because he had arranged the armistice on his own, and had crowned himself King of Jerusalem. Frederick returned in May 1229 to Italy. Gregory absolved him of the excommunication in August 1229. Gregory wrote from Perugia a bull 'Si Ordinis Fratrum Minorum... ' (Feb 1, 1230) to Raynerius and to Girondus, and asked both bishops to allow the Franciscans to have oratories in Jerusalem and to preach.

Gregory X, Pope. Blessed (born 1229- died 1279). After the death (Aug 26, 1270) of St. Louis in Tunis, Gregory promoted a new crusade (the ninth). During his stay in Acre with his friend Prince Edward of England (later Edward I), he was elected Pope by the council of Viterbo. He was archdeacon of Liège, not even a priest. He arrived in Rome, only six months later. Gregory X is commemorated on Jan 10.

Gregory of Akrita (= Gregorius Acritensis). In the Greek liturgy on Jan 5. He was born in Crete, he spent his youth as a shepherd, and later went to Seleucia. At the death of Emperor Leo IV, the Khazar (750-780) Gregory went to Jerusalem. There he suffered from the Jews. He went to Rome where he entered a monastery. During the reign of Michael Rhangabe the Isaurian, Gregory was taken by a representative of Nikephorus I to a monastery in Akrita, Chalcedon, where he spent the rest of his life. (AA.SS. Jan 5)

Gregory XIII (1502-1585), Pope. The Gregorian calendar was promulgated in 1582, when the day after October 4 became October 15. The Gregorian calendar is followed in the liturgy of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The Gregorian calendar is also followed in the civilian life in the Holy Land.

Gregory of Neocaesarea. He was born in Neocaesarea, Pontus, of pagan parents. He received an education in letters and law. In 233 he went with his brother Athenadorus to Caesarea in Palestine where he came under the influence of Origen. Then he returned to Neocaesarea. There he was consecrated bishop of Neocaesarea. In spite of the Decian persecutions, he is said to have converted practically the whole population of Neocaesarea. He opposed the heresies of Paul of Samosate. Because of his miracles, Gregory of Neocaesarea was known as 'the Wonderworker'. He died in 270. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Nov 17.

Gregory of Nyssa, St. One of the three Cappadocians. He is known as a philosopher and mystic. Born at Caesarea (Cappadocia) round 335, died at Constantinople 394. In 381 he came as a pilgrim to Palestine. He warns against the abuses that are connected with a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (Epistola 11). At the insistence of Basil, his brother, Gregory was consecrated in 371 bishop of Nyssa, a suffragan of Caesarea (Cappadocia). Gregory lacked Basil's administrative talents, and so was accused of negligence in financial matters and he was deposed by an Arian-dominated synod in 376. However, after the death in 378 of the Arian Emperor Valens, he returned to Nyssa. In his last years Gregory was involved in a bitter controversy over Apollinarism. Gregory died shortly after attending a council in Constantinople, in 394. - The Roman Martyrology has his feast on March 9. Georgian liturgy venerates him on Oct 16, the Copts on Oct 14, Greek Synaxaries on Jan 10.

Gregory I, (the Great) Pope, Saint. He was born in Rome round 540. His pontificate was from 3th of September 590 to 12th of March 604. The Latin church has his feast on March 12. Gregory sent Probus, a religious abbot, with money to Jerusalem to erect, on the instance of Probus, a hospice. The AA.SS. mention: 'two monks of the monastery of St. Gregori l Romanorum (?) who came to Palestine in 565'. (Vita S. Gregorii, auct. Joh. diacono, 1, 1, c. II, n. 14) Pope Gregory wrote a-letter to priest Anastasius, exhorting him to make reconciliation with patriarch Amos (594-601). Gregory wrote a letter to Patriarch Isaac (601-609) and asked him to finish the quarrel between the Church Nea and the ecclesiastical authorities at Jerusalem.

Gregory of Sinai. In Greek liturgy on April 6. He was born in Kokoulo near Smyrna (=Izmir in Turkey) of a wealthy family, in 1255. He was captured by the Seljuk Turks and was ransomed. He went to Cyprus to become a monk. From there he travelled to the monastery of St. Catherine in Sinai. Because of disagreements, he left for Jerusalem. And he continued to Crete, where he learned the hesychasts' life, which he taught to the monks of Mount Athos. In 1325 he founded a monastery on Mount Paroria on the west coast of the Black Sea, where he lived for the rest of his life. He emphasized the importance of rythmical breathing in mental prayer. He died in 1347.

Gregory the Chainbearer, Armenian patriarch of Jerusalem (17171749). When heavy taxes were exacted by the Turks, Gregory decided to wear an iron chain around his neck, and he travelled through Armenia, seeking contributions for Jerusalem. He restored at Jerusalem the church of the Archangels (= the House of the Highpriest Annas) in the Armenian Quarter.

Gregory the Decapolite, Saint. He was the spiritual director of two compositors of hymns, John and Joseph. Gregory sent Joseph to Rome as a messenger to bring to Pope Gregory IV (827-844) details of the persecution, waged by Emperor Theophilos against those who venerated the icons. Gregory the Decapolite died at Constantinople on Nov 20, 842. The Melkite liturgy has his feast on Nov 20.

Gregory the Illuminator. 'Chapel of St. Gregory the Illuminator' is the Armenian name for the Chapel of St. Helen in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. Gregory the Illuminator is an Armenian saint.

Gregory, the Thaumaturg (Wonderworker) = Gregory of Neocaesarea, (born in or round 213 - died under Emperor Aurelian, (270-275)

Griffoen. This Franciscan was born at Korthilk in Belgium, at the beginning of the 15th century. He came to Palestine in 1442, he went to Beyrouth in 1444, worked 25 years among the Maronites, died in Famagusta (Cyprus) 1475, July 18. He was archimandrite of the Maronite Church. Round 1470 he wrote 'Topographia Terrae Sanctae'.

Grifoen of Slavonia, Blessed. In 1480 there arrived in Jerusalem two Catholic Abyssinians as messengers from the King of Abyssinia. They had already visited Pope Sixtus IV in Rome and they were on their way back. One of the messengers apostatized to Islam in Jerusalem. Grifoen was appointed to accompany the other to Abyssinia. During this journey, Grifoen was murdered.

Grimoaldus de Pontecurvo, Saint. He came, together with his brother Eleutherius, to Palestine (8th century (?) to or round 1137) (AA.SS. Sept 27, May 29, June 3) - Grimoaldus and Eleutherius were brothers of Saint Fulcus. The three came to Palestine round 1137 (AA.SS. Sept 29, May 29, June 3).

Gros. He painted 'Les pestiférés de Jaffa' (campaign of Napoléon in 1799). The scene is in the Nicolas' monastery of the Armenians in Jaffa.

Grueber Heinrich. He was born in Stolberg (Germany) in 1891. He was a pastor in the Ruhr until 1933 when the Nazis forced him out of office. He helped Jews to escape to the Netherlands. From 1940 he, was in the concentration camps of Sachsenhausen and Dachau. In 1943 he was set free. He became dean of the Protestant Church after World War IL- In 1972 Mayor Teddy Kollek of Jerusalem honoured him with the Jerusalem Medal; and Yad Vashem honoured him a Righteous One of the Nations. The Jewish National Fund planted a 15, 000 trees forest in his name. Grueber died at the age of 84, in 1975.

Grusinian = another name for Georgian.

Gualterus, St., abbas Stirpensis.
He came to Palestine before 1134. (Marbodus Andegav., Vita S. Gualt., c. II, n. 7-9) (AA.SS. May 11)

Guarinus, abbas Cuxanensis, at Johannes Gradonicus. They came to Palestine round 995. (P. Damianus, Vita S. Romualdi, c. II, IV, n. 10, 24) (AA.SS. Feb 7)

Gucci George. This Florentine pilgrims mentions the 'House of St. Joseph' in Bethlehem in the second half of the 14th century.

Guérin. This French geographer and writer visited Palestine in 1863. He published 'Description de la Palestine' en 7 volumes, 1868.

Guido de Turribus. He was killed in the 2nd crusade in 1147. (AA.SS. Oct 13)

Guido of Anderlecht (Belgium), Blessed, confessor. Feast Sept 12. Sacristan and merchant. He visited as a pilgrim Rome and Jerusalem, he was in Palestine round 1004. He is mentioned together with Wonedalphus. (Vita S. Guid., c. I, n. 8-9) (AA.SS. Sept 12)

Guillaume de Cordelle, Franciscan, about 1241. He collected money in France for the Crusade. He was in the papal penitentiary, he was pontifical legate in the Crusaders' army of Theobald of Navarre in Palestine. (La France Franciscaine 4 (1921) 52-71).

Guillaume de Malines (Belgium) (Guillaume de Messines). He was patriarch of Jerusalem from 1130 to 1145. He favorised in 1132-33 the construction of a fortress (Chaste] Arnaud at Beit Noba, halfway Lydda and Jerusalem) to protect the pilgrims. Pope Innocent 11 (1130-1145) wrote in a letter of Jan 17, 1139 to Guillaume to keep peace with the archbishop of Tyre. Guillaume died on Sept 27, 1145.

Guillaume IV of Poitiers: see Simeon of Trier.

Guillaume Roi
This Franciscan Frenchman obtained on Nov 25, 1247 the papal permission to join, with a companion, the Crusader Raymond of Bourgogne.

Guillelmus Antiochenus, Saint. He and his sons came to Palestine in the 12th century. (AA.SS. April 26)

Guillelmus at Junianus. They came to Palestine in the 12th century (AA.SS. April 20)

Guillermus Firmatus, St. He came to Palestine round 1080. (AA.SS. April 24)

Guillermus, hermit, Saint. He came to Palestine in 1147. (Vita S. Guill., n. 3 - Theobaldus, Vita S. Guill., c. VI-IX) (AA.SS. Feb 10)

Guillermus, archbishop of Tyre, 1174-1190. (AA.SS. Feb 10)

Guillermus, Latin patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, 1263-1270. (May, Prop., AA.SS.)

Guillelmus de Monte Virginis, St. He came to Palestine round 1108. (Joh. de Nusco, Vita S. Guill., c. II, n. 7, 11) (AA.SS. June 25)

Guillelmus de Sancto Johanne. see William de Sancto Johanne.

Guillelmus VIll, dux Aquitaniae.
He is mentioned in AA.SS. on Feb 10, in connection with the first Crusade, 1096-1099.

Guillermus, the son of the count of Vienna. He came to Palestine before 1150. (Hist. Translat. S. Agnetis a Constantinopoli in Galliam, auct. Anton Domenecco) (AA.SS. Jan 21)

Guillius, priest of Milan. He came to Palestine in the 12th century. (AA.SS. June 11)

Guibenklan Calouste, Armenian philantropist. He established in 1929 the public library in the Armenian Compound of Jerusalem.

Gundisalvus, Blessed, martyr. This Franciscan was born in Spain. He came to Palestine, together with John Eteo. Both were imprisoned in Jerusalem. Gundisalvus died in the prison, probably in 1639. His memory is on May 16.

Giunipero, (Junipero). On account of his preaching near the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, he was imprisoned, and beheaded in 1547 (or 1557?) His corpse was burned in the courtyard that is in front of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. The Martyrologium Franciscanum remembers this Franciscan lay brother on Feb 23.

Guntram, Franconian (=of Swabia). This knight, together with the Franconian Wigger and Duke Godfrey of Bouillon, conquered Jerusalem on July 15, 1099. (Compare: Philip of Aubigny)

Guthe H. He investigated in 1881 the Siloam Tunnel and Siloam Pool.

Gutman of Bruxelles. This knight had escaped from the defeat at Ramleh in May 1102. The Egyptians had killed Gerbod de Winthinc. Gerbod had the likeness of King Baldwin I. The Egyptians carried the head of Gerbod before the walls of Jaffa, claiming that King Baldwin had been killed. Gutman persuaded the Flemish pilgrims at Jerusalem not to leave Jerusalem, before the rumours about the death of King Baldwin I were confirmed. Afterwards Baldwin I came with a ship from Arsuf to Jaffa, proving that he was alive. And on May 27, 1102 Baldwin was victorious at Jaffa.

Guy de Dampierre. He participated at the battle of Acre, on Oct 4, 1189, for the reconquest of this city.

Guy de Lusignan, King of Jerusalem 1186-1192. On July 15, 1187 Saladin won the battle at the Horns of Hattin in Galilee, and conquered Acre without resistance, and afterwards Jerusalem in October 1187. King Guy de Lusignan was captured at Hattin, but ransomed, and he continued his kingdom at Acre, which was reconquered by the Crusaders on July 12, 1191.


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