1917 — Russian Revolution. Bolsheviks, an atheist communist movement led by Vladimir Lenin, right, seize power.
1919 — Establishment of Comintern, organization to promote communist revolution world-wide. Headed by Grigory Zinoviev, a Soviet Jewish radical who urges Muslims to revolt.
1920 — Congress of Peoples of the East in Baku, Soviet Azerbaijan, calls for "jihad" against imperialism. Attended by Soviet revolutionaries and foreign anti-imperialists, including many Muslims and John Reed, an American communist who falls fatally ill during return journey to Moscow.
1928 — Establishment in Egypt of Muslim Brotherhood, which becomes a model for Islamist groups around the world. Sayyid Qutb later joins and becomes an influential Islamist thinker, denouncing Soviet communism and American capitalism as un-Islamic.
1934-39 — Gen. Francisco Franco, right, of Spain uses Muslim troops from Morocco to crush left-wing strikes, topple a leftist government and then defeat Moscow-backed communist forces in Spanish civil war.
1944 — Lebanese Communist Party separates from Syrian-Lebanese party set up in 1920s.
1954 — Egypt's pro-Soviet leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, arrests Sayyid Qutb and cracks down hard on Islamists.
1962 — Saudi Arabia sets up Muslim World League, in part to counter spread of socialist ideas then gaining ground in Egypt and elsewhere.
1965-6 — Gen Suharto, left, takes power of Indonesia and his military, helped by Muslim groups, massacres communists.
1975 — Lebanese civil war begins.
1979 — Ayatollah Khomeini takes power in Iran after Islamic revolution topples American-backed shah. New regime executes communists. Soviet Union under Leonid Brezhnev invades Afghanistan, triggering Muslim insurgency against Soviet-backed communist government. CIA arms Muslim insurgents.
1982 — Israel invades Lebanon. Hezbollah, the Party of God, is established. Israelis force secular Palestine Liberation Organization of Yasser Arafat, right, to give up bases in Lebanon and move to Tunisia.
1986 — Mikhail Gorbachev launches program of perestroika in Soviet Union.
1990 — Lebanese civil war ends.
1991 — Soviet Union collapses.
1992-96 — Serbia's socialist leader, Slobodan Milosevic, wages war against Muslims in Bosnia. Russian President Boris Yeltsin, a former Communist Party poliburo member, sends troops into Muslim Chechnya. Vicious conflicts fuel Muslim anger around the world.
2000 — Israel withdraws troops from southern Lebanon, ending occupation under pressure from Hezbollah.
2001 — Al Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, left, carries out hijack attacks on New York and Washington. U.S. invades Afghanistan.
2003 — U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Massive anti-war protests around the world. Leftists ally with Muslim groups.
2006 — Hezbollah launches mortar and rocket attack on northern Israel, kidnaps Israeli soldiers; Israel bombs and invades Lebanon. Hezbollah rockets Israel. Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah, right, declares "divine victory" over Israel.
Photos: AP/Wide World Photos