Ascalon, Gaza, Negev and Sinai
The very name of this locality indicates its position at five scoinoi, i.e. five walking hours, from a well-known point. This is no other than Mount Casius and the city of Casium, which is also indicated on the map. Other sources, such as the so-called Archive of Theophanes and the records of Hierocles (Synec., 57) and George of Cyprus (Descr. 693) also place Pentaschoinon between Gherra (or Pelusium) and Casium. Theophanes (Pap. Ryl. 628, 5-6; 629, 231-232) situates Pentaschoinon 12 miles from Gherra and 16 miles from Pelusium (C. H. Roberts - E. C. Turner, Catalogue of the Greek and Latin Papyri in the John Rylands Library. IV, Manchester 1952). Its location has not been identified, but a modern surveyor of the region would place it to be situated at the ruins called el-'Uqsor (E. Oren, "The Survey of North Sinai 1972-1982", in Qadmoniot Sinai , a cura di Z. Meshel - I. Finkelstein, Tel Aviv 1980, 101-150 [Hebrew]). Pentaschoinon was well known by the Aramaic translators of Genesis 10:13-14, who referred to the Pentaschinai as one of the early peoples (Targ. Jonath. and Neof. I).
Pau Figueras, "The Road Linking Palestine and Egypt along the Sinai Coast", in The Madaba Map Centenary, p. 222 (see also the complete article).
For more sources and bibliography see:
Tabula Imperii Romani. Iudaea - Palaestina (Jerusalem 1994) s.v. "Pentaschoinon", 201.
Map Section 9 Place Sources