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Liber Annuus XLIX (1999)


D. Volgger
Wer bin ich? Oder noch einmal zu Ex 3,14! 9

E. Cortese
Su Levitico 25, trent'anni dopo 37

R. Riesner
Das Lokalkolorit des Lukas-sonderguts: italisch oder palästinisch-juden-christlich? 51

A. Niccacci
Magnificat. Una ricerca sulle tonalità dominanti 65

M. Prior
The Liberation Theology of the Lucan Jesus 79

L. D. Chrupcala
La prassi orante di Gesù nella catechesi lucana 101

G. C. Bottini - N. Casalini
Trama e teologia degli Atti degli Apostoli 137

J. Murphy-O'Connor
The Whole Christ 181

S. Lewis
So That God May Be All In All: 1 Corinthians15:12-34 195

J.-N. Aletti
Colossiens: un tournant dans la christologie néotestamentaire. Problèmes et propositions 211

P. Garuti
Due cristologie nella Lettera agli Ebrei? 237

F. Manns
Souffrances et joie dans la première lettre de Pierre 259

E. Puech
L'Esprit saint à Qumrân 283

D. Muñoz León
El rostro nuevo del Pentateuco en el targum. Reflejos en el Nuevo Testamento 299

B. Chiesa
Riflessioni e dibattiti sulla parola di Dio. Caraismo e cristianesimo 329

L. Perrone
"Four Gospels, Four Councils" One Lord Jesus Christ. The Patristic Developments of Christology within the Church of Palestine 357

C. Dauphin
From Apollo and Asclepius to Christ. Pilgrimage and Healing at the Temple and Episcopal Basilica of Dor 397

J. H. Charlesworth
Anguine Iconography in the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Museum and Biblical Exegesis 431

A. Zaqzuq - M. Piccirillo
The mosaic floor of the Church of the Holy Martyrs at Tayibat al-Imam - Hamah, in Central Syria 443

Sintesi degli articoli (Abstracts) 465
Ricerca storico-archeologica in Giordania XIXx 1999 475
Recensioni e libri ricevuti 501
SBF: Anno accademico 1998 - 1999 591

Tavole 1-50

Prime pagine [file in pdf format - 28 KB]

Wer bin ich? Oder noch einmal zu Ex 3,14! D. Volgger

This article proposes the following interpretation of Ex. 3,14: "God said to Moses: I shall be who shall be. He said: Thus you say to the sons of Israel: I shall be in so far as he has sent me to you." In favor of this interpretation the author examines the context of Ex. 3,14, the story of Moses' vocation, and the structure of the speech situation and the dynamics of the usage of the divine names in Ex. 3,1-4,12. In a final paragraph the universal significance of Moses' vocation is outlined.

Pgs. 9-36 [file in pdf format - 100 KB]

Su Levitico 25, trent'anni dopo E. Cortese

A prophetic interpretation of Lev 25, rather than a legal one, was the main point of the author's article in Rivista Biblica 18 (1970) 395-409. The present article resumes that discussion and describes the prophetic interpretation in the priestly framework of the Jubilee year, viz., of the Sabbath and the sabbatical year. By means of a literary-critical analysis of the text the author shows that the original text of chapter 25 consists of vv. 1-13 and 18-23. Its prophetic character is proven more clearly in conjunction with the following text of Lev 26,34f. and 43. Once the remaining of the verses were added, the text took on a legal character and a tension between prophecy and law arose. Finally the article draws theological conclusions from the prophetic interpretation of the original text, as well as from the dialectic of prophecy and law, and from the laws concerning strangers. It also proposes considerations for the present Jubilee year and insights into the third millennium.

Pgs. 37-50 [file in pdf format - 52 KB]

Das Lokalkolorit des Lukas-Sonderguts: italisch oder palästinisch-juden-christlich? R. Riesner

Many exegetes are convinced that the Sondergut of the Gospel of Luke has a Jewish connotation. J. Hobbe recently contested this conclusion in his doctoral dissertation elaborated under O. Merk. From a study of the economy of Galilee, Hobbe concluded that the author of the Sondergut was a rich Jewish proselyte (probably a woman) coming from a great city of Italy. The author discusses and refutes this conclusion analysing the vocabulary of the land and property, agriculture, plants, beasts and south wind.

Pgs. 51-64 [file in pdf format - 60 KB]

Magnificat. Una ricerca sulle tonalità dominanti A. Niccacci

From the study of the composition of the Magnificat, God's "mercy" emerges as the leading theme that connects Mary's personal experience with that of Israel. The phraseology derives from the LXX, and ultimately from the Hebrew OT. Mary's canticle may have had a Hebrew original but it is rather unlikely that it was pre-existent. Mary interprets God's work in her in the light of ancient divine deeds for the people and, vice versa, she sees the future of the people changed by God's deeds in her. These deeds also constitute the fulfillment of the divine promises to the Fathers for the benefit of Abraham's descendants. According to the OT texts evoked in her canticle, Mary describes herself after the model of the Mothers of Israel-Hannah, Leah, probably Sarah, and Judith. She also behaves as a leader of the praying community by adopting phrases from the Psalms. For her, as for the king Messiah, the promises originally addressed to the Patriarchs are renewed "henceforth all generations will call me blessed."

Pgs. 65-78 [file in pdf format - 60 KB]

The Liberation Theology of the Lucan Jesus M. Prior

The author considers some of the questions which a modern reader of Luke 4.16-30 must face. These include the question of sources and the historicity of the event, as well as the significance of this key text not only in the past but also in contemporary society. The study is sensitive to the concerns of biblical scholarship but equally respects the faith perspective that the Word of God is alive and active, and calls for a response in every generation.

Pgs. 79-100 [file in pdf format - 60 KB]

La prassi orante di Gesù nella catechesi lucana L. D. Chrupcala

More than other evangelists, Luke shows interest in Jesus' practices of prayer by providing numerous indications as to where, when, how long and how he prayed. This insistence is due for a good part to the Lucan vision of the humanity of Christ. If prayer is the most significant attitude of a human being towards God, then Jesus truly demonstrates the perfection of his assumed humanity by highlighting his consciousness of being like the others, indeed much more than the others. Moreover the dynamics of Jesus' prayer plays an important role in Luke's christology, in the sense that it serves as a paradigm of Christian prayer (the paraenesis). The Christian community is invited to contemplate the prayerful personality of Jesus (in Luke's Gospel) in order to imitate his example in the footsteps of the Apostolic Church (in the Acts of the Apostles).

Pgs. 101-136 [file in pdf format - 124 KB]

Trama e teologia degli Atti degli Apostoli G. C. Bottini - N. Casalini

The authors consider two aspects of the Acts of the Apostles plot and theology. The plot develops in four stages, marked by the refrain, "the word grew" (Acts 6:7; 12:24; 19:20). It comprises two themes strictly related: (a) the persecution serves the spreading of the word (cf. Acts 8:1as.4; 11:19), and (b) the rejection of the word by the Jews causes the proclamation to the Gentiles (Acts 13:42-47; 18:6-10; 28:16-31). The theology in Acts is both "narrative" and "discursive." On the one hand, narrative or implicit theology is conveyed by means of the narration itself, as the narrator presents God, Jesus and the Spirit as "characters" of his story. On the other hand, discursive, or explicit, theology is expressed by the speeches of Acts. The authors focus their attention on two of them the speech of Peter at Pentecost (Acts 2:22-36), and the speech of Paul at Antioch of Pisidia (Acts 13:17-41). In both, the writer tries to prove, first, that the resurrection of Jesus happens kata tas graphas, even though none of the scriptural texts quoted (Lxx Ps 15:8-11b; Ps 109:1; Ps 2,7) directly speaks of resurrection, and, second, that the resurrection of Jesus is the fulfillment of God's promise to the Fathers and to David (Lxx 2 Kings [2 Sam] 7,12). The first issue is common to biblical tradition (1 Cor 15,3-5) while the second is the author's interpretation of the history of salvation.

Pgs. 137-180 [file in pdf format - 152 KB]

The Whole Christ J. Murphy-O'Connor

Paul's Christology can be only be understood against the background of his analysis of the society in which he had to preach. He saw it as profoundly divided and dominated by a false value-system, which he called Sin. One such false value was the esteem in which Jews held the Law. To this reality Paul opposed a vision of Christ who had chosen death in order to demonstrate that love was the being of Christians. Since one cannot love in isolation, this bond created the Church, which Paul envisioned as the physical presence of Christ in the world.

Pgs. 181-194 [file in pdf format - 48 KB]

So That God May Be All In All: 1 Corinthians 15:12-34 S. Lewis

A failure to understand the apocalyptic nature of a passage such as 1 Cor 15:12-34 often results in a partial loss of its original message and theological force. A diachronic study of the passage during the patristic period reveals this to be the case, for the Christological debates fragmented and utilized it for theological proof texts. An analysis of the structure, words and symbols of this passage within the framework of apocalyptic eschatology illustrates that the author's intent is to link the resurrection of Christ with that of Christian believers. Through a series of symbols and images of totality, subjection, and conquest he attempts to situate the community in Corinth within God's apocalyptic timetable, exhorting the community to ethical conduct and spiritual commitment while living between the two poles of the messianic age. The community is struggling in the messianic period between the resurrection and the Parousia, a time in which Christ is reconquering a rebellious world, subjecting God's enemies and even vanquishing death itself. This is a battle to which the believer must commit himself. The result is God's reassertion of complete sovereignty over His creation. Christ is shown to be God's messianic agent for the humanity and the cosmos itself. Rather than being a direct description of the nature of Christ, his relationship to God the Father is inferred from his function as God's messianic agent.

Pgs. 195-210 [file in pdf format - 64 KB]

Colossiens: un tournant dans la christologie néotestamentaire J.-N. Aletti

Colossians is a turning point in the New Testament Christology. The first part of the article is a description of the main components of the Christology of Colossians Christ's pre-existence and supremacy over all the celestial and spiritual principalities, etc. It also addresses the question of such a stress on Christ's pre-eminence. Nowhere else in Colossians it is said that the spiritual powers are rivals to Christ or that they are mediators in any respect. So, why is there such an emphasis on Christ's rank, glory and power over them? An attempt is made to give an answer to this tricky question. The second part of the article examines the process of christologization of all the other fields Theology, ecclesiology, eschatology in Colossians and stresses its relevance and consequences.

Pgs. 211-236 [file in pdf format - 84 KB]

Due cristologie nella lettera agli Ebrei? P. Garuti

In the Letter to the Hebrews, a combination of different theological perspectives and themes finds a natural explanation in the use of heterogeneous material during the phase of redaction. A redactional process, based on the theological perspective, fully expressed in chapters 8 and 9, has brought together material originating in earlier writings. To the unit thus obtained a homily on faith has been added, divided into two or more parts, and probably emanating from the same redactional level as the first homily on the priesthood. This operation has given Hebrews its vaguely concentric character, but has turned it into a work to be read rather than a discourse to be listened to. At a further stage, Hebrews was transformed into a "letter," in the likeness of one of Paul's letters, perhaps directly preserving authentic passages from the Apostle.

Pgs. 237-258 [file in pdf format - 64 KB]

Souffrances et joie dans la première lettre de Pierre F. Manns

1 Peter utilizes many times the theme of joy in sufferings. The main texts are analyzed here. Since all the trends of the pluralistic Judaism of the first century knew this association, it is difficult to find the main source utilized by the author of 1 Peter. Many commentators are convinced that the author is dependent upon the apocalyptic thought. The purpose of this article is to show that the author of 1 Peter very often takes the book of Exodus as a model and is dependent more on the paschal liturgy than on the apocalyptic thought.

Pgs. 259-282 [file in pdf format - 72 KB]

L'Esprit Saint à Qumran E. Puech

This note intends to investigate the occurrences and meanings of "spirit", "holy spirit" in the Dead Sea scrolls published up to date. Are they to be compared to the usage in the Old Testament or have they developed a new concept? As a divine gift in the heart of man, good spirit cannot be separated from its divine origin. It is the one who purifies the spirit of man and changes it from within on its way towards perfection and communion with the angels and with God. Opposed to the spirit of darkness, the spirit of light is created by God and, like Wisdom, it can exercise its dominion over the sons of light. Finally, it is personified. The last use paves the way for the concept of a divine hypostasis in the New Testament.

Pgs. 283-298 [file in pdf format - 60 KB]

El rostro nuevo del Pentateuco en el Targum. Reflejos en el Nuevo Testamento D. Muñoz León

The Targum is the Aramaic version of the Bible read in the Synagogue. Many additions and explanations to the biblical text are given to show that the Holy Scripture is valid for all generations. Fourteen examples of reinterpretations are given here: the unity of God, the modifications of anthropomorphism, the merits of men, the exaltation of the Torah, the word of God (memra) as creator, the manifestation of God and His glory, the belief in the resurrection, Eden and Gehenna, the messianic hope, conditions for death penalty, the moral actions of the Patriarchs, different presentations of some biblical figures, the exaltation of the chosen people, and the reinforcement of paraenesis. All these reinterpretations give a new face to the Pentateuch. Finally, the implications of these themes for the understanding of the New Testament are illustrated.

Pgs. 299-327 [file in pdf format - 84 KB]

Riflessioni e dibattiti sulla Parola di Dio. Caraismo e cristianesimo B. Chiesa

This article outlines the most ancient Karaite views on Christianity, taking into account mainly unpublished sources. An analysis of Ya'qub al-Qirqisani's thought, based on his Kitab al-anwar (927 C.E.) and on his commentary on Genesis 1:3 from the unpublished Kitab al-riyada (completed in 938 C.E.), reveals how conversant was this author with both Christian doctrine and Muslim debates of his time. Even more interesting is to note that some of these arguments were to be resumed a few years later by Severus Ibn al-Muqaffa'.

Pgs. 329-356 [file in pdf format - 120 KB]

"Four Gospels, four Councils" - One Lord Jesus Christ L. Perrone

The article aims at showing the main lines of theological evolution on Christology in the ancient Church of Palestine. It starts with the Christology of Origen, towards the middle of the third century; then it proceeds to the fourth century with Eusebius of Caesarea and with Cyril of Jerusalem. For the fifth century, it introduces into this gallery of Palestinian authors one "foreigner" from the West, who participated very energetically in the problems of the local Church: the monk Jerome of Bethlehem. After him, who already inaugurated such a tone, the atmosphere of doctrinal controversy increases more and more, especially in the aftermath of the council of Chalcedon (451). From the years around 431 up to the seventh century the dominating theological debate focuses on the Christological question. Throughout this period, the response of the Palestinian Church to the developments of theology and dogma gradually assumes its own distinctive features. Thus we are allowed to speak of a Palestinian Christology in a defined regional sense. This particular view was fostered, among other things, by the special conditions of the Holy Land as the country of Jesus and the goal of pilgrimage. As a consequence the Palestinian contribution to patristic Christology has been politically, theologically, and to a certain extent also spiritually, one of the most important factors for the formation of Byzantine orthodoxy.

Pgs. 357-396 [file in pdf format - 128 KB]

From Apollo and Asclepius to Christ: Pilgrimage and Healing at the Temple and Episcopal Basilica of Dor C. Dauphin

Tell Dor, located 30 kilometers south of Haifa, encapsulates layers of human occupation since the 15th century B.C. The author excavated the Byzantine church of Dor in 1979, 1980, 1985 and 1994. The 1994 excavation showed that the Byzantine basilica was erected over a pagan temple. The central hall, a cella of the temple, became the nave and side-aisles of the Byzantine church. Its adyton, holy of holies, was remodelled into a cistern. At the western end of the basilica, in the large peristyle court, sick people sought healing by undergoing periods of incubatio. This practice is attested by 6th and 7th centuries narratives of miracles. Saints appeared to the sick as they slept in the porticos of the church's western courtyard. It seems that the pagan cult of Asclepius went on in different forms. The Church Fathers were aware of the common traits which Asclepius and Christ shared. In a first period, Church Fathers demonized Asclepius saying that he cast out devils in the name of the Devil. In a second period, the Church absorbed the sacredness inherent in Asclepius sanctuaries by building churches over them. This strategy can be verified in Dor.

Pgs. 397-430 [file in pdf format - 224 KB]

Anguine Iconography in the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Museum and Biblical Exegesis J. H. Charlesworth

The SBF Museum preserves seven examples of anguine iconography. The purpose of this paper is to publish an editio princeps of this anguine collection found in ancient Palestine. The author then selects some ideas regarding the importance of these and similar realia for exegesis and biblical hermeneutics. Genesis 3, Numbers 21, 2 Kings, Matthew 10 and John 3 are briefly studied. The serpent was both a symbol of evil and good, of death and life as well of falsehood and wisdom.

Pgs. 431-442 [file in pdf format - 88 KB]

The Mosaic Floor of the Church of the Holy Martyrs at Tayyibat al-Imam - Hamah in Central Syria A. Zaqzuq - M. Piccirillo

In the village of Tayyibat al-Imam 15 km north of Hama, the Antiquities Service of Syria has explored the mosaic floor of a Byzantine church. The mosaic floor is dated to the year 754 (447 A.D.), at the time of Bishop Domnos of Epiphania/Hama. The richness in the architectonic representations of the mosaic programme is certainly one of its principal characteristics. The floor mosaic is unique for the doctrinal significance gained by the decoration in the eastern panel of the nave with references to the Book of Revelation. Such scenes were normally represented in the churches either on the walls of the triumphal arch, or on the splay of the apse calotte behind the altar. An inscription in the nave refers to the platform in the centre of the church with the Greek word "Throne," intended to mean the raised platform called "bema-exedra" by previous archaeologists. The term might be a starting point for the re-examination of this peculiar liturgical furniture of the churches of Central and Northern Syria.

Pgs. 443-464 [file in pdf format - 264 KB]

Sintesi degli articoli (Abstracts) p. 465 [file in pdf format - 40 KB]
Ricerca storico-archeologica in Giordania XIXx 1999 p. 475 [file in pdf format - 80 KB]
Recensioni e libri ricevuti p. 501 [file in pdf format - 296 KB]
SBF: Anno accademico 1998 - 1999 p. 591 [file in pdf format - 124 KB]

Tavole 1-50 [file in pdf format - 6 MB]

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