MORE ANCIENT SOURCES
Itinerarium Burdigalense 588 (333 A.D.)
A mile from there is the place called Sychar, where the Samaritan woman went down to draw water, at the very place where Jacob dug the well, and our Lord Jesus Christ spoke with her. Some plane trees are there, planted by Jacob, and there is a bath which takes its water from this well.
Hieronymus, Ep.108 (Peregrinatio Paulae) (385 A.D.)
She passed on to Shechem (not, as some wrongly take it, "Sychar"), now called Neapolis, and near Mount Gerizim she went into the church built round the Well of Jacob. This is where the Lord sat down, hungry and thirsty, and was refreshed by the faith of the woman of Samaria, who had left her five husbands, (the books of Moses) and the sixth whom she boasted she had (the error of Dositheus), and found the true Messiah and Saviour.
Adamnanus, De locis sanctis II,21 (ca. 670 A.D.)
The holy priest Arculf travelled through Samaria, and arrived at a city of that district whose Hebrew name is Shechem, though in Greek and Latin it is normally called Sicima. It is commonly (though incorrectly) called Sychar. Close to this city and outside its wall he saw a church with four bays stretching out to the four points of the world,like a cross. There is a sketch of it below.
Inside this church, and in the centre of it, is the Spring of Jacob, often called the "Well".It is midway between these four bays. Here, one day at noon, the Saviour sat down, tired by the effort of his journey. At this noon time the Samaritan woman also came to the well to draw water. Amongst other things which the woman said to the Lord was this reply, "Lord,thou hast nothing with which to draw water, and the well is deep" (John:4.11). Arculf, who drank water from this well, had this to say about its depth, "the well I saw was forty orias deep" (this means forty cubits, since an oria or a cubit is the width of both hands stretched out side by side).
Shechem, also called Sicima, was once accounted a city of priests and a city of refuge in the tribe of Manasseh. It is in Mount Ephraim, and joseph's bones were buried there.