Ancient Sources

Mount Ephraim and Benjamin


56. The Holy City Jerusalem - (Jerusalem, al-Quds)

ORIGINAL TEXTS

Ierusalem in qua regnavit Adonibezec. Et post eam tenuere Iebusaei, e quibus et sortita vocabulum est. Quos multo post tempore David exterminans, totius eam Iudaeae provinciae metropolim fabricatus est eo, quod ibi locum templi emerit et impensas structurae Salomoni filio dereliquerit. Hanc esse Iosefus refert quae in Genesi scribitur Salem sub rege Melchisedec. Fuit autem in tribu Beniamin.
(Jerome 107:1-8)


ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Eusebius, Onomasticon 106:1-6 (ca. 295 A.D.); Jerome 107:1-8 (ca. 390 A.D.)
Jerusalem (Jos 10:1) of which Adonizedek was king, and then the Jebusites, after which it was also named Jebus, and which David drove away after a long time, and made the city into the capital of Judaea, as he purchased there a place for the temple and left the charge of building it to his son Solomon. Josephus says that this is the city which the Scripture calls Salem, of which Malchizedek was king. It fell into the lot of Benjamin.

BIBLICAL BACKGROUND

Josh. 10:1-5 Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem
When King Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it, doing to Ai and its king as he had done to Jericho and its king, and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them, 2 he became greatly frightened, because Gibeon was a large city, like one of the royal cities, and was larger than Ai, and all its men were warriors. 3 So King Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem sent a message to King Hoham of Hebron, to King Piram of Jarmuth, to King Japhia of Lachish, and to King Debir of Eglon, saying, 4 "Come up and help me, and let us attack Gibeon; for it has made peace with Joshua and with the Israelites." 5 Then the five kings of the Amorites - the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon - gathered their forces, and went up with all their armies and camped against Gibeon, and made war against it.

Jud 1:21 The Jebusites' Jerusalem
The Benjaminites did not drive out the Jebusites who lived in Jerusalem; so the Jebusites have lived in Jerusalem among the Benjaminites to this day.

2Sam 5:6-10 The conquest of Jerusalem
The king and his men marched to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, who said to David, "You will not come in here, even the blind and the lame will turn you back" - thinking, "David cannot come in here." 7 Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion, which is now the city of David. 8 David had said on that day, "Whoever would strike down the Jebusites, let him get up the water shaft to attack the lame and the blind, those whom David hates." Therefore it is said, "The blind and the lame shall not come into the house." 9 David occupied the stronghold, and named it the city of David. David built the city all around from the Millo inward. 10 And David became greater and greater, for the Lord, the God of hosts, was with him.

Sal 122 "Our feet are standing within your gates, O Jerusalem"
A Song of Ascents. Of David. 1 I was glad when they said to me, "Let us go to the house of the Lord!" 2 Our feet are standing within your gates, O Jerusalem.
3 Jerusalem - built as a city that is bound firmly together. 4 To it the tribes go up, the tribes of the Lord, as was decreed for Israel, to give thanks to the name of the Lord. 5 For there the thrones for judgment were set up, the thrones of the house of David.
6 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: "May they prosper who love you. 7 Peace be within your walls, and security within your towers." 8 For the sake of my relatives and friends I will say, "Peace be within you." 9 For the sake of the house of the Lord our God, I will seek your good.

Is 2:1-4 The Word of the Lord shall go forth from Jerusalem
The word that Isaiah son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.
2 In days to come the mountain of the LORD's house shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be raised above the hills; all the nations shall stream to it. 3 Many peoples shall come and say, "Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; that he may teach us his ways and that we may walk in his paths." For out of Zion shall go forth instruction, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. 4 He shall judge between the nations, and shall arbitrate for many peoples; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

Matt 21:1-11 The entrance of Jesus in Jerusalem
When they had come near Jerusalem and had reached Bethphage, at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, 2 saying to them, "Go into the village ahead of you, and immediately you will find a donkey tied, and a colt with her; untie them and bring them to me. 3 If anyone says anything to you, just say this, 'The Lord needs them.' And he will send them immediately." 4 This took place to fulfill what had been spoken through the prophet, saying, 5 "Tell the daughter of Zion, Look, your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey." 6 The disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them; 7 they brought the donkey and the colt, and put their cloaks on them, and he sat on them. 8 A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. 9 The crowds that went ahead of him and that followed were shouting, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!" 10 When he entered Jerusalem, the whole city was in turmoil, asking, "Who is this?" 11 The crowds were saying, "This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee."

Act 2:36-47 The first Christian community of Jerusalem
36 Therefore let the entire house of Israel know with certainty that God has made him both Lord and Messiah, this Jesus whom you crucified."
37 Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and to the other apostles, "Brothers, what should we do?" 38 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 39 For the promise is for you, for your children, and for all who are far away, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to him." 40 And he testified with many other arguments and exhorted them, saying, "Save yourselves from this corrupt generation." 41 So those who welcomed his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand persons were added. 42 They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.
43 Awe came upon everyone, because many wonders and signs were being done by the apostles. 44 All who believed were together and had all things in common; 45 they would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds to all, as any had need. 46 Day by day, as they spent much time together in the temple, they broke bread at home and ate their food with glad and generous hearts, 47 praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.

Rev 21:1-4 The heavenly Jerusalem
Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. 2 And I saw the holy city, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, "See, the home of God is among mortals. He will dwell with them as their God; they will be his peoples, and God himself will be with them; 4 he will wipe every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; mourning and crying and pain will be no more, for the first things have passed away."

MORE ANCIENT SOURCES

Eucherius, Letter to Faustus 1-9 (5th cent. A.D.)
I have dealt only briefly with the situation of the city of Jerusalem and of Judaea, as it is known to me either by descriptions or reading, and wish to demonstrate this by the length of the preface, since there is no point in introducing with a lengthy preface an essay which is very short. Fare thee well in Christ, thou, my pride and my reliance!
The name Aelia was given to Jerusalem by Aelius Hadrian, for after its destruction by Titus the city received the name of Aelius its founder at the same time as his works. Its site is on a natural height, and from every direction those who approach it certainly have a climb. The ascent is long but gentle.
The site of the city is almost forced into a circular shape, 2 and is enclosed by a lengthy wall, which now embraces Mount Sion, though this was once just outside. It is on the south, and overlooks the city like a citadel. The greater part of the city lies on the flat top of a hill which is lower than this Mount.
Mount Sion is covered on the northern flank with dwellings for clergy and monks, and its summit, which is level, is occupied by monks' cells round the church which is said to have been founded by the apostles in honour of the place of the Lord's resurrection, because it was there that they were filled by the Spirit once promised by the Lord.
There are three important gates, those on the west, east, and north. People coming into the city from the north are taken to their first holy place by the layout of the streets, and visit the Martyrium, lately built with great magnificence by Constantine. Beside this and to the west one visits the sites of Golgotha and the Anastasis. The Anastasis is on the site of the resurrection, and Golgotha (which is between the Anastasis and the Martyrium) is the place of the Lord's Passion. One sees there the rock which once bore the Cross to which the Lord was fixed. All this is outside the area of Mount Sion, which is approached by rising ground stretching north.
The site of the Temple is in the lower city near the eastern wall, and it was magnificently built. Once the walls were destroyed to the foundations, but by a miracle the pinnacle remained from one of the walls, though the rest of the wall fell down.
A few water cisterns can be seen in the part of the city to the north: near the Temple is the Pool of Bethesda, distinguished by its twin pools. One is usually filled by winter rains, but the other is filled with dirty red water.
On the steep rocky side of Mount Sion which faces east, inside the walls at the bottom of the hill rises the Spring of Siloam. It has a fluctuating supply of water, and runs away to the south.
Beside the east wall of Jerusalem, which is also the wall of the Temple, is Gehenna. This is called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. It runs from north to south, and the Brook Kidron runs through it whenever there has been rain to provide it with water.

Teodosius , De situ Terrae Sanctae 1.3.8 (ca. 530 A.D.)
The city of Jerusalem has six large gates, not counting posterns, namely, the gate of Benjamin leading out in the direction of the Jordan... From the gate of the Tower it is fifteen miles to the place on mout Buzana (which means "lantern") where David fought Goliath... Saint Stephen was stoned outside the Gate of Galilee, and his church is there, which was constructed by my Lady Eudokia, the wife of Emperor Theodosius...

Adamnanus, De locis sanctis I,1,1 (ca. 670 A.D.)
On the situation' of Jerusalem I shall now set down a certain amount of what holy Arculf recited to me. But I shall leave out the things which may be gathered about the disposition of the city from other authors.
In the great wall which surrounds the city Arculf counted eighty-four towers and six gates. Going round the city they are in this order: first is the Gate of David on the west side of Mount Sion, second is the Gate of the Fuller's Field, third is Saint Stephen's Gate, fourth is the Gate of Benjamin, fifth is the Portula, or 'Little Gate', from which one descends a stairway to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, and sixth is the Gate of Tekoa. Thus this is the order when one follows along the wall connecting these gates and towers from this Gate of David northwards and then to the east. There are six gates in the wall, but, only three are reckoned to be important as main thoroughfares, the first on the west. the second on the north 3 and the third on the east. Thus we gather that one section of the wall with its towers has no gates. This 4 the stretch along the northern edge of Mount Sion (which overlooks the city from the south), from the Gate of David as far as the eastern side of the Mount, where there is a cliff.


BYZANTINE ADMINISTRATIVE LISTS

Hierocles, Synecdemos, 721:1-11 (7th cent. A.D.)
Province of Palaestina Prima, 22 cities under a consularis: Cesarea, Dora, Antipatris, Diospolis, Azotos on the sea, Azotos inland, Eleuteropolis, Aelia which is also Jerusalem, Neapolis, [Livias], Sebaste, Anthedon, Diocletianopolis, Sycamazon, Ono, Sozousa, Ioppe, Gaza, Raphia, Ascalon, Gazaris, Betylion.

Georgius Cyprius, 997-1027 (7th cent. A.D.)
Province of Palaestina Prima, Aelia-Jerusalem, Caesarea, Dora, Antipatris, Diospolis wich is also Georgiopolis, Iamnia, Nicopolis, Ono, Sozousa, Ioppe, Ascalon, Gaza, Raphia, Anthedon, Diocletianopolis, Eleutheropolis, Neapolis, Sebaste, region of Amathous, region of Jericho, region of Livias, region of Gadara, Azotos Paralos, Azotos, Sycomazon, Bitylion, Tricomias, Toxos, Canstantiniac Salton, Geraritic Salton wich is also Barsamon.


EPISCOPAL CITY

Bishops' list
Jacob (A.D. 62/6)
Simeon (A.D. 106/7)
Iustus / Iudas (A.D. 107-113)
Zacchaeus / Zacharias
Tobias
Benjamin
John
Mathias / Matthew (A.D. 120)
Philip (A.D. 124)
Seneca
Iustus
Levi
Ephraem
Joseph
Iudas Quiriacus (A.D. 134-148)
Mark (A.D. 156)
Cassianus
Publius
Maximus
Iulianus
Caius / Gaius
Symmachus
Caius / Gaius
Iulianus (A.D. 168)
Capito (A.D. 185)
Maximus
Antoninus
Valens
Dolichianus (A.D. 195)
Narcissus
Pius
Germanion
Gordius
Narcissus (A.D. 212)
Alexander, martyr (A.D. 250)
Mazabanes (A.D. 266)
Hymenaeus (A.D. 288)
Zabdas
Hermon / Hermas (A.D. 311/3)
Macarius (A.D. 314-333)
Maximus (A.D. 335-348?)
Heraclius (A.D. 350/1)
Cyril (A.D. 348-357; 359-360; 352-367; 378-386)
Eutychius, semi-arian (A.D. 357-359)
Ireneus / Erennius (A.D. 360-361)
Hilarius (A.D. 376)
John (A.D. 386-417)
Praylius / Praylus (A.D.417-418/20)
Iuvenalis (A.D. 422-451)
Theodosius, monophysit (A.D. 451-453)

Patriarchs
Iuvenalis (A.D.454-458)
Anastasius (A.D.458-478)
Martyrius (A.D. 478-486)
Salustius (A.D.486-494)
Elias (A.D.494-516)
John (A.D.516-524)
Peter (A.D.524-544)
Macharius (A.D. 552)
Eustochius / Eutychius (A.D. 552-563)
Macarius (A.D. 563/4-574)
John (A.D. 574-593/4)
Amos / Neamus (A.D. 594-601)
Isaac / Isacius / Hesychius (A.D. 601-609)
Zacharias (A.D.609-628)
Modestus (A.D. 630-630/4)
Sophronius (A.D. 633/4-638)
Sergius, bishop of Jaffa
Stephan, bishop of Dora, vicarius patriarchalis
John, bishop of Philadelphia, vicarius patriarchalis (A.D. 649)
Anastasius (A.D. 691)
John (A.D. 705-735)
John (A.D. 760)
Theodore (A.D. 767)
Eusebius (A.D. 772)
Elias (A.D. 785, 796-800)
Thomas (A.D. 807-821)
Basil (A.D. 821-839)
Georgius / Sergius (A.D. 842)
Sergius (A.D. 843-859)
Salomon (A.D. 850-864)
Theodosius (A.D. 867-878)
Elias (A.D. 878-906)
Sergius / Georgius (A.D. 907-911)
Leontius / Leo (A.D. 928)
Anastasius / Athanasius (A.D. 929)
Christophorus / Christodulus / Christodorus (A.D. 937-951)
Agatho (A.D. 951-964)
John (A.D. 964-966)
Christophorus (A.D. 966-969)
Thomas (A.D. 969-979)
Joseph (A.D. 980-983/4)
Alexander, patriarch of Antioch
Agapius, bishop of Seleucia in Pieria (A.D. 986)
Hieremias / Orestes (A.D. 986-1006)
Theophilus (A.D. 1012-1020)
Arsenius (A.D. 1024)
Iordanus
Nicephorus (A.D. 1048)
Sophronius (A.D. 1059, 1064)
Marcus
Euthimius (A.D. 1083)
Simon, Simeon (A.D. 1092-1097)
John (A.D. 1098-1106/7)


ICONOGRAPHIC PARALLELS

Tabula Peutingeriana
(4th cent. A.D.)
Antea dicta Herusalem m(od)o Helya Capitolina

Notitia Dignitatum
(5th cent. A.D.)
Aelia
Tayyiba (Syria): Church of the Martyrs
(6th cent. A.D.)
Eierous[alem]
Arculf's drawing
(ca. 670 A.D.)

Occidens:
Porta I D(avi)d
Porta II Villae Fullonis

Septentrio:
Porta III S. Stephani

Oriens:
Porta IV Beniamin
Ad hac per gradus ad vallem Iosafat descenditur
Porta V Parvula

Meridies:
Porta VI Tecuana

Umm al Rasas: Church of St. Stephen
(8th cent. A.D.)
He Hagia Polis
see also: Section 11. Jerusalem

Map Section 5 Place Discussion

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Created Saturday, December 16, 2000 at 13:06:05
by Eugenio Alliata ofm in collaboration with Stefano de Luca ofm
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copyright - Studium Biblicum Franciscanum - Jerusalem 2000