A. Mertens, "Who was a Christian in the Holy Land?" - Encyclopedia

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C. B. American. This American was in Paris, then he went to Egypt and continued to Palestine. He died in August, 1830, at the stay of 25 years in Jerusalem. He was consul in Lyon, he converted from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism in Jerusalem. He was buried and had his tombstone at the Latin cemetery on Mount Sion (Robinson, Palestine, vol 1, p. 338, 1841).

C + M + B: In some countries the father of the family writes with chalk the three initials C, M, B, on the lintels in the house. The three initials stand for C(aspar), M(elchior), B(althasar), the names of the three Kings who visited the Holy Family in Bethlehem.

Caballeros Martino, martyr, Franciscan from Spain. He was decapitated in Jaffa by the Bey Mohammed, nicknamed Abu Dahab, on May 9, 1775.

Caboga Bernard, Count. He was Austrian consul in Jerusalem. He bought in 1869 at Tantur in Bethlehem the area that was called the Tower of Jacob and Ephrata. There in 1876 the Hospice of the Order of Malta was opened.

Cadocus, St. Round 530 he came to Palestine. (Vita S. Cad., c. I, nA; c. II, n. 11) (AA.SS. Jan 24)

Caesar, one of the 70 disciples, bishop of Dyrrhachium, Epirus Nova, in the Greek list. This Caesar is not named in the Roman Martyrology. The Menologium of Basilius II (Patr. Gr. CXVII) mentions on Dec 9 out of the 70 disciples, six disciples of Paul. The six were bishops. Among the six is Caesar as bishop of Corone. Caesar Is mentioned together with Sosthenes, Apollo, Kephas, Epaphroditus and Onisophorus.

Caianus. This first bishop of Gezer, was at Nicaea in 325

Cain. The Ethiopian Synaxarium (Ter 2) tells that Cain married Eiyud, who was born with him, instead of Aklima, the sister who was born with Abel. Adam rebuked Cain: 'It is against the Law to take to wife thy sister who was born with thee'. Cain slew Abel.

Cainan, who was the son of Enos, who was the son of Seth. In the Ethiopian Synaxarium: Cainan, who lived a hundred and ten years; he died on the fourth day of the week. Commemorated on the 13th day of Sane (the tenth month, June 5-July 4).

Cajus. One of the 70 disciples, bishop of Ephesus, in the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology has on Oct 4: Crispus and Cajus. Paul baptized Crispus and Cajus in Corinth (1 Cor 1, 14).

Calanicus, surname of Florian of Gaza, St. He was murdered by the Saracens in Eleutheropolis (Beit-Guvrin) during the reign of Emperor Heraclius (609-641), together with 58 companions. Commemoration Dec 17 in Mart. Rom.

Caleb, Nebi Caleb. His tomb is venerated in the valley southeast of Khirbet Tibne, together with a tomb of Joshua (Qubbet el Hindi and a tomb of Nun, the father of Joshua.

Callinicos. This Greek monk repaired in 1878 the Greek convent of SS. John and George of Choziba.

Calvary: Pilgrim Peter Rindfleisch of Breslau visited Jerusalem in 1494 or 1496. He saw the mouth of the hole where the Cross on Calvary stood, surrounded by a circular plate of copper.

Calvary, Second Calvary: The struggle for possession of Calvary between Armenians and Georgians was settled by the Mameluks of Egypt in favour of the Georgians on account of the special connections of the Georgians with the Mameluks. The Armenians were compensated with the Armenian Gallery, which they called the Second Calvary, because it faces Calvary.

Camaria. A gentleman of Camaria (Sicily) came to Palestine round 1220-1266 (AA.SS. April g).

Cambelotti. This Italian artist designed the three vitrails in the Chapel of the Flagellation, which was restored in 1927128.

Cambrai Map. Cambrai is a town in the Northern part of France. The Map of Cambrai was drawn round 1150. It represents Jerusalem as it was in the time of the Crusader Kingdom.

Cana. 'The Lord changed water and made it into sweet wine, and not thin wine, but wine sound and good to the taste, and of pleasant perfume. ' This miracle of Cana is remembered by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Ter. 13.

Canonica. She was the daughter of a chief of Constantinople. She retired to the desert along the Jordan where she took care of the sheep. (Analecta Bollandiana, 31, 1912, p. 317, Nr 45) In the Palestinian-Georgian calendar her feast is on Nov 5.

Canute, St., King of the Danes. He is painted on a column in the nave of the Basilica of Nativity in Bethlehem. Also Saint Olaf (of Norway) is painted there.

Caparelli Louis. He was commander of the engineers' unit in Napoleon's expeditionary force before Acre in 1799. The tomb of Caparelli is on the place which is called by the Arabs 'deboya'. The site of his tomb is since 1976 marked with a marble plaque in French, Hebrew and Arabic. Caparelli lost a leg in a campaign in France. He lost a hand in the siege of Acre. He died before Acre and is buried north of the city. The tombstone was placed in July 1976.

Capharnaum of the Crusaders. The hamlet Kafr Lam on the Mediterranean coast to the north of Caesarea, has a Fountain of the Church (Bir-ei-Keniseh). This hamlet was by the Crusaders sometimes considered as Capharnaum-by-the-sea. The village is to the West of El Tira near Kefar Gallim.

Cappiello Lino. Italian, ex-custos of the Holy Land. He died at Jerusalem on April 27, 1971. He and his family donated the central altar in the choir of the Latin Parish Church St. Saviour in Jerusalem.

Capistran: see John Capistran, St.

Capiton. 25th bishop of Jerusalem, died 185. (AA.SS.)

Capiton, St., Martyr. In the Greek liturgy on March 7. The bishop of Jerusalem, Hermon (302-312) sent first Ephrem and Basil, and later Eugenius, Agathodorus, Capiton and Elpid(i)us, and at the end Aitherus, as missionaries. Eugenius, Agathodorus, Capiton and Elpid(i)us were killed by the pagans of Cherson.

Caprasius, prior Carmeli (falsus) 450 (AA.SS. Oct 15)

Caprasius, Saint, first abbot of Lerin; Honoratus, afterwards bishop of Aries, and his brother Venantius, St., of Lerin. They visited Palestine round 380. (AA.SS. June 1; Jan 16; May 30)

Caradon, Lord. He was a Member of the Mandatory officialdom from 1929 to 1937, and he served as District Commissioner in Nablus for a time. From 1939 to 1942 he was Assistant British Resident in Transjordan. He became associated with the wording of UN Resolution 242. Caradon was made a life peer.

Carey Miss. She built an 'Interdenominational Shrine' in 1936 on the wooded hill, Mount Orah, or Jebel er Ras, near the village of Orah, which is east of Jerusalem. The shrine belongs now to the Anglican Bishopric.

Caritas. Latin name of the person Agape. (Love)

Carlos Juan de Bourbon, Prince, and Sofia, princess. They visited the Holy Land in Feb 1966.

Carmelite monks and French soldiers on Mount Carmel, were murdered by the Turks as soon as Napoleon on May 29, 1799 began his retreat from Acre. A small pyramid, surmounted by an iron cross, stands over their remains.

Carmelite Fathers in Haifa. They had a small chapel in 1767. They have the Latin parish since 1832. They built a church in 1868-70, and in 1961 they built a new parish church (St. Joseph) on a site, which belonged to the Italian National Association, and had served as a Salesian School from 1922 to 1948. The church was designed by A. Barluzzi, who died on Dec 14, 1960.

Carmelite coat-of-arms. The three mountain tips of Mount Carmel was the origin of the coat-of-arms of the Carmelite Order. The three stars are for Mary, Elijah and Eliseus.

Carponius, St. He was martyred, together with his sister Fortunata and his brothers Evaristus and Priscianus, in 303 in Caesarea Palestine. (Rom. Mart. memory Oct 14)

Carpus: see Karpus, one of the 70 disciples.

Cartaphilus: When Jesus was carrying His cross, Cartaphilus jeered 'Go on! Faster!' Jesus quietly replied 'I go, but thou shalt wait till I come'. This anecdote originated in Armenia during the 13th century; later it found its way to Europe.

Carter Jimmy. He visited Israel in May 1973, where he met General Eli Zeira. Carter was in 1973 governor of Georgia. As President of the U.S. A. he visited Jerusalem in 1979.

Caspar (Kaspar). Caspar represents the King of the Moors among the three Kings (Magi). In a calendar of Köln, his death is remembered on Jan 1. Caspar figures now for the King of the Moors.

Cassianus, St., martyr. He is one of a large number of Christians who came from Palestine to Cyprus in the 4th century. He suffered martyrdom in Alekhtora in Cyprus. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Sept 16.

Cassianus, Blessed, martyr in Ethiopia. He visited Palestine in 1637. Feast on Aug 7 in the Mart. Rom. together with Agathangelus.

Cassianus, 17th bishop of Jerusalem, 2nd century. Feast in May (AA.SS. Prop. XI)

Cassianus: see Johannes Cassianus, St., abbot of Marseilles.

Casterius, martyr. Together with Domninus, Theotimus, Philotheus, Dorotheus and Silvanus of Emesa, martyred in Caesarea, Palestine, under Maximianus (305-311). Mart. Rom. Nov 5.

Castor, St., martyr and Theodora, St. Sept 18 in the Greek synaxaries.

Catalan pilgrims in 1323. They mention the place Gallicantu (the cock-crow) where there was a beautiful church in the time of the Christians.

Catald, St. According to legend Catald was born in Ireland in the beginning of the 7th century, near Lismore. He was the superior of the convent of Lismore and became later bishop of Rachau. His name is connected with the name CATALDUS. Cataldus made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and was later buried in the cathedral of Taranto (South-Italy). He had been asked by the inhabitants of Taranto to be their bishop and he was in this office for 15 years. - A fresco (1, 73 meter on 0, 83 meter) on the 8th column north (=leftside) in the central nave of the Basilica of the Nativity in Bethlehem represents Catald. The inscription A(gios) Kat(al)d is in Greek on the right side, and in Latin characters on the left side of the aureole. (Terra Santa, 1950, pp. 272-275). His feast is on March 8 or May 10, very seldom on September 3.

Cataldus: see Catald.

Caterina Trojani, foundress of the Franciscan Missionaries (of Egypt). She died in 1887. These Sisters have convents in the Holy Land. The marquess Pauline de Nicolay foretold to Caterine in 1858: 'Before your death you will have a convent in Jerusalem'. The Custody of the Holy Land called her to Jerusalem in order to erect there an orphanage. Caterine died on May 6, 1887.

Catherine Emmerich. She was born in Emmerich (Germany), she was an Augustine nun, she died in 1824. Clemens Brentano published her visions. According to Catherine Emmerich, the Virgin Mary went to Ephesus with the 'beloved disciple' and died there. Ancient apocryphal works of the 3th century place the death and burial of Mary in Jerusalem. - St. Brigid of Sweden had a vision in Jerusalem (round 1371), in which the Virgin Mary revealed to her that she was buried in Jerusalem and assumed into heaven from the tomb in Jerusalem.

Catharine of Sweden, St. She is mentioned together with Brigid of Sweden, round 1372. (AA.SS. Oct 8) Catherine of Sweden was born in 1331. She was the first abbess of the abbey which had been founded by her mother Brigid (Brigitta) of Sweden. In 1372 Catherine visited Palestine. Catherine died March 24, 1381 in Vadstena. (Ulpho, Vita S. Catharinae, c. V, n. 42; AA.SS. March 24) - The AA.SS. mention Ulpho, who was the husband of St. Brigitta, on Feb 12.

Catholicos. This title was accorded to the Armenian Patriarch in 1142 (Guill. de Tyr, XV, 18)

Cattani. see Peter Catanus.

Cebian Mattia, Franciscan lay-brother. He was murdered by Greek pirates in 1833.

Cedonius (Celidonius) of Aix-en-Provence. (Aug 23; June 10) This Cedonius has been identified with the blind beggar, who was healed by Christ in the Pool of Siloam. The beggar, together with Magdalena, Martha and Lazarus of Bethany, left Palestine and landed in Marseille.

Celidonius of Aix-en-Provence (France). see Cedonius.

Cenacle, Martyrs of the Cenacle after 1365. Peter I of Cyprus, with the agreement of Pope Urban V, attacked Alexandria in 1365. The Sultan took revenge on the Christians. The Franciscans who lived at the Cenacle on Mount Sion, were conveyed to Damascus. Some of them died there in prison. In 1369 Franciscans are again on Mount Sion.

Cendeas, St. He was born in Germany. At the age of eighteen he went to Jerusalem, where he became a monk. He settled in the Jordan Valley. He was ordained a priest, and after several years he entered the monastic life in Cyprus, where he died. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Oct 6.

Cesar of Spiers (Germany), Blessed, Franciscan. Round 1217 he went to the Orient, together with Brother Elias. Cesar returned in 1220 to Italy. He died at the end of 1239.

Cesarius, monk. His epitaph was discovered in the ruins of the Church of the Eleona on the Mount of Olives (see Revue Eleona, 1975, Octobre, p. 8). - Perhaps the Church of the Eleona was the burial place for the patriarchs of Jerusalem.

Cetsippus. see Chrysippus, legate.

Ceverio de Vera. He identifies the villa of 'Botichela' (at a fourth of a mile from the tomb of Rachel) with Rama. He reports that in 1595 the Monastery of the Cross was in possession of the Greeks.

Ceyssens Ananias, Franciscan. Peer (Belgium)- Jerusalem, 1935.

Chamaan. He was the son of Bersellai, who was king of Galaad, east of the Jordan. David took Chamaan to Bethlehem. There David recommends him to the bienveillance of Solomon. (1 Kings 2, 7). Chamaan built in Bethlehem a khan (Jer 41, 7).

Champollion. The French vessel 'Champollion' shipwrecked near the Lebanese coast. French pilgrims, on their way to celebrate Christmas in the Holy Land, were among the shipwrecked. The vessel was named after the scholar Champollion, who deciphered the Egyptian alphabet. The shipwrecking happened during the regime of the Mandelbaum-Gate at Jerusalem (1948-1976).

Charalampos, St., hieromartyr, priest. He was martyred under Septimius Severus (193-211) by president Lucian, in Magnesia, near Ephesus. Together with him were martyred Porphyrius and Dauctus, and three women. Perhaps Charalampos was bishop of Magnesia. The feast is in the Greek liturgy on Feb 10. The convent of Charalampos in Jerusalem has in its northern wall a circular stone-slab. It is the end of a column, that continues to the altar of the chapel. The site recalls the eighth station: Jesus is lamented by the Daughters of Jerusalem. The convent belongs to the Greek-Orthodox community.

Charati, hegumenos. Clermont-Ganneau discovered on the Mount of Olives a mosaic floor with a Greek inscription: 'Tomb belonging to the Very Saint Charati, hegumenos of Annunciation, Monastery of the Armenians'. (Revue Biblique, 1892, p. 571) The mosaic is presently in Paris.

Charbel: see Makhluf.

Chariton, St., monk. He was born in lconium (Turkey). He went to Palestine where he became a monk, and founded the laura at Ain-Farah; then he withdrew to the Mount of Temptation near Jericho, where he established the laura of Douka. From Douka he went to Tekoa. He returned to Ain-Farah, where he died in the middle of the 4th century. He is venerated by the Greek liturgy on Sept 28. Chariton founded also the Laura of Souka. It is also called Old Laura, or Laura of St. Chariton. The Georgian liturgy has the feast of Chariton on Sept 28. Robbers' Cave: In 275 Chariton set out from lconium for Jerusalem. North of the city he was taken by brigands. They led him into their cave. During the night the robbers died of poison. Chariton inherited their cave. It is on the southern cliff of the gorge Wadi Farah. Here Chariton founded a laura, and he built a church, which was dedicated to St. Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem (314-333). Chariton left Farah and founded the laura of Duca (Duq, Douq) near Jericho.

Grotto of St. Chariton: Round the shoulder of the valley Kareitoun is the Grotto of St. Chariton. This grotto (Magharat al- Ma'sa) is on the western slope of the rock cleft. Khirbet (ruins) Kareitoun is on the eastern slope on the north top of the cleft. The Wadi(valley) Kareitoun is between Herodion and Tekoa. In the grotto, the monk Chariton lived, before returning to the ]aura of Pharah.

Charismatical Congress. At Pentecost 1977 there was a Charismatical Congress at Jerusalem. Its moderator was Cardinal Leo Suenens from Belgium. The pilgrimage to Jerusalem was at the occasion of his jubilee of 50 years priesthood.

Charlemagne, Charles the Great, Carolus Magnus, Karl der Grosse. He was King of the Franks from 768 to 814, and after 800 Emperor in the West. Born 742, died in Aachen on Jan 28, 814. Charlemagne established diplomatic ties with the Abasid caliph in Bagdad, Harun-al-Rashid (786-809), who was also hostile towards the Moslems in Spain. Harun recognized in 807 Charlemagne as PROTECTOR of the HOLY PLACES, and accorded to him the keys (=free access) of the Holy Sepulchre and treated the Christians kindly. - Chancellor Rainald von Dassel (died 1167) supported the canonization of Charlemagne. Antipope Paschal III confirmed the canonization, but it was not accepted by Rome. In the dioceses of Aachen and of Osnabrock Charlemagne is honoured as 'Blessed'on Jan 28. - Falsa Caroli Magni in Terram Sanctam expeditio (AA.SS. Jan 28; Oct 8)

Charles de Foucauld, born Strasbourg 1858, killed in Tamanrasset (Algeria) on Dec 1, 1916. Charles lived as gardener in the Poor Clares Convent in Nazareth (1890-1893). Charles was twice in Palestine: (1890-1893) and 1897 to 1900. During a spiritual retreat in 1898, he was perhaps in the Biblical Ephraim (Taybeh), the village where Jesus went from Jerusalem (Jn 11, 54) in order to escape the opposition of the authorities. - The mosaic which is behind the altar in the apse of the Latin church in the village of Taybeh shows Jesus who is welcomed with His disciples by the inhabitants. In the left edge below, Charles de Foucauld leads a child to Jesus. The mosaic is a gift of the 'Chapelains de Montmartre' who directed their pilgrimage to Taybeh. The Latin Church in Taybeh was inaugurated in 1971. (Lugans Georges, Terre Sainte, 1971, p. 72-77). In 1901 Charles was ordained a priest at Viviers (France).

Charles, Lunghi, servant of God, Franciscan. He was born in 1817 in Italy. He became a priest and afterwards he entered the Franciscan Order. He came to Palestine in 1843, where he died at Ain-Karem on March 25, 1849.

Charles, the Great: see Charlemagne.

Charles the Pious, (the Good), Blessed, Count of Flanders (1117-1127). He was the son of Saint Canute IV of Denmark. Charles the Pious was killed at Brugge in the Church of St. Donatianus. During the captivity of King Baldwin II, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was in 1123 offered to Charles the Pious. (Gualbertus notarius, Vita S. Car., c. l, n. 9) (AA.SS. March 2)

Chateaubriand, French writer (1768-1848). He visited Jerusalem in 1806/1807. He published in 1811 'Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem et de Jérusalem à Paris'.

Cherubinus, Surrentius. He was martyred by the Turks in 1566. Feast on May 12 (AA.SS.)

Child in the midst of the Apostles. The Syriac 'Book of the Bee' reports: The child whom our Lord called and set in the midst, and said 'Except ye be converted, and become as children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven' was Ignatius, who became patriarch of Antioch.

Children, who were blessed by the Lord: The Syriac 'Book of the Bee' reports: the children whom they brought near to the Lord, that He might lay His hand upon them and pray, were Timothy and Titus, and they were deemed worthy of the office of bishops.

Chitti, archaeologist. He identified in 1927-1930 the ruins of Khan el-Amar with the convent of St. Euthymius, who died there in 473.

Chodza Amiris. He served as a Turkish soldier in Jerusalem. On the eve of Easter, he witnessed the Holy Fire in the Church of the Resurrection, and was converted to the Christian faith. He suffered martyrdom in 1614 in Jerusalem.

Cholinduch, St., came to Palestine before 590. (AA.SS. July 13)

Chosroas II. The Catholicos KOMITAS (617-625) wrote to Chosroas II, to show pity on the Christians of Jerusalem. Chosroas had an Armenian general Smbat Bagratuni and accorded protection.

Christina, saint and famous martyr. This Christina was martyred - so it is thought - in Tyre, Phoenicia, under Emperor Septimius Severus round 220. A legend tells: Christina was the daughter of a chief of the army, who was named Urbanus. He imprisoned Christina in a tower which was filled with golden idols. Christina broke the golden statues and distributed the pieces to the poor. She was killed after severe tortures. The Melkite liturgy venerates this Christina on May 18; the Greek liturgy has her feast on July 24.

Christodorus I, patriarch of Jerusalem. see Sergius I.

Christodorus II, patriarch of Jerusalem. see Sergius II.

Christodoulos of Patmos. He was born in Nicaea in 1020, and went to Mount Olympus near Prusa. He became a hermit and went to Rome and Jerusalem. He was ordained an archimandrite by Nicholas III and was placed in charge of the monasteries of Mount Latmos, Caria. These monasteries were devastated. Finally, he decided to build a monastery on the island of Patmos. He died there in 1111. The Greek liturgy has his feast on March 16.

Christodoulos, patriarch of Jerusalem. He succeeded the Patriarch, who had been killed on the atrium before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in the year 936-938 AD. - The name of Christodoulos was Habib; he was from Caesarea; when he became patriarch of Jerusalem, he took the name Christodoulos. He restored the doors of the Basilica. These doors had been burned under his predecessor. The death impeded Christodoulos to finish these repairs.

Christopher, martyr. He was martyred in the time of Mahdi, the chief of the believers in Bagdad. - Christopher is known by the Passion of the twenty monks of Sabas in 797. Christopher was first a Moslem, he became a Christian and a monk in St. Sabas. He was beheaded on April 14, 778, which was Tuesday in Holy Week. - The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has his feast on April 13.

Christopher of Varese, Blessed, Franciscan. In 1468 he went to Palestine. He died in Milan in 1491. The Martyrologium Seraphicum has his memory on September 26.

Christophorus, martyr. In the Rom. Mart. on July 25; the Armenian liturgy on July 14; in the Coptic liturgy on Aug 3. The legendary 'giant' Christophorus is represented by the Eastern icons as having the head of a dog (Kynekephalos). Western artists moderate this aspect: they transform 'canineus' (belonging to the dog) into 'Cananeus' (from the country Kanaan) and retain the gigantic stature: Christophorus bears the globe. The man with the head of the dog has become a saint, who carries the infant Jesus across a river.

Christophorus of Ascalon, Patriarch of Jerusalem. He was the father of two sons and two daughters. In the year 325 Hegira (= 936 to 938 AD), at the first feast of Easter, at Palm Sunday, the Muslims laid fire to the southern doors of the Church of St. Constantine (= the church of the Holy Sepulchre). (Eutyches CSCO) (Compare: Christodoulos, patriarch)

Chrysippus, St. He lived in the monastery Khan-el-Ahmar, 15 kms east of Jerusalem. He died in 479.

Chrysippus, legate of St. John Eleemos. (Vita S. Joh. Eleemos., auctore Leontio, lat. versio, c. VI, n. 33; Vita ejusdem, auct. Simeone Metaphr., c. I, n. 6) (AA.SS. Jan 23). Round 614 Chrysippus was in Palestine.

Chryspoldus see Chryspolitus.

Chryspolitus (Chryspoldus) of Bettona. (May 12) A legend tells: He was from Jerusalem and was sent by St. Petrus to Italy. He preached in Bettona (Umbria) and became bishop there. He was martyred together with St. Barontius, and with his sister Tutela and twelve women. Tutela and the twelve women buried Chryspolitus and Barontius and were therefore martyred. It happened under Emperor Maximinian (305-311). Another legend adds: Chryspolitus was sawn asunder in two parts.

Churcher James, Dr. He was born in Tunisia, the son of an English doctor; he studied medicine in England. He came to Haifa as Mission doctor in 1924, for 'The British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews'. This society has over the years assumed its present title of ' Christian Witness to Israel '. Churcher brought his bride, Gladys Gill, to Haifa in 1935. In 1947, at the battle of Haifa, Dr. Churcher helped Jews and Arabs. The couple, who had no children, had 'many patients who are like sons and daughters'. Dr. Churcher left Haifa, after 53 years of medical service, at the age of 79 years, in 1977. - Since the Second World War, Dr. Churcher has almost inevitably been called ' Churchill ' by his patients, Jews and Arabs. (From Jerusalem Post, June 23, 1977)

Churchill, Dr. Since the Second World War the local nickname for Dr. James Churcher, who lived in Haifa from 1924 to 1977.

Churchill Winston. He came through the Holy Land in 1921 and visited Dr. Arthur Ruppin; he paid a flying visit to the Holy Land in 1934 and was the guest of the High Commissioner at Government House in Jerusalem.

Clares (Poor) of Acre. They were massacred in their convent of Acre in 1291.

Clark Francis: see Lewis

Classen David. He was the owner of an estate near Jaffa, in the 19th century. He converted from Christianity to Judaism.

Claude Jarier, servant of God. He was born in France. He died from the plaque in Jerusalem, March 18, 1653, twelve days after his arrival in the Custody of the Holy Land. He was the spiritual director of Skytte Lars, who converted from Lutheranism and became a Franciscan.

Claudia Procula, wife of Pilate. See: Procla.

Claudianus. He was inspector (ward) of the possessions of the Church of Eleutheropolis. At the end of his life, he retreated to the monastery of Romano, which was situated 5 miles from the city. He died in this monastery. Johannes Rufus in the 6th century mentions Claudianus. (Pleroforie in PO (Patrologia Orientalis 8, 90)

Claudianus of Perge, Martyr, died 251. His feast is on Feb 4 in the Byzantine Church. The Menologium of Basilius II mentions Claudianus of Perge together with Papias, Diodorus. (PG CXVII, 294)The Mart. Rom. has his feast on Feb 26. Deposit of the relics of Claudianus: in the Church of the Apostles on May 9.

Claudius of Campoloro, Servant of God. He was from Corsica, he joined the Custody of the Holy Land, he took care of those stricken by pestilence in Aleppo and died from the plague on June 23, 1669.

Claudius of Lodi, servant of God. He was born in Lodi, Italy, in 1616. In 1673 he came to the Orient, took possession of his office of Custos on Dec 14, 1673. In 1674 he began his journey to Constantinople in order to defend the rights of the Franciscans. He died in Saida, Lebanon, on June 14, 1674.

Clayton Gilbert. British, Brigade General C. A. 1917-1918.

Clematius. About 500 he travelled from Syria to Colonia. (AA.SS. Oct 21)

Clemens. One of the 70 disciples, bishop of Sardinia, according to the Greek list.

Clemens of Alexandria. He visited Palestine and received teaching from a Hebrew teacher. Died 216. (Stromata 1, 11, 2).

Clemens, St, monachus Ratisponensis. He came to Palestine round 1080. (Scotus Ratisp., Vita S. Clem., c. III, n. 15) (AA.SS. Feb 9)

Cleopas, St. (Feast Sept 25 in Mart. Rom.) He was one of the two disciples to whom Christ appeared on the road to Emmaus after His resurrection (Lk 24, 18). Sometimes Cleopas is identified with CLOPAS (Jn 19, 25), and 'Mary of Clopas' is then identified with his mother's sister'. Tradition has sometimes identified Clopas with Alphaeus, the father of James (Mt 10, 3; Mk 3, 18; Luke 6, 15; Acts 1, 13). A Christian tradition tells that Cleopas was stoned by the Jews, because he confessed the resurrection of Christ. In the church of Emmaus, Cleophas (left niche) bears on his right arm the palm of martyrdom and on his left arm the stones. Another tradition tells: Cleophas had 4 sons: St. James, the Less; Joseph, called Barsabbas; Judas Thaddeus, one of the 12 Apostles; Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem. This tradition gives to Cleophas two daughters: Salome and Mary. The Church of Emmaus has in its right niche the statue of Simeon, the youngest son of Cleophas. This Simeon became the 2nd bishop of Jerusalem, after the death of his brother, James the Less. -Cleopas, Cornelius, Pantelemon, Luke evangelist are venerated on Oct 29 in the Georgian liturgy; Cleopas is honoured by the Greek liturgy on Oct 29 or Oct 30.

Cleopatra and her son, Confessors, round 307. (AA.SS. Oct 19) Cleopatra brought the body of Saint Varus to Palestine. (Vita S. Vari, gr., c. II, n. 12)

Clergymen. Two Greek clergymen and one Armenian clergyman were killed in 1948 when the shell of a gun fell in the courtyard before the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

Clermont-Ganneau Ch. (1846-1923) in 1868 he was Chancellor of the French Consulate at Jerusalem. From 1868 to 1870 he excavated the site of the Pater Noster sanctuary on Mount of Olives. He excavated in 1869 the so-called Tombs of the Kings. The site 'Pater noster' and the area 'Tombs of the Kings' are property of the French Government. He also discovered the Temple inscription (Greek text) forbidding entry of Gentiles. The inscription is now in the Museum at Istambul.

Closis. On the east side of Khirbet el Mekhayyat, amid modern houses used by the local Bedouin tribe of Arab el-Ghaneimat, are two churches: one of Amos and Closis, the other of the priest John. Khirbet el Mekhayyat is to the southeast of Gebal Neba (= Mount Nebo).

Coderc Joseph. This French priest founded the Latin parish of Birzeit, and he was parish priest at Gifneh from 1859 to 1868.

Codratus, St., martyr, together with Acacius, St. Feast on March 22; April 27; March 4. Codratus and Acacius were converted at the martyrdom of Paula and his sister Juliana in Ptolemais (Acre), Palestine, under Emperor Aurelian (271-275).

Codratus, Acacius at Stratonius. Martyrs in Ptolemais (Acre) in 273 They are venerated on May 4 (AA.SS.) see: Paul and Juliana of Ptolemais.

Colinus. He was from England, he belonged to the secular clergy of the church of Acre. He joined the Franciscan Order in Syria, round 1220.

Colmanus St. He visited Palestine in 1012. (De S. Colmani sequentia; Vita S. Colm. c. I, n. 2, Bernardus Dapif., Vita S. Gothalmi, n. 2) (AA.SS. Oct 13; July 26)

Colonna, Cardinal. He was in Jerusalem in 1223, he brought as relic a column of the 'Flagellation' to the Church Santa Prassede in Rome.

Colt. The British Colt archaeological expedition excavated the ruins of Shivta (Subeita) in the Negev in 1934. The COLT-house is near the entrance to the area.

Columba Reatina, St. She had the plan to come to Palestine, round 1590. (Sebast. Perusinus, Vita S. Col., c. V, n. 35) (AA.SS. May 20)

Comitas. A mosaic, at the Monastery (built round 567) of Lady Mary in Beisan shows a Greek inscription: 'The whole work of laying the mosaic was completed in the time of the priest and hegumenos George and of the deuterarius COMITAS'.

Conder. He began in 1872 the survey of Western Palestine.

Conon, saint, abbas Penthuclae. He died 555. AA.SS. Feb 19.

Conon, abbas Aroasiae. (Fundatio Aroasiae, c. VIII-IX, - AA.SS. Jan 13) He came to Palestine round 1125.

Conon, count of Montaigu (Auvergne). He returned in 1101 from the first crusade with Peter the Hermit and with some citizens of Huy (Belgium). During a tempest Conon vowed to erect a church. They returned safely and built a monastery at Huy. There Peter the Hermit (Pierre l’Ermite) was buried in 1115.

Conrad, Emperor of Germany. He participated at the Second Crusade, and returned in 1148. (Vita S. Bern., I, VI, e. lI, n. 290-305; AA.SS. Aug 20)

Conrad of Halle, Blessed, martyr in 1269. This Franciscan Father was beheaded together with six (?) companions, when Sultan Baybars I (1260-1277) conquered Syria. Place of martyrdom is not known. (Van der Vat 95)

Conrad of Montferrat, Italian. Began the siege of Acre in 1189.

Conradus from Germany. He came to Palestine in 1073-1075 for the expiation of his sins. (Vita S. Emerici, ducis) (AA.SS. Nov 4)

Conrad of Würzburg. The murderers of Conrad, bishop of Würzburg in Germany, were enjoined to bear arms for four years against the Saracens. They were to wear no garments of bright colours; never to assist at public sports; not to marry; to march barefooted, and dressed in woollen; to fast on bread and water two days a week, and whenever they came to a city to go to the church, with bare backs, a rope round the neck, and rods in the hand, there to receive flagellation (scourging).

Conradus, St., Constantienis episcopus. He came to Palestine, in the time between 933 to 976. (AA.SS. Nov 26)

Constance, mother of Bohemund III. In the period of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem she was buried on the east side of the staircase that descends to the Tomb of Mary at Gethsemane.

Constantine the deacon. This monk was buried in a catacomb near the well of David in Bethlehem. At the well was a Byzantine convent with a church between 4th and 6th century.

Constantine, martyr. He was a monk in the Plain of the Jordan, and joined the 300 Palestinian Christians on their journey to Cyprus. Because of his refusal to sacrifice to the idols, he suffered martyrdom in the district of Larnaca in Cyprus in 320. The Greek liturgy venerates him on July 1.

Constantine and Helena, Saints, May 21: Constantine, the Great, King, is remembered on May 22 in the 'Katholikon' that means the basilica that was built by Constantine to commemorate the Passion of the Lord. The 'Katholikon' is sometimes called 'The Martyrion' or 'The Constantineum'. It is now a part of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Constantine died in 337 on May 22. Helena died at the age of 80 years in 329. Helena was buried in Rome.

Constantine, priest and hegumenos. The tabula ansata-inscription of the church Nea at Jerusalem reads: 'And this work carried out our most pious Emperor Flavius Justinianus under the care and the devotion of Constantinus, the most holy Priest and Hegumen, in the thirteenth (year) of (the) indiction. ' (Israel Exploration Journal, vol 27, 1977 p. 145-151). The 13th year of the Indiction of Emperor Justinianus (527-565) is probably 5341535. The church NEA was consecrated in 543. Pratum Spirituale mentions this Constantine.

Constantine the Russian, martyr. He was born in Russia, and served as priest in the Russian Embassy of Constantinople. During a Russian-Turkish war, he went to Mount Athos and to Jerusalem. Later he returned to Constantinople, and because of a quarrel, he renounced his faith. He repented, returned to the Christian Faith and was brought before the sultan. He refused to embrace Islam and was killed in Constantinople in 1743. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Dec 26.

Constantinia = Constantinople

Constantinople: Big fire of 461 under Emperor Leon the Great (Leon I). During 4 days it devastated a great part of the city. The flames stopped only on the seventh day. The calamity is yearly remembered in Jerusalem by the Greek liturgy on Sept 1.

Constantinus, priest and hegumen of the monastery of Nea in Jerusalem. (John Moschus, Pratum Spirituale, 6) see Constantine

Copronius (Kefrenya). He lived in Egypt, went to Jerusalem, led b, an angel of God, and arrived there in one night... and he returned to his habitation and died in peace. - 'Salutation to Kefrenya, the son of a pagan, who bound in fetters a wild beast that slew the cattle' (Ethiopian Syn. Khedar 8.)

Coptic Archbishops of Jerusalem

Basilius I (Basil): 1236-12601
Butrus I (Peter): 1271-1306
Mikhail (Michael): 1310-1324
Iuannes (John): 1326-1340;
Butrus II (Peter): 1341-1362;
Zakhariah (Zachariah): 1575-1600;
Ya'coub (James): 1604-16281
Akhristudulus I (Christodoulos): 1630-1648
Ghabrial (Gabriel): 1680-1705;
Akhristudulus II: 1720-1724;
Athânâsius (Athanasius): 1725-1766;
Yusûb (Joseph): 1770-1796;
Akhristudulus III: 1797-1819
Abram (Ephraem): 1820-1854
Basilius II: 1856-1899
Timôthâûs (Timothy): 1899-1925;
Basilius III: 1925-1935;
Tawfilus (Theophilus): 1935-1945;
Yaqubus (James): 1946-1956;
Basilius IV (Basil): 1959

Coptic Khan. During the rule of Mehmet Ali, Abraham, bishop, 1820-1854) of the Copts, established the Coptic Khan near the Pool of Hezekiah in Jerusalem. Under Mehmet Ali, the Greeks, round 1819, were obliged to rebuild the Coptic Chapel to the west of the Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre. This chapel is called 'the Head of the Holy Sepulchre'. The name can remind us that Jesus was laid in the tomb with the head to the west, and with the feet to the entrance at the east.

Coptic Patriarch in Jerusalem. In the 17th century (June: AA.SS.)

Copts in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Behind (to the west) the Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre is the Chapel of the Copts. In 1112 the Latins had here a Latin altar. In 1573 the Copts obtained this altar. It was destroyed by the fire in 1808. The Greeks omitted in 1810 to rebuild it. Mehmet Ali of Egypt obliged the Greeks to rebuild it.

Cordeliers (Friars of the Cord). So the Franciscans were known from the 14th century in Palestine.

Cornelius St. (particular feast of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem on Feb 3) The Roman centurion Cornelius was baptized by St. Peter in Caesarea. (Acts 10, 11-11 and Acts 13, 16). St Peter indicated him bishop of Caesarea. For this Cornelius was imprisoned. - The Greek synaxaries have his feast on Sept 13; Sept 11; October 20; the Jacobite liturgy on Nov 19; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Nov 20. - According to legend, Cornelius preached in Phoenicia, Cyprus, Antioch, Ephesus and in Scepsis (Mysia) where he was a bishop.

Cosmas, Italus: see Cosmas, the teacher, round 675.

Cosmas of Constantinople. He was born in Syria, He entered the monastic life at Jerusalem and went from there to Constantinople where he stayed in the monastery of Chora. In 1075 he was called to the patriarchal throne to succeed John VII. In 1078 he crowned

Nikephorus III Botaniates. In 1081 he resigned from office and entered, a monastery where he died in peace. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Jan 2.

Cosmas of San Damiano, Martyr, Blessed. 1597. Granada and Malaga claim the honour of being his birthplace. He worked in the Holy Land. He returned for 4 years to Vallodolid. He came back to Palestine and lived in the Franciscan Convent of St. Saviour in Jerusalem. On August 15, 1597 - it was a Friday - he began to preach near the Dome of the Rock. Therefore he was beheaded. The Moslems threatened afterwards the Convent of St. Saviour. The Martyrologium Franciscanum has his feast on August 15.

Cosmas, the Melodist, St. He lived in the laura of St. Sabas, together with St. John Damascenus. Cosmas became bishop of Majuma near Gaza. Cosmas and John of Damascus composed liturgical songs. Cosmas was from Jerusalem; he became bishop in 743, he died about 760. His feast is celebrated by the Greeks on Oct 14. (The AA.SS. place his death in 781.) - The teacher of Cosmas the Melodist in St. Sabas had also the name Cosmas. - Cosmas, the condisciple of St. John Damascenus is to be discerned from Cosmas, the Teacher. (AA.SS. May 6)

Cosmas, the Teacher of John Damascenus and of Cosmas the Melodist, in the laura of St. Sabas. Cosmas, the Teacher, is called ITALUS (of Italy), he came to Palestine round 675. (AA.SS. May 6)

Cosmas of Jerusalem. He was the disciple of Saint Berthold. This Cosmas is mentioned in AA.SS. on Sept 2. He died in 1197.

Cosmas, the unmercenary physician. (July 1) Cosmas was the son of Theodote (her feast is on Jan 2) and of a pagan father who died early. Cosmas studied medicine and practised his profession without accepting money. He also had great compassion for animals. Once, Cosmas scolded his brother Damian for having received three eggs from a woman, but Damian accepted these not to insult the woman. Cosmas suffered martyrdom at Cyrrhus in Syria, in the later part of the 3th century. According to the Roman Martyrology, Cosmas and his brother Damian, together with Anthimus, Leontius, Euprepius were martyred under Diocletian (284-313). The Byzantine liturgy has the feast of Cosmas and Damian twice: on July 1 and on Nov 1. Probably at the site of the 6th Station of the Way of the Cross (= Veronica wipes the face of Jesus) there was a monastery of SS. Cosmas and Damian, built between 548 and 563. In the Crusaders' period, the street was known as St Cosmas Street.

Cosmas and Damianus, SS: Sept 26 in Mart. Rom. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has their feast 'in Bitaseuri pago' - in the village of Beit-Sahur - on October 17.

Cosmus = Cosmas, the unmercenary physician.

Costarica-pilgrims. Three Japanese terrorists, acting on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, attacked at the airfield of Lod a plane on April 30, 1971. Of the 25 casualties many were pilgrims from Costarica.

Costigan, Irish. This man explored the Dead Sea in an open boat in July 1835. He fell ill, and died in Jerusalem in the Latin convent.

Cotta Piere, from Nice in France. He was parish priest at Ramailah, he died at the end of 1862.

Coüasnon Charles, Dominican priest, architect. He was born in Rennes in 1904, he died at Jerusalem on Friday, Nov 12, 1976. He came to Jerusalem in 1951. His plans for the restoration of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre were agreed upon by the three communities: the Greek-Orthodox, the Armenian, the Latin. This mutual understanding was in 1959. - Coüasnon built the monastery 'Emmanuel’of the Benedictine Sisters in Bethlehem; he restored the Basilica of St. Anne, which was damaged by the war of 1967; he restored the Crusaders' Church at Abu-Gosh.

Council of the Holy Bishops, and priests, and deacons in the city of Rome. In the first year of the reign of Decius, the infidel... and Germanos was archbishop of Jerusalem. And this Council was assembled because of Benates (or BETNAS, or NOVATUS?). The bishops anathematized Benates. The assembling of the Council against Benates took place on the 12th of the month of T‚ksh‚sh (Ethiopian Synaxarium) - Emperor Decius ruled from 248 to 251.

Councils (Six): The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the commemoration of six councils, on April 22. On Sept 26 the same calendar has 'in the church of the Resurrection, the memory of four councils'. - A Syriac calendar has such a memory at the end of February, it means on Wednesday of the fourth week before the Fast of Lent.

Council I of Constantinia (= Constantinople). This Council is 'saluted'by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Yakatit 1. This Council was convoked by Emperor Theodosius I(379-395), against the heresy of Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, who named the Holy Spirit a created thing. The meetings were in 381.

Coward Charles. This sergeant major in the Royal Artillery of Britain, was taken prisoner by the Germans in 1940 and sent to a work camp in the Auschwitz area (Poland). He organised the escape of some 400 Jews from Auschwitz. -Coward and his wife visited Israel on several occasions, and in 1962 he planted a sapling in the Avenue of the Righteous Gentiles at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. 'The Password is Courage' is the title of a book, written by John Castle about Coward Charles. Coward died at the end of 1977.

Crescentius, one of the 70 disciples. According to the Melkite liturgy his memory is on July 30, together with: Silas, Silvanus, Epainetes, Andronikus. - Crescentius followed the apostle St. Paul and came to Galatia.

Cresson Warder, consul of the United States at Jerusalem in the 19th century. Cresson was a Christian who converted to Judaism.

Crowfoot J. W., archaeologist. He ascribed in 1927-28 remains of a city wall and of a western gate in Jerusalem to no earlier than the Hellenistic period (= late 4th cent. - 37 BC).

Cuartus, one of the 70 (72) disciples, bishop of Berytus (Beirut), according to the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology does not mention Cuartus.

Curseto Bonaventura. This Franciscan bought from the Turks the stone, upon which Mary sat after her collapse at the meeting with Jesus (4th Station), and he placed this stone above the main entrance of the Franciscan Convent on Mount Sion. This information is related in 'Den Godvruchtigen Pelgrim ofte Jerusalemsche Reyse' (1649) of Surius Bernardin. The chapel had the name Koleta el Adra, the Collapse of the Virgin.

Cynegius. He was sent in 401 by Empress Eudoxia to Gaza. (Vita S. Porphyrii, auct. Marco diac., c. IX, n. 69) (AA.SS. Feb 26)

Cyprus, 25 Franciscan Martyrs near Cyprus in 1426. The Sultan Baursai-esh-sherif, Seyf-el-din, threatened Cyprus with 33 ships. He attacked a Venetian ship, that transported 25 Franciscans to the Holy Land. The Franciscan Martyrology remembers their death on August 22.

Cyra of Syria, hermit nun. Aug 3; Feb 28. Compare: Marana and Cyra (and also Kyra).

Cyria, the virgin, martyr. Together with Maria, Martha, Barberia and Marcia, the virgin Cyria was converted to Christianity and adopted the ascetic life. When the governor of Caesarea, Palestine, heard about them, the 5 were martyred in 304. - The Greek liturgy has the feast on June 6. The Roman Martyrology mentions on June 5: martyrdom of Zenais, CYRIA, Valeria and Marcia.

Cyriaca. She was the sister or the cousin of Photine, the Samaritan woman of Jn 4, 1-42.

Cyriac-Judah: see Cyriacus of Jerusalem.

Cyriacus of Jerusalem. He discovered the Holy Cross in Jerusalem, and gave it to Constantine the Great. Later Cyriacus was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem. At the time of Julian the Apostate (361-363), he refused to renounce his faith. He suffered martyrdom in Jerusalem in 361. - The Martyrologium Romanum has his memory on May 4; the Greek liturgy on Oct 18; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar has this Cyriacus on March 31 and on Sept 16. He is also called Cyriac-Judah.

Cyriacus, bishop of Ancona (Italy), Saint. Little is known about him. When he was still a Jewish Rabbi, he revealed to Helen the place where the cross in Jerusalem was hidden. He was baptized and became bishop of Ancona. He returned to Palestine, and was martyred in Jerusalem in the time of Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363) in 361. The Martyrology Romanum has his Memory on May 4. (Compare: Cyriacus of Jerusalem)

Cyriacus, the Recluse. He was born in Corinth in 449. As a young man he went to Palestine and became a monk, joining St. Euthymius the Great. Afterwards he was a disciple of St. Gerasimus near the Dead Sea. Cyriakus inhabited several monasteries. His favourite home was St Chariton's Cave in the wilderness of Tekoa. There Cyriakus died in 557. - The Greek liturgy has his feast on Sept 29. The AA. SS, place his death in 556.

Cyriacus of Souka, Saint. He is also named Cyriacus the Recluse (Sept 29). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar venerates him on Sept 9. As Cyriacus lived for a long time in the Old Laura, he is also named Cyriakus of the Old Laura. The Old Laura is also named called Laura of St. Chariton near Tekoa.

Cyriakus, confessor: Not identified. The Typicon of Saint Sabas mentions Cyriakus, the ascetic of the [aura of Saint Sabas on Jan 24. (Dmitrievski, Typica, 11, p. 39)

Cyriakus, hegumenos. Died in 566. An epitaph in mosaic, which was discovered in 1911 at Jericho, mentions Cyriakus as 'benefactor of the Church Nea of Theotokos, which is in Jerusalem'. (Revue Biblique, 1911, p. 286)

Cyril of Alexandria, St. Bishop, theologian, Father and Doctor of the Church; born in Egypt, second half of the 4th century, died Alexandria, June 27, 444. His feast is on Feb 9 in the Western Church; on June 9 among the Greeks. Cyril was the nephew of Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria. Cyril was apparently convinced of the guilt of St. John Chrysostom, and he was present at his deposition by the Synod of Chalcedon. Cyril studied the Holy Scriptures in Jerusalem under the direction of Bishop John I (389-415). Cyril expropriated the Jews and expelled them from Alexandria. - Synaxaries of the Greek Church and the Palestinian-Georgian calendar have the feast on June 9. There was also a feast on June 20 in the Basilica of the Resurrection in Jerusalem, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The Melkite liturgy venerates him on June 9.

Cyril of Jerusalem. He was born at Jerusalem in 315, he was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem in 349. He spent most of his episcopacy in fighting the Arians. Sixteen years he spent in exile, partly in Tarsus. The last time he was banished by the Emperor Valens. Cyril is remembered for his Catecheses, which are instructions for candidates to baptism. Cyril died at Jerusalem in 3861387. Greek and Roman liturgies have his feast on March 18. His memory on March 18 was in the 'Church of the Apostles' (Apostoleion), which was probably adjacent to the Church of the Eleona on the Mount of Olives. - Cyril was buried in the Church of the Eleona (Revue Eleona, Oct 1975 p. 6-8).

Cyril the Deacon. He served as a deacon in Heliopolis (Baalbek in Phoenicia), at the time of Julian the Apostate (361-363). He destroyed numerous idols. He was martyred in 362.

Cyril II. He was the first Greek Patriarch (1845-1872) to establish his residence in Jerusalem. In previous times, the Patriarch of Jerusalem lived in the 'Phanar' of Constantinople and visited Jerusalem only rarely. This transfer of residence to Jerusalem was perhaps due to the persuasion of the Russian Government. Russia needed the cooperation of the Greek Patriarchate for its religious penetration in the Holy Land. - In 1849 Cyril established in Jerusalem a printing press for his community's needs.

Cyrillus, St. Carmelite, March 6. He was the third Prior General of the Carmelite Order. He was born at Constantinople in 1190, he died on Mount Carmel in Palestine in 1224. He is venerated by the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. His 'Vita' in Latin has been written by Joh. Palaeonydoro. (Anal. Boll., IX, 275)

Cyrillus of Scythopolis. He lived as a monk in the monastery of Khan-el-Ahmar, he died in 570. He wrote the life of St. Euthymius, who had built the monastery in 428.

Cyrus. This monk was buried in a catacomb near the Well of David in Bethlehem. At this well was a Byzantine convent with a church between the 4th and the 6th century.

Cyrus and Johannes, (Anarguroi, men who worked without payment). Sophronius, the patriarch of Jerusalem (634-638), erected a chapel in Jerusalem in honour of these martyrs. Sophronius composed an 'Enkomion' with 70 tales of miracles. (P.G. 87, 3379, 2676) The feast is on Jan 31. - Epiphanius Hagiopolita mentions another chapel for both martyrs, in the valley of the Jordan, 6 miles north of Jericho. The site received the name EDESSA, in memory of John, who originated from Edessa and who had associated himself with Cyrus. (P.G. 120, 261/262, 269/270)

Cyrus and Johannes. The 'Vita S. Helenae et Constantini' (10th century) mentions: Helena built near the Lithostrotos a church in honour of SS. Cyrus and Johannes. (Baldi, Enchiridion Locorum Sanctorum, 917) - This Cyrus is the ALEXANDRIAN Cyrus. - Is this church of Cyrus and Johannes related to the 6th Station, where the Anarguroi Cosmas and Damianus were venerated? Or related to a church in the Armenian property on Mount Sion?

Cyrus, the monk, and his son John, martyrs. Both martyrs in Alexandria under Diocletian (284-313) are mentioned with Theodote, Theoctiste, Eudoxia and Athanasia. The Palestian-Georgian calendar has the feast on Jan 31. - John is called a disciple of Cyrus. The four women, martyrs, are named together with Cyrus and John. Both are called wonderworkers. On June 28 there was of the six martyrs a memory in the Church of the Resurrection according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. - Cyrus, under the name of Abukir, is mentioned by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Yakatit 6.

Czar Alexander III (1884-1898). He built the Church St. Mary Magdalen in Gethsemane in memory of his mother, the Empress Maria Magdalen Alexandrovna, wife of the Czar Alexander II.

Czechoslovak Army Memorial in Jericho. The monument stands on the boundary of Jericho, on the way from Jerusalem to Jericho, at the entrance of the refugee-camp. The monument is a whitewashed stone pyramid. Near its top is ciselled a coat of arms of Czechoslovakia. The monument recalls the training camp of Czechoslovak soldiers in World War II (1939-1945).

Czech Brothers of Consolation of Gethsemane. Their convent is, left on the way that crosses the Kidron-valley and ascends to the top of the Mount of Olives. The property is since 1953 occupied by the Apostolic Delegation.

Czestochowa. Polish soldiers of the IIIrd Army, who were garrisoned at the Casa Nova in Tiberias, built in 1945 a monument that was dedicated to Our Lady of Czestochowa. The monument is in front of the Franciscan Church of St. Peter. On either side of the Virgin are St. Michael, St. Christopher, a medieval Knight and a Polish Soldier of the IIIrd Army.


Studium Biblicum Franciscanum - Jerusalem
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