A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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Fabiola, St. She belonged to the famous family of the Fabii Fabiola assisted in Rome on the Mount Avnet the conferences that were given by St. Jerome. He calls Fabiola 'the honour of the Christians' in Letter 77 that he has written from Bethlehem in 400 to his friend Oceanus. As a widow Fabiola came on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Fabiola returned to her country to live there in poverty. She died in Rome in 399. Her feast is on December 27.

Fabiola, Queen of Belgium. She visited Jerusalem in February 1964, together with her husband, King Baldwin I of Belgium.

Fabri Felix, Dominican Father, 1480. He tells that Christian pilgrims removed the wood of the Golden Gate and used it as a talisman against apoplexy, epilepsy, and the pest. - He mentions the 2 flagstones in the Arch Ecce Homo: on one flagstone Pilate stood, on the other Jesus stood. Pilate declared to the crowd: Ecce Homo, See the man. The 2 flagstones were placed there by the fidels. (Compare: Sanuto)

Fakreddin, Druse Emir. He ruled in Beirut from 1590 to 1635. He extended his reign over Southern Lebanon and Upper Galilee. In 1620 Fakreddin gave permission to the Franciscans to live in Nazareth. On Dec 19, 1620 he accorded the authorisation to rebuild the chapel above the House of the Annunciation. Fakreddin spent nine years at the court of the Medici at Florence, while his son Ali ruled at home. Fakreddin was defeated at the battle of Safed. He and his three sons were beheaded in Constantinople.

Falco (Falcone, Fulcone), Franciscan Father, minister provincialis of the Holy Land. He is named in a document of Sept 25, 1299. He lived at the convent of Nicosia on Cyprus.

Falkenhayn von, General of the German Army on the Egyptian front in 1917/1918. He was the commander of the joint Turkish and German forces on both the Palestinian and the Iraqi Fronts. von Falkenhayn obtained from Constantinople that the order for the expulsion of the Franciscans, should be annulled (Nov 14, 1917). He was succeeded by Field Marshall Liman von Sanders, who had his headquarters in Nazareth in 1918 after the fall of Jerusalem on Dec 8, 1917.

Fardé Pieter, lay brother. He was born at Gent (Ghent) Belgium in 1652, Sept 12. In 1682183 he was missionary in Jerusalem. He returned to his homeland and collected aims for Palestine. In his seven letters (are they history or fiction?) he relates that in 1686 on the return to Palestine, he was taken prisoner, and that he was sold as a slave. After a period of labour, he reached Angola and embarked. He was shipwrecked on a desolate island for 11 months. He is rescued by a Flemish boat and landed in the African harbour of Sale. From there he sailed with a Dutch ship to Hamburg. He returned to Gent in 1690, he died in Aachen at the age of 41 years in 1691. The Flemish author Filip De Pillecijn wrote about him in 1930 'De Roman van een Minderbroeder'.

Faustin of Ponte di Legno (Italy), martyr, servant of God. This Franciscan was killed by the Arabs in Ramleh after the retreat of Napoleon in 1799. Napoleon had used the Franciscan Convent of Ramleh for his army.

Febronia. See Eudocia (round 635)

Felicius, priest, St. He visited Palestine round 765. (AA.SS. June 24)

Felix of Valois, St. He was the co-founder of the Trinitarians for the redeeming of Christians from Moslem captivity. He was born in France in 1127, he died in 1212. His feast is on Nov 20. His cult was confirmed in 1666. The AA.SS. mention him on Nov 4.

Female pilgrim, who did not wash herself. A female pilgrim of the 4th century returned from Jerusalem and boasted that during 18 years she never had washed her face, in order not to remove the holy chrism (oil) of his baptism at Jerusalem. (Wright, L., Clean and Decent - the fascinating history of the bathroom and the water closet. London, (1960)

Fernandez. See: Joannes Jacobus Fernandez, martyr at Damascus in 1860. Feast July 10.

Ferrari, Cardinal. He built in 1927 Terra Santa College in West Jerusalem. The college was taken over in 1929 by the Franciscans. The building is surmounted by a statue of the Virgin Mary.

Fidenzio da Padova. He was Superior of the Franciscans in the Holy Land. He had known the fall of Safed in 1266. In 1274 he returned to Italy. In 1289 he was again in the Orient, and witnessed the fall of Tripoli (Lebanon) in 1289. About 1290 he came back to Italy. During the Second Council of Lyon (May 7-July 17, 1274) Fidenzio was asked to present to the Pope Gregory X and to the christian princes a strategic plan for the reconquest of Jerusalem. His plan is in his book 'Reconquest of the Holy Land'.

Fides = the Latin name of Pistis (Belief). Personal name.

Fidus, bishop of Joppe (Jaffa). He assisted at the Synod of Lydda (Lod) in 415, and at the Council of Ephesus in 431.

Fidus, deacon. He built in 480 a monastery over the laura that was founded by St. Euthymius in 428 in the plain near Khan el Ahmar (more commonly called Khan Silwani), about ' 15 Kms east of Jerusalem, south of the highway from Jerusalem to Jericho. The deacon Fidus built for St. Euthymius a memorial-tomb in the place of the old cell of Euthymius.

Field of Blood, Hakeldama, Aceldama. The field purchased by the council with the thirty pieces of silver which Judas cast down in the Temple (Mt 27, 21-8; Acts 1, 19). Before being bought it was called the Potter's Field (Mt 27, 7). A 4th-century tradition places Hakeldama opposite the hill of the Upper City, at the south side of the valley of Hinnom. - On the Field of Blood stands a building. It has a vaulted roof with round apertures, through which the corpses were formerly let down by ropes. The west wall of the vault has Armenian inscriptions. The Greek-Orthodox community possesses a cavern which is called 'Ferdûs er Rum (the paradise of the Greeks', or the 'Cavern of Saint Onuphrius'. Near the cavern is a small chapel. - The Apostles' Cavern is on the southern bank of the Gehennah-valley, to the east, in the direction of the valley of Cedron. Tradition tells that the Apostles' Cavern (Apostles' Cave) was the hiding place of Apostles after the arrest of Jesus and during His trial.

Finn James, British Consul in Jerusalem (1846-1863). He succeeded Young. Finn built a summer residence in Talbieh. In 1852 he launched a development project, Kerem Avraham, (Karem el Khalil). The rabbis put the herem (= excommunication) on its Jewish workers. The site was sold as plots in 1933 and became the Kerem Avraham Quarter. Finn was accused of missionary intentions, and finally he was compelled to leave his post.

Firmilian, St., Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia. He came several times to Palestine (Euseb. Hist. VI, 27), he visited Origen in Caesarea Maritima (= Caesarea in Palestine). Firmilian lived round 250. The Acta Sanctorum mention him on Oct 28.

Firmin, St. The laura of Firmin was founded by disciples of St. Sabas, at the end of the 5th century. Isidore was hegumenos in this laura. in the 6th century. (Vita Sabae, ch. 89). - The ruin of the laura of Firmin is on a rocky spur that is called el Aleilyat. In the face of this spur are two groups of grottoes, which were originally used by hermits. The ruin can be reached by crossing Wadi Soueinit. This wadi is between Jaba and Mukhmas, about 20 Kms north of Jerusalem.

Fitzgerald G. M. He excavated, together with Crowfoot JW, at the western gate of Jerusalem, in 1927/28.

Five Egyptians, martyrs at Tyre in Phoenicia under Diocletian (284313). Their names are unknown. (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., VIll, 7) Their feast is on Feb 20 in Mart. Rom. The bishops Tyrannio, Silvanus, Peleus, and Nilus, and the priest Zenobius supported them and were martyred also.

Flagellation, Column of Flagellation. A column of Flagellation is venerated in the Church Santa Prassede in Rome. Cardinal Colonna brought his column from jaspis from Jerusalem to Rome. He was in Jerusalem in 1223. According to legend, Cardinal Colonna should have been in the hands of the Saracens, but the relic saved him.

Flavia. Cyril of Scythopolis tells that St. Theognius, who went to Jerusalem in the fifth year (= 4541455) of emperor Macron (450-457) met a certain pious lady Flavia (Phalli?). This Flavia was then building a monastery near the Mount of Olives and a church of the holy martyr Julius.

Flavia Neapolis (Nablus). It was founded in 70 CE in honour of Emperor Flavius Vespasianus (69-79) of the Flavii-family.

Flemish crusaders in 1102. They celebrated Easter 1102 in Jerusalem. They fought later (May 17, 1102) between Yazur (Gezer, Tell Gezer, Mount Guisard) and Ramleh, but were defeated.

Flemish gentleman. In 1612 he rode through Hebron on a horse. Out of bravery he galloped. In the midst of the city, he collided with a boy who died. The Flemish gentleman was condemned to death. But he was ransomed by the Franciscan Friars, who paid for him the price of blood, which was 1300 golden zecchini. The gentleman promised restitution for this sum in Flanders. But the man did not execute his promise. Therefore it was forbidden for the Friars and for the pilgrims to visit Hebron. (Gli Annali editi dal P. Saturnino Mencherini, Quaracchi, 1918).

Flight to Egypt. The start is commemorated in the Milk Grotto of Bethlehem; a rest during the flight is recalled by Ballut es Sebta (Oak of the Rest) (Oak of Abraham) in the Russian property northwest of Hebron. The Russian church there is dedicated to the Holy Trinity in honour of the three Angels who appeared to Abraham. The Roman Martyrology remembers the Fligth on Feb 17.

Flinders Petrie W. M. archaeologist. He, with his wife Lady Petrie, began to work in Palestine in 1890, at Tell el Hesy (probably the Biblical Egion (Jos. 10, 3), (Khirbet AjIan). Petrie excavated in 1930 the Biblical Sharulhen (Tell el-Farah) of Jos. 19, 13. He was buried on the Protestant-Anglican Cemetery on Mount Sion. He was reburied on the Military British Cemetery which is at Mount Scopus. But his burial place on the cemetery of Mount Sion is still marked by an upstanding stone with his name and by a flat slab which bears a cross. The key to this cemetery on Mount Sion is in the American School for Holy Land Studies (the formerly Bishop Gobat's School).

Flora, St., Virgin. She belonged to the Order of St. John. She died in 1347 (AA.SS. June 11).

Florian, St., surnamed Calanicus, and 58 companions. They were killed by the Saracens in Eleutheropolis (Beit-Guvrin) during the reign of Emperor Heraclius (609-641). The Martyrologium Romanum has their memory on Dec 17: Florianus, Calanicus et martyres quinquaginta (50) vel LVIII (= 58). - The Martyrologium Usuardi has the memory on June 6.

Foache, Madame. This French lady built the Basilica of Jesus Adolescent (Salesian Church) on the mountain in Nazareth, in 1906.

Forand, Sister of 'Filles de la Charité. She bought the ground for the Hôpital Français de la Sainte Famille at Nazareth. The hospital was inaugurated in 1910. (Compare: Sion Léonie, Sister).

Forefathers of the Lord. The Greek liturgy has on Sunday between 11 and 17 December: Adam, Henoch, Melchisedec, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; the men who lived under the Law: Moses, Aaron, Josuah, Samuel, David the four major Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, Daniel the 12 minor prophets; Elijah, Eliseus, Zachariah, the priest, John the Baptist.

Forner, Latin priest at Bethlehem. He explored in 1886 the village El Medieh, east of Lydda, and identified it as Modi'im (Modi'n).

Fortunata, St., and the brothers Carponius, Evaristus and Priscianus, martyrs in Caesarea, Palestine in 303. The body of the lady Fortunata is venerated in Naples (Italy). The Mart. Romanum has the memory on Oct 14.

Fortunatus, one of the 70 disciples, in the Greek list. Such a Fortunatus is not named in the Roman Martyrology. He is venerated on June 15 and July 5. He is also remembered, under the 70 disciples, on their common feast, on Jan 4.

Fortunatus, Eusebius, Titulus and Conditor, in Palestine (IIst -4th century). The AA.SS. mention them on Aug 14.

Fortunatus of Fano (Italy). This Franciscan priest travelled from Galilee to Jerusalem. In Samaria he was wounded by Moslems, he was transported to Jerusalem, where he died on August 20, 1862, at the age of 48 years. He had worked in Palestine for 6 years.

Fortunatus, (pseudo-patriarch of Jerusalem) 802-803. The AA.SS. mention him on Feb 26.

Forty Martyrs. The 'Commemoratorium de casis Dei (9th century) mentions a sanctuary of the Forty Martyrs in the valley of Josaphat. The sanctuary is localised at 'Bir el-Keniseh (well of the Church' in the village of Siloe (Siloam). Perhaps these 40 Martyrs are meant by the Georgian liturgy on Oct 13: forty saints. - On the west side of the atrium before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre are three Greek chapels: St. James (the Greek parish church); St John (the Baptist) on the site of the baptistry; the Forty Martyrs, nearest to the Basilica. - Forty Martyrs are also venerated in Beit Sahur east of Bethlehem. The feast of the Forty Martyrs is on March 9.

Forty defenders of Gaza. The Roman Martyrology has on Dec 12: In Eleutheropolis Florianus, Calanicus and 38 (or 58) companions. They were killed at the time of the Emperor Heraclius (609-641) by the Saracens. See also Florian.

Forty saints. October 13, in the house of priest Peter, deposit of 40 saints, according to the lectionary of Latal, in the Georgian liturgy. Perhaps the 40 saints are 40 martyrs.

Foulque de Bouillon. At the approach of Frederick Barbarossa (in 1189), Saladin evacuated Baghras, north-east of Alexandretta. Baghras was always under dispute between Armenians and Templars Knights. Foulque of Bouillon, who was a cousin of Leon 11 of Armenia, occupied the empty fortress in the name of Leon 11, and guarded it for 20 years.

Four and twenty Priests of Heaven. The Ethiopian Synaxarium on Khedar 24 locates them round about the throne of God.

Four Beasts of Ezekiel (= four living creatures, Ezekiel 1, 6) The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on the 8th day of Khedar (= third month, Nov 7-Dec 6): 'a salute to the Four Beasts and to the horses of the Cherubim. 'On the east side of the courtyard before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre is the Greek Orthodox Convent of St. Abraham and Melchizedek, and also in the midst the Armenian Chapel of St. John (this chapel is closed), and most close to the Basilica the Ethiopian Chapel of St. Michael and all Saints. Near this Ethiopian Chapel is the Chapel of the Four Beasts. Its property is in dispute between Copts and Ethiopians.

Four Councils. The memory is in the Church of the Anastasis on Sept 17, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The four Councils are: Nicaea in 325, Constantinople in 381, Ephesus in 431, Chalcedon in 451.

Four Gregories. Gregory, the Illuminator of Armenia, Gregory of Nyssa in Cappadocia, Gregory of Neocaesarea or the Thaumaturgus of Pontus, Gregory of Agrigento in Sicily. - These four hierarchs with the same first name Gregory are sometimes represented as a group in icons. There is no common feast for the group in the liturgy.

Four Hierarchs. Michel Psellos speaks of the four hierarchs. Besides the three hierarchs, (Basileus of Caesarea, Gregorius of Nazianze, Johannes Chrysostomus) he adds Gregory of Nysse (born in Caesarea in Cappadocia round 355 and died at Constantinople in 394). Gregory of Nyssa (Nysse) came in 380 as pilgrim to Jerusalem (Epistola 11). He was the brother of Basil, the Great (= Basil of Caesarea) who was born round 329 and died in 379.

Francis of Assisi, St. The feast of Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) is on October 4. Under Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) during the 5th Crusade, Francis was at Damietta in 1219 and perhaps afterwards in Acre. Perhaps from Acre, he visited Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Acre has its St. Francis' Street. The name was given in 1969. Jerusalem has its St. Francis' Street. It climbs up through the Christian quarter and ends at the Franciscan Convent of St. Saviour which is inside the New Gate.

Francis of Assisi and his stay at Acre. Jacques de Vitry, bishop of Acre, took part at the campaign of Egypt from June 1218 to September 1219. He was with St. Francis at Damietta in Egypt in 1219. He mentions the visit of Francis to the Sultan at Damietta. Francis was with the Sultan 'aliquot dies' (some days). Jacques de Vitry does not mention a visit of Francis to Acre. Perhaps Francis returned directly from Damietta to Italy. (ita Arce A., Francisco de Asis y el sultan al-Kamil en Damieta, 1219.) - G. Basetti-Sani, a Franciscan author, published a bull (= papal edict) of Pope Honorius III (12161227) 'Cum carissimi in Christo filii of July 24, 1217. This bull is addressed to the ecclesiastical authorities of the main harbours, Genoa, Messina, Brindisi, and it forbids under excommunication for the crusaders the pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre.

Francis, Blessed, martyred in Armenia in 1314, together with Monald.

Francis of Larino, servant of God. During 18 years he acted as a chorister in the Holy Land. He died on July 26, 1655.

Francis of Pisciotta. This Franciscan was a missionary in the Holy Land. On his return he died near the coast of the Kingdom of Naples in 1520. The Martyrologium Franciscanum venerates him on December 7.

Francis of Spoleto (Italy), Blessed. He was beheaded in 1288 in Damietta (Egypt), where the Franciscans had a hospice at the end of the 13th century. He is venerated in the Martyrologium Franciscanum on Jan 1.

Francis of TrivuIzio (Italy). He was born in Milan round 1440. In 1494 he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On his return, he died, and was buried in the island of Rhodos. The Martyrologium Franciscanum mentions him on August 13.

Francis Peralto, servant of God, martyr. The Bey Mohammed, nicknamed Abu-Dahab, father of gold, took in 1775 possession of Ramleh and of Jaffa. Francis Peralta, a Franciscan priest of Spain, was beheaded at Jaffa on May 9, 1775, together with Father Martin Caballeros.

Francis Pinazzo, Blessed. He was born at Alpuente, Spain, in 1802. In 1843 he came to the Custody of the Holy Land and worked in Ain Karem, Jaffa, Nazareth, Nicosia (Cyprus) and Damascus. He suffered martyrdom by the Druses at Damascus on July 10, 1860.

Francis Trifon Lopez, Franciscan. He was born in 1775 in Castilla, Spain. In 1803 he came to Palestine, where he served during 53 years in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. He died at Jerusalem on July 26, 1857.

Francis of Verrazzano, consul of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany at Saida. He received in 1631 from Emir Fakreddin the permission for the Franciscans to settle on Mount Tabor.

Franciscan Martyrs at Tripoli in Lebanon. Seven or eight Franciscans were killed at Tripoli in 1289. (Van der Vat, 81)

Franciscan Messengers from Acre. On November 25, 1244 Robert, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem who resided in Acre, sent two Franciscans, J. and R., from Acre to announce to the Pope and to the Court of England and to the Court of France that Jerusalem had fallen to the Khwarismian Turks in 1244. (Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores, XXXVI, 1, 262)

Franciscan Protomartyrs in Palestine in 1244. In 1239 Theobald of Champagne sailed for Acre. He was followed in 1240/41 by Richard of Cornwall. Both consented to ally themselves with the Emir of Emesa (Syria) against the Sultan of Egypt, but in a battle near Jaffa, they were defeated by Bybars, the Egyptian general. Christians in Jerusalem were slain, Franciscans fell as martyrs round 1244, after the defeat (Oct 17, 1244) at Forbie near Gaza.

François Clement, servant of God, martyr. He was born at Samur, Bourgogne in France. In 1702 he arrived in Alexandria with irregular papers and he acted as chaplain for the French consulate, and for the French merchants. He apostatized to Islam. After a few days he repented and insulted the Moslem religion. After his threefold assertion that he was a Christian, he was decapitated on May 5, 1703.

Franji. This Arabic word means Frank, Crusader. - The Chapel of the Franks is to the south of Calvary, but outside the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. A staircase served once as an external (a Latin, a Frank) entrance to Calvary. The Chapel is the exclusive property of the Latin Community. its key is in St. Saviour's Convent. Underneath the Chapel of the Franks is the Greek oratory, which is dedicated to St. Mary of Egypt. She was converted in the atrium before the Basilica.

Frank Mountain (Herodium) (Arabic: Jebel Foureidis, Hill of the Paradise). Herod the Great was buried on the Fortress Herodium. -Turcomans of Transjordan had plundered Tekoa, and passed alongside Jebel Fureidis, and tried to pillage Jerusalem in 1138. The Templars, under the command of Robert of Bourguignon, drove away the pillagers, but were attacked. Eudes of Montfaucon was killed in action.

Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria. He came as a pilger to the Holy Land. He was killed in Serajevo on June 28, 1914. This murder led to World War I (1914-1918).

Franz Joseph 1, Emperor (1848-1916) of Austria-Hungary. He was the first Emperor who, after the Crusades, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Nov 12, 1869. He continued his way, from Jaffa to Port Said to assist at the inauguration of the Canal of Suez. (18 Nov, 1869). Emperor Franz Joseph entered Jerusalem through Damascus Gate (Bab el Nasr, Gate of the Victor). He found accomodation in the Austrian Hospice, opposite the 3th Station. This Hospice was inaugurated in 1856. He received in 1870 permission for the Franciscans to rebuild the small convent which is to the north side of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Franz Joseph Costa Major. He was Rector of the Austrian Hospice. He took care of the annual Bavarian pilgrimage. He translated in 1876 the 'Guide Indicateur' of Liévin de Hamme into the German language.

Frederick Janssoone, servant of God. He was born at Ghyvelde (North France) in 1838. In 1874 he joined the Custody of the Holy Land. In 1890 he went to Canada as Commissar for the Holy Land. He died at Montreal on August 4, 1916. The 'causa' for his beatification had been introduced to Rome.

Frederick Barbarossa. He took part in the 3rd crusade (1189-1192). On his way to the Holy Land he was drowned in Turkey.

Frederick of Swabia. This son of Frederick Barbarossa reached Acre in October 1190, only with 1, 000 men.

Frederick II, Emperor. He sailed from Brindisi in the autumn of 1227, but returned to Otranto. Pope Gregory W excommunicated him. Frederick sailed again in 1228. By the treaty of Feb 18, 1229, which was to last 10 years, Frederick became King of Jerusalem. As he was excommunicated, he had to crown himself. Nazareth, Bethlehem and Jerusalem were to remain in the possession of the Christians, with a strip connecting Jerusalem with the port of Acre.

Frederick William of Prussia, crown prince. He visited the Holy Land in 1869 and continued from Jaffa to Port Said for the inauguration of the Canal of Suez. This crown prince also entered through Damascus Gate. He received in 1869 from the Sultan of Constantinople the permission to buy the ruins of the Sainte Marie Latine church with its cloister. Now it is the Erlöserkirche (or Saviour Church) for the Lutherans. His father, Frederick William IV, king of Prussia, had worked for the founding of a joint Anglican-Lutheran bishopric in Jerusalem. (founded in 1841).

Frei Eduardo, former president (1964-1970) of Chile. Free and his wife visited Jerusalem on Sunday, May 9, 1976.

Frenchman. A noble Frenchman lived in 1103 at Tabaria (Tabor). (Miracula S. Jacobi, n. 212) (AA.SS. July 25)

French martyrs. Two French pilgrims were arrested at Gaza in 1555. They refused to renounce their christian religion, and they were executed. Their bodies were buried by the Christians of Gaza in the Greek-Orthodox church. (Quaresmius, 11, 697)

French Marins in 1875 and 1919. They planted an iron cross in 1875 on the pyramid-memorial for the French soldiers who were killed in 1799 on Mount Carmel. The memorial was damaged by the Turks in 1914-1918. French Marins renewed it in 1919.

French pilgrimage of Penance in 1883. The second pilgrimage of Penance donated a bronze statue of St. Peter to the Franciscan Church at Tiberias.

French pilgrims drowned. French pilgrims made an excursion from Jerusalem to Petra. On Monday of the Holy Week, April 8, 1963 more than 20 of their group under the guidance of Professor Steinmann, were drowned in the narrow Siq of Petra by a flood that from the wadi invaded the ruins of Petra. Since this disaster the dam has been repaired to prevent flooding in the area of Petra.

Fretellus (1145). He mentions the casal Saint Gillis (Sinjil). There are two ruins in Sinjil from the Crusader time: one is named Qasr (tower, fortress); the second is called Kenise (church).

Freytag-Lorringhoven, Baroness. She bought in 1912 a plot, east of the Church of Emmaus, and she built there a leprosarium. The German Sisters of Charles Borromaeus took care of the home and run there a dispensary.

Friars Minors, 36, martyred in 1541 by the Turks. They are mentioned on Jan 24 in AA.SS.

Frisian. A certain Frisian crusader of the first Crusade (1096-99) is mentioned in Acta Sanctorum Jan 7. (Miracula S. Jacobi c. 111 n. 1)

Frisian leaders in the first Crusade: see Eeiko and Sikko

Frotmundus Rothonensis. He visited Palestine after 855. (AA.SS. Oct 24)

Fructuosus, St., archiepiscopus Bracarensis. He was impeded to come to Palestine in 655. (Vita S. Fruct., c. IV, n. 17-18) (AA.SS. April 16)

Frumentius of Tyre, Lebanon. According to Rufinus, Frumentius and Aedesius were the travelling companions of Meropius. In Ethiopia, Meropius was assassinated, but the two young men attained a position at the court of the King of Aksum. Frumentius engaged in missionary work. And instead of returning to his home in Tyre, Lebanon, he went to Alexandria. There Athanasius, between the years 340 and 346, commissioned him to return to Ethiopia, after having consecrated him bishop. Frumentius established a Christian community in Ethiopia. He is called 'Apostle of Ethiopia'. - The Copts have his feast on July 20. The Roman Martyrology mentions him on Oct 27, the Byzantine Church on Nov 30. Frumentius preached peace, therefore he was called 'Abba Salama'. The Ethiopian Synaxarium has on Hamle 26: 'Salutation, salutation, 1 say, with joyful voice to Abba Salama. '

Fulcher of Chartres. He was the chaplain of King Baldwin I (1100-1118). Fulcher reports that the Holy Fire did not appear on the Holy Saturday in 1101, because of the sins of the Franks.

Fulcherius, seventh patriarch (1145-1157) of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

Fulcherus, socius Sancti Lietberti Camerac.
Fulcherus came to Palestine in 1054-1056. (Radulphus monachus, Vita S. Lietberti, c. IV-V, n. 27-41) (AA.SS. June 23)

Fulcone: see Falco

Fulcus, St., Aquinat.
He came to Palestine round 1137. (Acta S. Fulci, nr 1) (AA.SS. May 22 and Oct 25)

Fulgosius, archbishop of Antioch. After the death of his wife, he became a monk. He was appointed as archbishop of Antioch. He protected his flock against the Arian wolves, and against the followers of Macedonius and against the Sabellian heretics. St. John Chrysostom (5h century) praised him. Fulgosius is saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Takhshash 24.

Fulk of Anjou. He married Melisend, who was the eldest daughter of Baldwin II and of Morphia. Fulk and Melisend were coronated in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre on July 2, 1129. Fulk died in 1144. Probably it was Fulk who built the Fortress Belvoir (Coquet, Coquetum) at the west side of the Jordan between Beth Shean and the southern shore of the Lake of Galilee.

Fulke de Neuilly. This French priest preached a crusade in the time of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216).


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