MORE ANCIENT SOURCES
Eucherius, Letter to Faustus 1-9 (5th cent. A.D.)
I have dealt only briefly with the situation of the city of Jerusalem and of Judaea, as it is known to me either by descriptions or reading, and wish to demonstrate this by the length of the preface, since there is no point in introducing with a lengthy preface an essay which is very short. Fare thee well in Christ, thou, my pride and my reliance!
The name Aelia was given to Jerusalem by Aelius Hadrian, for after its destruction by Titus the city received the name of Aelius its founder at the same time as his works. Its site is on a natural height, and from every direction those who approach it certainly have a climb. The ascent is long but gentle.
The site of the city is almost forced into a circular shape, 2 and is enclosed by a lengthy wall, which now embraces Mount Sion, though this was once just outside. It is on the south, and overlooks the city like a citadel. The greater part of the city lies on the flat top of a hill which is lower than this Mount.
Mount Sion is covered on the northern flank with dwellings for clergy and monks, and its summit, which is level, is occupied by monks' cells round the church which is said to have been founded by the apostles in honour of the place of the Lord's resurrection, because it was there that they were filled by the Spirit once promised by the Lord.
There are three important gates, those on the west, east, and north. People coming into the city from the north are taken to their first holy place by the layout of the streets, and visit the Martyrium, lately built with great magnificence by Constantine. Beside this and to the west one visits the sites of Golgotha and the Anastasis. The Anastasis is on the site of the resurrection, and Golgotha (which is between the Anastasis and the Martyrium) is the place of the Lord's Passion. One sees there the rock which once bore the Cross to which the Lord was fixed. All this is outside the area of Mount Sion, which is approached by rising ground stretching north.
The site of the Temple is in the lower city near the eastern wall, and it was magnificently built. Once the walls were destroyed to the foundations, but by a miracle the pinnacle remained from one of the walls, though the rest of the wall fell down.
A few water cisterns can be seen in the part of the city to the north: near the Temple is the Pool of Bethesda, distinguished by its twin pools. One is usually filled by winter rains, but the other is filled with dirty red water.
On the steep rocky side of Mount Sion which faces east, inside the walls at the bottom of the hill rises the Spring of Siloam. It has a fluctuating supply of water, and runs away to the south.
Beside the east wall of Jerusalem, which is also the wall of the Temple, is Gehenna. This is called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. It runs from north to south, and the Brook Kidron runs through it whenever there has been rain to provide it with water.
Teodosius , De situ Terrae Sanctae 1.3.8 (ca. 530 A.D.)
The city of Jerusalem has six large gates, not counting posterns, namely, the gate of Benjamin leading out in the direction of the Jordan... From the gate of the Tower it is fifteen miles to the place on mout Buzana (which means "lantern") where David fought Goliath... Saint Stephen was stoned outside the Gate of Galilee, and his church is there, which was constructed by my Lady Eudokia, the wife of Emperor Theodosius...
Adamnanus, De locis sanctis I,1,1 (ca. 670 A.D.)
On the situation' of Jerusalem I shall now set down a certain amount of what holy Arculf recited to me. But I shall leave out the things which may be gathered about the disposition of the city from other authors.
In the great wall which surrounds the city Arculf counted eighty-four towers and six gates. Going round the city they are in this order: first is the Gate of David on the west side of Mount Sion, second is the Gate of the Fuller's Field, third is Saint Stephen's Gate, fourth is the Gate of Benjamin, fifth is the Portula, or 'Little Gate', from which one descends a stairway to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, and sixth is the Gate of Tekoa. Thus this is the order when one follows along the wall connecting these gates and towers from this Gate of David northwards and then to the east. There are six gates in the wall, but, only three are reckoned to be important as main thoroughfares, the first on the west. the second on the north 3 and the third on the east. Thus we gather that one section of the wall with its towers has no gates. This 4 the stretch along the northern edge of Mount Sion (which overlooks the city from the south), from the Gate of David as far as the eastern side of the Mount, where there is a cliff.
BYZANTINE ADMINISTRATIVE LISTS
Hierocles, Synecdemos, 721:1-11 (7th cent. A.D.)
Province of Palaestina Prima, 22 cities under a consularis: Cesarea, Dora, Antipatris, Diospolis, Azotos on the sea, Azotos inland, Eleuteropolis, Aelia which is also Jerusalem, Neapolis, [Livias], Sebaste, Anthedon, Diocletianopolis, Sycamazon, Ono, Sozousa, Ioppe, Gaza, Raphia, Ascalon, Gazaris, Betylion.
Georgius Cyprius, 997-1027 (7th cent. A.D.)
Province of Palaestina Prima, Aelia-Jerusalem, Caesarea, Dora, Antipatris, Diospolis wich is also Georgiopolis, Iamnia, Nicopolis, Ono, Sozousa, Ioppe, Ascalon, Gaza, Raphia, Anthedon, Diocletianopolis, Eleutheropolis, Neapolis, Sebaste, region of Amathous, region of Jericho, region of Livias, region of Gadara, Azotos Paralos, Azotos, Sycomazon, Bitylion, Tricomias, Toxos, Canstantiniac Salton, Geraritic Salton wich is also Barsamon.
Jacob (A.D. 62/6)
Simeon (A.D. 106/7)
Iustus / Iudas (A.D. 107-113)
Zacchaeus / Zacharias
Mathias / Matthew (A.D. 120)
Philip (A.D. 124)
Iudas Quiriacus (A.D. 134-148)
Mark (A.D. 156)
Caius / Gaius
Caius / Gaius
Iulianus (A.D. 168)
Capito (A.D. 185)
Dolichianus (A.D. 195)
Narcissus (A.D. 212)
Alexander, martyr (A.D. 250)
Mazabanes (A.D. 266)
Hymenaeus (A.D. 288)
Hermon / Hermas (A.D. 311/3)
Macarius (A.D. 314-333)
Maximus (A.D. 335-348?)
Heraclius (A.D. 350/1)
Cyril (A.D. 348-357; 359-360; 352-367; 378-386)
Eutychius, semi-arian (A.D. 357-359)
Ireneus / Erennius (A.D. 360-361)
Hilarius (A.D. 376)
John (A.D. 386-417)
Praylius / Praylus (A.D.417-418/20)
Iuvenalis (A.D. 422-451)
Theodosius, monophysit (A.D. 451-453)
Martyrius (A.D. 478-486)
Macharius (A.D. 552)
Eustochius / Eutychius (A.D. 552-563)
Macarius (A.D. 563/4-574)
John (A.D. 574-593/4)
Amos / Neamus (A.D. 594-601)
Isaac / Isacius / Hesychius (A.D. 601-609)
Modestus (A.D. 630-630/4)
Sophronius (A.D. 633/4-638)
Sergius, bishop of Jaffa
Stephan, bishop of Dora, vicarius patriarchalis
John, bishop of Philadelphia, vicarius patriarchalis (A.D. 649)
Anastasius (A.D. 691)
John (A.D. 705-735)
John (A.D. 760)
Theodore (A.D. 767)
Eusebius (A.D. 772)
Elias (A.D. 785, 796-800)
Thomas (A.D. 807-821)
Basil (A.D. 821-839)
Georgius / Sergius (A.D. 842)
Sergius (A.D. 843-859)
Salomon (A.D. 850-864)
Theodosius (A.D. 867-878)
Elias (A.D. 878-906)
Sergius / Georgius (A.D. 907-911)
Leontius / Leo (A.D. 928)
Anastasius / Athanasius (A.D. 929)
Christophorus / Christodulus / Christodorus (A.D. 937-951)
Agatho (A.D. 951-964)
John (A.D. 964-966)
Christophorus (A.D. 966-969)
Thomas (A.D. 969-979)
Joseph (A.D. 980-983/4)
Alexander, patriarch of Antioch
Agapius, bishop of Seleucia in Pieria (A.D. 986)
Hieremias / Orestes (A.D. 986-1006)
Theophilus (A.D. 1012-1020)
Arsenius (A.D. 1024)
Nicephorus (A.D. 1048)
Sophronius (A.D. 1059, 1064)
Euthimius (A.D. 1083)
Simon, Simeon (A.D. 1092-1097)
John (A.D. 1098-1106/7)