Meeting Christ in the Liturgy Library

The General Instruction of the Roman Missal

CHAPTER IV

 

Select section here
I. MASS WITH A CONGREGATION

II. CONCELEBRATED MASSES

III. MASS WITHOUT A CONGREGATION

IV. SOME GENERAL RULES FOR ALL FORMS OF MASS

 

THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF CELEBRATION

74. In the local Church, first place should be given, because of its meaning, to the Mass at which the bishop presides surrounded by the college of presbyters and the ministers[56] and in which the people take full and active part. For this Mass is the preeminent expression of the Church.

75. Great importance should be attached to a Mass celebrated by any community, but especially by the parish community, inasmuch as it represents the universal Church gathered at a given time and place. This is particularly true of the community's celebration of the Lord's Day.[57]

76. Of those Masses celebrated by some communities, the conventual Mass, which is a part of the daily office, or the "community" Mass have particular significance. Although such Masses do not have a special form of celebration, it is most proper that they be celebrated with singing, with the full participation of all community members, whether religious or canons. In these Masses, therefore, individuals should exercise the function proper to the order or ministry they have received. All the priests who are not bound to celebrate individually for the pastoral benefit of the faithful should thus concelebrate at the conventual or community Mass, if possible. Further, all priests belonging to the community who are obliged to celebrate individually for the pastoral benefit of the faithful may also on the same day concelebrate at the conventual or community Mass.[58]

I. MASS WITH A CONGREGATION

77. Mass with a congregation means a Mass celebrated with the people taking part. As far as possible, and especially on Sundays and holydays of obligation, this Mass should be celebrated with song and with a suitable number of ministers.[59] But it may be celebrated without music and with only one minister.

78. It is desirable that as a rule an acolyte, a reader, and a cantor assist the priest celebrant; this form of celebration will hereafter be referred to as the "basic" or "typical" form. But the rite to be described also allows for a greater number of ministers.

A deacon may exercise his office in any of the forms of celebration.

ARTICLES TO BE PREPARED

79. The altar is to be covered with at least one cloth. On or near the altar there are to be candlesticks with lighted candles, at least two but even four, six, or, if the bishop of the diocese celebrates, seven. There is also to be a cross on or near the altar. The candles and cross may be carried in the entrance procession. The Book of the Gospels, if distinct from the book of other readings, may be placed on the altar, unless it is carried in the entrance procession.

80. The following are also to be prepared:

a. next to the priest's chair: the missal and, as may be useful, a book with the chants;

b. at the lectern: the lectionary;

c. on a side table: the chalice, corporal, purificator, and, if useful, a pall; a paten and ciboria, if needed, with the bread for the communion of the ministers and the people, together with cruets containing wine and water, unless all of these are brought in by the faithful at the presentation of the gifts; communion plate for the communion of the faithful; the requisites for the washing of hands. The chalice should be covered with a veil, which may always be white.

81. In the sacristy the vestments for the priest and ministers are to be prepared according to the various forms of celebration:

a. for the priest: alb, stole, and chasuble;

b. for the deacon: alb, stole, and dalmatic; the last may be omitted either out of necessity or for less solemnity;

c. for the other ministers: albs or other lawfully approved vestments.

All who wear an alb should use a cincture and an amice, unless other provision is made.

A. Basic Form of Celebration

INTRODUCTORY RITES

82. Once the congregation has gathered, the priest and the ministers, clad in their vestments, go to the altar in this order:

a. a server with a lighted censer, if incense is used;

b. the servers, who, according to the occasion, carry lighted candles, and between them the crossbearer, if the cross is to be carried;

c. acolytes and other ministers;

d. a reader, who may carry the Book of the Gospels;

e. the priest who is to celebrate the Mass.

If incense is used, the priest puts some in the censer before the procession begins.

83. During the procession to the altar the entrance song is sung (see nos. 25-26).

84. On reaching the altar the priest and ministers make the proper reverence, that is, a low bow or, if there is a tabernacle containing the blessed sacrament, a genuflection.

If the cross has been carried in the procession, it is placed near the altar or at some other convenient place; the candles carried by the servers are placed near the altar or on a side table; the Book of the Gospels is placed on the altar.

85. The priest goes up to the altar and kisses it. If incense is used, he incenses the altar while circling it.

86. The priest then goes to the chair. After the entrance song, and with all standing, the priest and the faithful make the sign of the cross. The priest says: <In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit;> the people answer: <Amen>.

Then, facing the people and with hands outstretched, the priest greets all present, using one of the formularies indicated. He or some other qualified minister may give the faithful a very brief introduction to the Mass of the day.

87. After the penitential rite, the <Kyrie> and <Gloria> are said, in keeping with the rubrics (nos. 30-31). Either the priest or the cantors or even everyone together may begin the <Gloria>.

88. With his hands joined, the priest then invites the people to pray, saying: Let us pray. All pray silently with the priest for a while. Then the priest with hands outstretched says the opening prayer, at the end of which the people respond: Amen.

LITURGY OF THE WORD

89. After the opening prayer, the reader goes to the lectern for the first reading. All sit and listen and make the acclamation at the
end.

90. After the reading, the psalmist or cantor of the psalm, or even the reader, sings or recites the psalm and the congregation sings or recites the response (see no. 36).

91. Then, if there is a second reading before the gospel, the reader reads it at the lectern as before. All sit and listen and make the acclamation at the end.

92. The <Alleluia> or other chant, according to the season, follows (see nos. 37-39).

93. During the singing of the <Alleluia> or other chant, if incense is being used, the priest puts some into the censer. Then with hands joined he bows before the altar and says softly the prayer, <Almighty God, cleanse my heart>.

94. If the Book of the Gospels is on the altar, he takes it and goes to the lectern, the servers, who may carry the censer and candles, walking ahead of him.

95. At the lectern the priest opens the book and says: <The Lord be with you.> Then he says: <A reading from>. . ., making the sign of the cross with his thumb on the book and on his forehead, mouth, and breast. If incense is used, he then incenses the book. After the acclamation of the people, he proclaims the gospel and at the end kisses the book, saying softly: <May the words of the gospel wipe away our sins>. After the reading the people make the acclamation customary to the region.

96. If no reader is present, the priest himself proclaims all the readings at the lectern and there also, if necessary, the chants between the readings. If incense is used, he puts some into the censer at the lectern and then, bowing, says the prayer, <Almighty God, cleanse my heart>.

97. The homily is given at the chair or at the lectern.

98. The profession of faith is said by the priest together with the
99. Next, with the people taking their proper part, follow the general intercessions (prayer of the faithful), which the priest directs from his chair or at the lectern (see nos. 45-47).

LITURGY OF THE EUCHARIST

100. After the general intercessions, the presentation song begins (see no. 50). The servers place the corporal, purificator, chalice, and missal on the altar.

101. It is fitting for the faithful's participation to be expressed by their presenting both the bread and wine for the celebration of the eucharist and other gifts to meet the needs of the church and of the poor.

The faithful's offerings are received by the priest, assisted by the ministers, and put in a suitable place; the bread and wine for the eucharist are taken to the altar.

102. At the altar the priest receives the paten with the bread from a minister. With both hands he holds it slightly raised above the altar and says the accompanying prayer. Then he places the paten with the bread on the corporal.

103. Next, as a minister presents the cruets, the priest stands at the side of the altar and pours wine and a little water into the chalice, saying the accompanying prayer softly. He returns to the middle of the altar, takes the chalice, raises it a little with both hands, and says the appointed prayer. Then he places the chalice on the corporal and may cover it with a pall.

104 The priest bows and says softly the prayer, <Lord God, we ask you to receive.>

105. If incense is used, he incenses the gifts and the altar. A minister incenses the priest and the congregation.

106. After the prayer, <Lord God, we ask you to receive>, or after the incensation, the priest washes his hands at the side of the altar and softly says the prescribed prayer as a minister pours the water.

107. The priest returns to the center and, facing the people and extending then joining his hands, pronounces the invitation: <Pray, brothers and sisters>. After the people's response, he says the prayer over the gifts with hands outstretched. At the end the people make the acclamation: <Amen>.

108. The priest then begins the eucharistic prayer. With hands outstretched, he says: <The Lord be with you>. As he says: <Lift up your hearts>, he raises his hands; with hands outstretched, he adds: <Let us give thanks to the Lord our God>. When the people have answered: <It is right to give him thanks and praise>, the priest continues the preface. At its conclusion, he joins his hands and
109. The priest continues the eucharistic prayer according to the rubrics that are given for each of them. If the priest celebrant is a bishop, after the words <N. our Pope> or the equivalent, he adds: <and for me your unworthy servant>. The local Ordinary must be mentioned in this way: <N. our Bishop> (or <Vicar, Prelate, Prefect, Abbot>). Coadjutor and auxiliary bishops may be mentioned in the eucharistic prayer. When several are named, this is done with the collective formula, <N. our Bishop and his assistant bishops.>[60] All these phrases should be modified grammatically to fit each of the eucharistic prayers.

A little before the consecration, the server may ring a bell as a signal to the faithful. Depending on local custom, he also rings the bell at the showing of both the host and the chalice.

110. After the doxology at the end of the eucharistic prayer, the priest, with hands joined, says the introduction to the Lord's Prayer. With hands outstretched he then sings or says this prayer with the people.

111. After the Lord's Prayer, the priest alone, with hands outstretched, says the embolism, <Deliver us>. At the end the congregation makes the acclamation, <For the kingdom>.

112. Then the priest says aloud the prayer, <Lord Jesus Christ>. After this prayer, extending then joining his hands, he gives the greeting of peace: <The peace of the Lord be with you always>. The people answer: <And also with you>. Then the priest may add: <Let us offer each other a sign of peace>. All exchange some sign of peace and love, according to local custom. The priest may give the sign of peace to the ministers.

113. The priest then takes the eucharistic bread and breaks it over the paten. He places a small piece in the chalice, saying softly: <May this mingling>. Meanwhile the <Agnus Dei> is sung or recited by the choir and congregation (see no. 56 e).

114. Then the priest says softly the prayer, <Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God>, or <Lord Jesus Christ, with faith in your love and mercy>.

115. After the prayer the priest genuflects, takes the eucharistic bread, and, holding it slightly above the paten while facing the people, says: <This is the Lamb of God>. With the people he adds, once only: <Lord, I am not worthy to receive you>.

116. Next, facing the altar, the priest says softly: <May the body of Christ bring me to everlasting life> and reverently consumes the body of Christ. Then he takes the chalice, saying: <May the blood of Christ bring me to everlasting life>, and reverently drinks the blood of Christ.

117. He then takes the paten or a ciborium and goes to the communicants. If communion is given only under the form of bread, he raises the eucharistic bread slightly and shows it to each one, saying: <The body of Christ>. The communicants reply: <Amen> and, holding the communion plate under their chin, receive the sacrament.

118. For communion under both kinds, the rite described in nos. 240-252 is followed.

119. The communion song is begun while the priest is receiving the sacrament (see no. 56 i).

120. After communion the priest returns to the altar and collects any remaining particles. Then, standing at the side of the altar or at a side table, he purifies the paten or ciborium over the chalice, then purifies the chalice, saying quietly: <Lord, may I receive these gifts>, etc., and dries it with a purificator. If this is done at the altar, the vessels are taken to a side table by a minister. It is also permitted, especially if there are several vessels to be purified, to leave them, properly covered and on a corporal, either at the altar or at a side table and to purify them after Mass when the people have left.

121. Afterward the priest may return to the chair. A period of silence may now be observed, or a hymn of praise or a psalm may be sung (see no. 56 j).

122. Then, standing at the altar or at the chair and facing the people, the priest says, with hands outstretched: <Let us pray>. There may be a brief period of silence, unless this has been already observed immediately after communion. He recites the prayer after communion, at the end of which the people make the response: <Amen>.

CONCLUDING RITES

123. If there are any brief announcements, they may be made at this time.

124. Then the priest, with hands outstretched, greets the people: <The Lord be with you>. They answer: <And also with you>. The priest immediately adds: <May almighty God bless you> and, as he blesses with the sign of the cross, continues: <the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit>. All answer: <Amen>. On certain days and occasions another, more solemn form of blessing or the prayer over the people precedes this form of blessing as the rubrics direct.

Immediately after the blessing, with hands joined, the priest adds: <Go in the peace of Christ>, or: <Go in peace to love and serve the Lord>, or: <The Mass is ended, go in peace>, and the people answer: <Thanks be to God>.

125. As a rule, the priest then kisses the altar, makes the proper reverence with the ministers, and leaves.

126. If another liturgical service follows the Mass, the concluding rites (greeting, blessing, and dismissal) are omitted.

B. Functions of the Deacon

127. When there is a deacon present to exercise his ministry, the norms in the preceding section apply, with the following exceptions.

In general the deacon: a. assists the priest and walks at his side; b. at the altar, assists with the chalice or the book; c. if there is no other minister present, carries out other ministerial functions as required.

INTRODUCTORY RITES

128. Vested and carrying the Book of the Gospels, the deacon precedes the priest on the way to the altar or else walks at the priest's side.

129. With the priest he makes the proper reverence and goes up to the altar. After placing the Book of the Gospels on it, along with the priest he kisses the altar. If incense is used, he assists the priest in putting some in the censer and in incensing the altar.

130. After the incensing, he goes to the chair with the priest, sits next to him, and assists him as required.

LITURGY OF THE WORD

131. If incense is used, the deacon assists the priest when he puts incense in the censer during the singing of the <Alleluia> or other chant. Then he bows before the priest and asks for the blessing, saying in a low voice: <Father, give me your blessing.> The priest blesses him: <The Lord be in your heart>. The deacon answers: <Amen>. If the Book of the Gospels is on the altar, he takes it and goes to the lectern; the servers, if there are any, precede, carrying candles and the censer when used. At the lectern the deacon greets the people, incenses the book, and proclaims the gospel. After the reading, he kisses the book, saying softly: <May the words of the gospel wipe away our sins>, and returns to the priest. If there is no homily or profession of faith, he may remain at the lectern for the general intercessions, but the servers leave.

132. After the priest introduces the general intercessions, the deacon announces the intentions at the lectern or other suitable place.

LITURGY OF THE EUCHARIST

133. At the presentation of the gifts, while the priest remains at the chair, the deacon prepares the altar, assisted by other ministers, but the care of the sacred vessels belongs to the deacon. He assists the priest in receiving the people's gifts. Next, he hands the priest the paten with the bread to be consecrated, pours wine and a little water into the chalice, saying softly the <Through the mystery of this water and wine>, then passes the chalice to the priest. (He may also prepare the chalice and pour the wine and water at a side table.) If incense is used, the deacon assists the priest with the incensing of the gifts and the altar; afterward he, or another minister, incenses the priest and the people.

134. During the eucharistic prayer, the deacon stands near but slightly behind the priest, so that when necessary he may assist the priest with the chalice or the missal.

135. At the final doxology of the eucharistic prayer, the deacon stands next to the priest, holding up the chalice as the priest raises the paten with the eucharistic bread, until the people have said the acclamation: <Amen>.

136. After the priest has said the prayer for peace and the greeting: <The peace of the Lord be with you always>, and the people have made the response: <And also with you>, the deacon may invite all to exchange the sign of peace, saying: <Let us offer each other the sign of peace>. He himself receives the sign of peace from the priest and may offer it to other ministers near him.

137. After the priest's communion, the deacon receives under both kinds and then assists the priest in giving communion to the people. But if communion is given under both kinds, the deacon ministers the chalice to the communicants and is the last to drink from it.

138. After communion, the deacon returns to the altar with the priest and collects any remaining fragments. He then takes the chalice and other vessels to the side table, where he purifies them and arranges them in the usual way; the priest returns to the chair. But it is permissible to leave the vessels to be purified, properly covered and on a corporal, at a side table and to purify them after Mass, when the people have left.

CONCLUDING RITE

139. Following the prayer after communion, if there are any brief announcements, the deacon may make them, unless the priest prefers to do so himself.

140. After the priest's blessing, the deacon dismisses the people, saying: <Go in the peace of Christ>, or: <Go in peace to love and serve the Lord>, or: <The Mass is ended, go in peace>.

141. Along with the priest, the deacon kisses the altar, makes the proper reverence, and leaves in the manner followed for the entrance procession.

C. Functions of the Acolyte

142. The acolyte may have functions of various kinds and several may occur at the same time. It is therefore desirable that these functions be suitably distributed among several acolytes. But if there is only a single acolyte present, he should perform the more important functions and the rest are distributed among other ministers.

INTRODUCTORY RITES

143. In the procession to the altar the acolyte may carry the cross, walking between two servers with lighted candles. When he reaches the altar, he places the cross near it and takes his own place in the sanctuary.

144. Throughout the celebration it belongs to the acolyte to go to the priest or the deacon, whenever necessary, in order to present the book to them and to assist them in any other way required. Thus it is appropriate that, if possible, he have a place from which he can conveniently carry out his ministry both at the chair and at the altar.

LITURGY OF THE EUCHARIST

145. After the general intercessions, when no deacon is present, the acolyte places the corporal, purificator, chalice, and missal on the altar, while the priest remains at the chair. Then, if necessary, the acolyte assists the priest in receiving the gifts of the people and he may bring the bread and wine to the altar and present them to the priest. If incense is used, the acolyte gives the censer to the priest and assists him in incensing the gifts and the altar.

146. The acolyte may assist the priest as a special minister in giving communion to the people.[61] If communion is given under both kinds, the acolyte ministers the chalice to the communicants or he holds the chalice when communion is given by intinction.

147. After communion, the acolyte helps the priest or deacon to purify and arrange the vessels. If no deacon is present, the acolyte takes the vessels to the side table, where he purifies and arranges them.

D. Functions of the Reader

INTRODUCTORY RITES

148. In the procession to the altar, when no deacon is present, the reader may carry the Book of the Gospels. In that case he walks in front of the priest; otherwise he walks with the other ministers.

149. Upon reaching the altar, the reader makes the proper reverence along with the priest, goes up to the altar, and places the Book of the Gospels on it. Then he takes his place in the sanctuary with theother ministers.

150. At the lectern the reader proclaims the readings that precede the gospel. If there is no cantor of the psalm, he may also sing or recite the responsorial psalm after the first reading.

151. After the priest gives the introduction to the general intercessions, the reader may announce the intentions when no deacon is present.

152. If there is no entrance song or communion song and the antiphons in the Missal are not said by the faithful, the reader recites them at the proper time.



II. CONCELEBRATED MASSES

INTRODUCTION

153. Concelebration effectively brings out the unity of the priesthood, of the sacrifice, and of the whole people of God. In addition to the times when the rite itself prescribes it, concelebration is also permitted at:

1. a. the chrism Mass and the evening Mass on Holy Thursday;

b. the Mass for councils, meetings of bishops, and synods;

c. the Mass for the blessing of an abbot;

2. in addition, with the permission of the Ordinary, who has the right to decide on the advisability of concelebration, at:

a. the conventual Mass and the principal Mass in churches and oratories when the needs of the people do not require that all the priests present celebrate individually;

b. the Mass for any kind of meeting of priests, either secular or religious.[62]

154. Where there is a large number of priests, the authorized superior may permit concelebration several times on the same day, but either at different times or in different places.[63]

155. The right to regulate, in accord with the law, the discipline for concelebration in his diocese, even in churches and semipublic oratories of exempt religious, belongs to the bishop. The right to decide on the advisability of concelebration and to permit it in his churches and oratories belongs to every Ordinary and even to every major superior of nonexempt clerical religious institutes and of societies of clerics living in community without vows.[64]

156. No one is ever to be admitted into a concelebration once Mass has already begun.[65]

157. A concelebration in which the priests of any diocese concelebrate with their own bishop, especially at the chrism Mass on Holy Thursday and on the occasion of a synod or pastoral visitation, is to be held in high regard. Concelebration is likewise recommended whenever priests gather together with their bishop during a retreat or at any other meeting. That sign of the unity of the priesthood and of the Church itself which marks every concelebration stands out even more clearly in the instances mentioned.[66]

158. For a particular reason, having to do either with the meaning of the rite or of the liturgical feast, to celebrate or concelebrate more than once on the same day is permitted as follows:

a. One who has celebrated or concelebrated the chrism Mass on Holy Thursday may also celebrate or concelebrate the evening Mass.

b. One who has celebrated or concelebrated the Mass of the Easter Vigil may celebrate or concelebrate the second Mass of Easter.

c. All priests may celebrate or concelebrate the three Masses of Christmas, provided the Masses are at their proper times of day.

d. One who concelebrates with the bishop or his delegate at a synod or pastoral visitation, or concelebrates on the occasion of a meeting of priests, may celebrate another Mass for the benefit of the people.[67] This holds also, in analogous circumstances, for gatherings of religious.

159. The structure of a concelebrated Mass, whatever its form, follows the norms for an individual celebration, except for the points prescribed or changed in the next section.

160. If neither a deacon nor other ministers assist in a concelebrated Mass, their functions are carried out by the concelebrants.

INTRODUCTORY RITES

161. In the sacristy or other suitable place, the concelebrants put on the vestments usual for individual celebrants. For a good reason, however, as when there are more concelebrants than vestments, the concelebrants may omit the chasuble and simply wear the stole over the alb; but the principal celebrant always wears the chasuble.

162. When everything is ready, there is the usual procession through the church to the altar. The concelebrating priests go ahead of the principal celebrant.

163. On reaching the altar, the concelebrants and the celebrant make the prescribed reverence, kiss the altar, then go to their chairs. When incense is used, the principal celebrant incenses the altar, then goes to the chair.

LITURGY OF THE WORD

164. During the liturgy of the word, the concelebrants remain at their places, sitting or standing as the principal celebrant does.

165. As a rule the principal celebrant or one of the concelebrants gives the homily.

LITURGY OF THE EUCHARIST

166. The rites for the preparation of the gifts are carried out by the principal celebrant; the other concelebrants remain at their places.

167. At the end of the preparation of the gifts, the concelebrants come near the altar and stand around it in such a way that they do not interfere with the actions of the rite and that the people have a clear view. They should not be in the deacon's way when he has to go to the altar in the performance of his ministry.

MANNER OF RECITING THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER

168. The preface is said by the principal celebrant alone; the <Sanctus> is sung or recited by all the concelebrants with the congregation and the choir.

169. After the <Sanctus>, the concelebrants continue the eucharistic prayer in the way to be described. Unless otherwise indicated, only the principal celebrant makes the gestures.

170. The parts said by all the concelebrants together are to be recited in such a way that the concelebrants say them in a softer voice and the principal celebrant's voice stands out clearly. In this way the congregation should be able to hear the text without difficulty.

A. <Eucharistic Prayer I, the Roman Canon>

171. The prayer, <We come to you, Father>, is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands outstretched.

172. The intercessions, <Remember, Lord, your people> and <In union with the whole Church>, may be assigned to one of the concelebrants; he alone says these prayers, with hands outstretched and aloud.

173. The prayer, <Father, accept this offering>, is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands outstretched.

174. From <Bless and approve our offering to Almighty God, we pray> inclusive, all the concelebrants recite everything together in this manner:

a. They say <Bless and approve our offering> with hands outstretched toward the offerings.

b. They say <The day before he suffered> and <When supper was ended> with hands joined.

c. While saying the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; they look at the eucharistic bread and chalice as these are shown and afterward bow low.

d. They say <Father, we celebrate the memory of Christ< and <Look with favor> with hands outstretched.

e. From <Almighty God, we pray> to <the sacred body and blood of your Son> inclusive, they bow with hands joined; then they stand upright and cross themselves at the words, <let us be filled>.

175. The intercessions, <Remember, Lord, those who have died> and <For our selves, too>, may be assigned to one of the concelebrants; he alone says these prayers, with hands outstretched and aloud.

176. At the words, <Though we are sinners>, all the concelebrants
strike their breast.

177. The prayer, <Through Christ our Lord you give us all these gifts>, is said by the principal celebrant alone.

178. In this eucharistic prayer the parts from <Bless and approve our offering> to <Almighty God, we pray> inclusive and the concluding doxology may be sung.

B. <Eucharistic Prayer II>

179. The prayer, <Lord, you are holy indeed>, is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands outstretched.

180. From <Let your Spirit come> to <May all of us who share> inclusive, all the concelebrants together say the prayer in this manner:

a. They say <Let your Spirit come> with hands outstretched toward the offerings.

b. They say <Before he was given up to death> and <When supper was ended> with hands joined.

c. While saying the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; they look at the eucharistic bread and the chalice as they are shown and afterward bow low.

d. They say <In memory of his death> and <May all of us who share> with hands outstretched.

181. The intercessions for the living, <Lord, remember your Church>, and for the dead, <Remember our brothers and sisters>, may be assigned to one of the concelebrants; he alone says the intercessions, with hands outstretched.

182. In this eucharistic prayer the parts from <Before he was given up to death> to <In memory of his death> inclusive and the concluding doxology may be sung.

C <Eucharistic Prayer III>

183. The prayer, <Father, you are holy indeed>, is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands outstretched.

184. From <And so, Father, we bring you these gifts> to <Look with favor> inclusive, all the concelebrants together say the prayer in this manner:

a. They say <And so, Father, we bring you these gifts> with hands outstretched toward the offerings.

b. They say <On the night he was betrayed> and <When supper was ended> with hands joined.

c. While saying the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; they look at the eucharistic bread and chalice as these are shown andafterward bow low.

d. They say <Father, calling to mind> and <Look with favor> with hands outstretched.

185. The intercessions, <May he make us an everlasting gift> and <Lord, may this sacrifice>, may be assigned to one of the concelebrants; he alone says these prayers, with hands outstretched.

186. In this eucharistic prayer the parts from <On the night he was betrayed> to <Father calling to mind> inclusive and the concluding doxology may be sung.

D. <Eucharistic Prayer IV>

187. The prayer, <Father, we acknowledge>, is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands outstretched.

188. From <Father, may this Holy Spirit> to <Lord, look upon this sacrifice> inclusive, all the concelebrants together say the prayer in this manner:

a. They say <Father, may this Holy Spirit> with hands outstretched toward the offerings.

b. They say <He always loved those> and <In the same way> with hands joined.

c. While saying the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; they look at the eucharistic bread and chalice as these are shown and afterward bow low.

d. They say <Father, we now celebrate> and <Lord, look upon this sacrifice> with hands outstretched.

189. The intercessions, <Lord, remember those>, may be assigned to one of the concelebrants; he alone says them, with hands outstretched.

190. In this eucharistic prayer the parts from <He always loved those> to <Father, we now celebrate> inclusive and the concluding doxology may be sung.

191. The concluding doxology of the eucharistic prayer may be sung or said either by the principal celebrant alone or together with all the concelebrants.

COMMUNION RITE

192. Next, with hands joined, the celebrant introduces the Lord's Prayer; with hands outstretched, he then says this prayer itself with the other concelebrants and the congregation.

193. The embolism, <Deliver us>, is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands outstretched. All the concelebrants together with the congregation say the final acclamation, <For the kingdom>.

194. After the deacon (or one of the concelebrants) says: <Let us offer each other the sign of peace>, all exchange the sign of peace. The concelebrants who are nearer the principal celebrant receive the sign of peace from him ahead of the deacon.

195. During the <Agnus Dei>, some of the concelebrants may help the principal celebrant break the eucharistic bread for communion, both for the concelebrants and for the congregation.

196. After the commingling, the principal celebrant alone says softly the prayer, <Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Living God>, or <Lord Jesus Christ, with faith in your love and mercy>.

197. After this prayer, the principal celebrant genuflects and steps back a little. One by one the concelebrants come to the middle of the altar, genuflect, and reverently take the body of Christ from the altar. Then holding the eucharistic bread in the right hand, with the left hand under it, they return to their places. The concelebrants may, however, remain in their places and take the body of Christ from the paten presented to them by the principal celebrant or by one or more of the concelebrants, or from the paten as it is passed from one to the other.

198. Then the principal celebrant takes the eucharistic bread, holds it slightly raised above the paten, and, facing the congregation, says: <This is the Lamb of God>. With the concelebrants and the congregation he continues: <Lord, I am not worthy>.

199. Then the principal celebrant, facing the altar, says softly: <May the body of Christ bring me to everlasting life> and reverently consumes the body of Christ. The concelebrants do the same. After them the deacon receives the body of Christ from the principal celebrant.

200. The blood of the Lord may be taken by drinking from the chalice directly, through a tube, with a spoon, or even by intinction.

201. If communion is received directly from the chalice, either of two procedures may be followed.

a. The principal celebrant takes the chalice and says quietly: <May the blood of Christ bring me to everlasting life>. He drinks a little and hands the chalice to the deacon or a concelebrant. Then he gives communion to the faithful or returns to the chair. The concelebrants approach the altar one by one or, if two chalices are used, two by two. They drink the blood of Christ and return to their seats. The deacon or a concelebrant wipes the chalice with a purificator after each concelebrant communicates.

b. The principal celebrant stands at the middle of the altar and drinks the blood of Christ in the usual manner.

But the concelebrants may receive the blood of the Lord while remaining in their places. They drink from the chalice presented by the deacon or by one of their number, or else passed from one to the other. Either the one who drinks from the chalice or the one who presents it always wipes it off. After communicating, each one returns to his seat.

202. If communion is received through a tube, this is the procedure. The principal celebrant takes the tube and says softly: <May the blood of Christ bring me to everlasting life.> He drinks a little and immediately cleans the tube by sipping some water from a container at hand on the altar, then places the tube on the paten. The deacon or one of the concelebrants puts the chalice at a convenient place in the middle of the altar or at the right side on another corporal. A container of water for purifying the tubes is placed near the chalice, with a paten to hold them afterward.

The concelebrants come forward one by one, take a tube, and drink a little from the chalice. They then purify the tube, by sipping a little water, and place it on the paten.

203. If communion is received by using a spoon, the same procedure is followed as for communion with a tube. But care is to be taken that after each communion the spoon is placed in a container of water. After communion has been completed, the acolyte carries this container to a side table to wash and dry the spoons.

204. The deacon receives communion last. He then drinks what remains in the chalice and takes it to the side table. There he or the acolyte washes and dries the chalice and arranges it in the usual way.

205. The concelebrants may also receive from the chalice at the altar immediately immediately after receiving the body of the Lord.

In this case the principal celebrant receives under both kinds as he would when celebrating Mass alone, but for the communion from the chalice he follows the rite that in each instance has been decided on for the concelebrants.

After the principal celebrant's communion, the chalice is placed on another corporal at the right side of the altar. The concelebrants come forward one by one, genuflect, and receive the body of the Lord; then they go to the side of the altar and drink the blood of the Lord, following the rite decided upon, as has just been said.

The communion of the deacon and the purification of the chalice take place as already described.

206. If the concelebrants receive communion by intinction, the principal celebrant receives the body and blood of the Lord in the usual way, making sure that enough remains in the chalice for their communion. Then the deacon or one of the concelebrants arranges the paten with the eucharistic bread and the chalice conveniently in the center of the altar or at the right side on another corporal. The concelebrants approach the altar one by one, genuflect, and take a particle, dip part of it into the chalice, and, holding a paten under their chin, communicate. Afterward they return to their places as at the beginning of Mass.

The deacon receives communion also by intinction and to the concelebrant's words: <The body and blood of Christ>, makes the response: <Amen>. At the altar the deacon drinks all that remains in the chalice, takes it to the side table and there he or the acolyte purifies and dries it, then arranges it in the usual way.

CONCLUDING RITE

207. The principal celebrant does everything else until the end of Mass in the usual way; the other concelebrants remain at their seats.


208. Before leaving, the concelebrants make the proper reverence to the altar; as a rule, the principal celebrant kisses the altar.



III. MASS WITHOUT A CONGREGATION

INTRODUCTION

209. This section gives the norms for Mass celebrated by a priest with only one server to assist him and to make the responses.

210. In general this form of Mass follows the rite of Mass with a congregation. The server takes the people's part to the extent possible.

211. Mass should not be celebrated without a server, except out of serious necessity. In this case the greetings and the blessing at the end of Mass are omitted.

212. The chalice is prepared before Mass, either on a side table near the altar or on the altar itself; the missal is placed on the left side of the altar.

INTRODUCTORY RITES

213. After he reverences the altar, the priest crosses himself, saying: <In the name of the Father>, etc. He turns to the server and gives one of the forms of greeting. For the penitential rite the priest stands at the foot of the altar.

214. The priest then goes up to the altar and kisses it, goes to the missal at the left side of the altar, and remains there until the end of the general intercessions.

215. He reads the entrance antiphon and says the <Kyrie> and the <Gloria>, in keeping with the rubrics.

216. Then, with hands joined, the priest says: <Let us pray>. After a suitable pause, he says the opening prayer, with hands outstretched. At the end the server responds: <Amen>.

LITURGY OF THE WORD

217. After the opening prayer, the server or the priest himself reads the first reading and psalm, the second reading, when it is to be said, and the <Alleluia> verse or other chant.

218. The priest remains in the same place, bows and says: <Almighty God, cleanse my heart>. He then reads the gospel and at the conclusion kisses the book, saying: <May the words of the gospel wipe away our sins>. The server says the acclamation.

219. The priest then says the profession of faith with the server, if the rubrics call for it.

220. The general intercessions may be said even in this form of Mass; the priest gives the intentions and the server makes the response.

LITURGY OF THE EUCHARIST

221. The antiphon for the preparation of the gifts is omitted. The minister places the corporal, purificator, and chalice on the altar, unless they have already been put there at the beginning of Mass.

222. Preparation of the bread and wine, including the pouring of the water, are carried out as at a Mass with a congregation, with the formularies given in the Order of Mass. After placing the bread and wine on the altar, the priest washes his hands at the side of the altar as the server pours the water.

223. The priest says the prayer over the gifts and the eucharistic prayer, following the rite described for Mass with a congregation.

224. The Lord's Prayer and the embolism, <Deliver us>, are said as at Mass with a congregation.

225. After the acclamation concluding the embolism, the priest says the prayer, <Lord Jesus Christ, you said>. He then adds: <The peace of the Lord be with you always>, and the server answers: <And also with you>. The priest may give the sign of peace to the server.

226. Then, while he says the <Agnus Dei> with the server, the priest breaks the eucharistic bread over the paten. After the <Agnus Dei>, he places a particle in the chalice, saying softly: <May this mingling.>

227. After the commingling, the priest says softly the prayer, <Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Living God>, or <Lord Jesus Christ, with faith in your love and mercy>. Then he genuflects and takes the eucharistic bread. If the server is to receive communion, the priest turns to him and, holding the eucharistic bread a little above the paten, says: <This is the Lamb of God>, adding once with the server: <Lord, I am not worthy>. Facing the altar, the priest then receives the body of Christ. If the server is not receiving communion, the priest, after making a genuflection, takes the host and, facing the altar, says once quietly: <Lord, I am not worthy>, and eats the body of Christ. The blood of Christ is received in the way described in the Order of Mass with a congregation.

228. Before giving communion to the server, the priest says the communion antiphon.

229. The chalice is washed at the side of the altar and then may be carried by the server to a side table or left on the altar, as at the beginning.

230. After the purification of the chalice, the priest may observe a period of silence. Then he says the prayer after communion.

CONCLUDING RITES

231. The concluding rites are carried out as at Mass with a congregation, but the dismissal formulary is omitted.



IV. SOME GENERAL RULES FOR ALL FORMS OF MASS

VENERATION OF THE ALTAR AND THE BOOK OF THE GOSPELS

232. According to traditional liturgical practice, the altar and the Book of the Gospels are kissed as a sign of veneration. But if this sign of reverence is not in harmony with the traditions or the culture of the region, the conference of bishops may substitute some other sign, after informing the Apostolic See.

GENUFLECTIONS AND BOWS

233. Three genuflections are made during Mass: after the showing of the eucharistic bread, after the showing of the chalice, and before communion.

If there is a tabernacle with the blessed sacrament in the sanctuary, a genuflection is made before and after Mass and whenever anyonepasses in front of the blessed sacrament.

234. There are two kinds of bow, a bow of the head and a bow of the body:

a. A bow of the head is made when the three divine Persons are named together and at the name of Jesus, Mary and the saint in whose honor Mass is celebrated.

b. A bow of the body, or profound bow, is made: toward the altar if there is no tabernacle with the blessed sacrament; during the prayers, <Almighty God, cleanse> and <Lord God, we ask you to receive>; within the profession of faith at the words, <by the power of the Holy Spirit>; in Eucharistic Prayer I (Roman Canon) at the words, <Almighty God, we pray>. The same kind of bow is made by the deacon when he asks the blessing before the gospel. In addition, the priest bends over slightly as he says the words of the Lord at the consecration.

INCENSATION

235. The use of incense is optional in any form of Mass:

a. during the entrance procession;

b. at the beginning of Mass, to incense the altar;

c. at the procession and proclamation of the gospel;

d. at the preparation of the gifts, to incense them, as well as the altar, priest, and people;

e. at the showing of the eucharistic bread and chalice after the consecration.

236. The priest puts the incense in the censer and blesses it with the sign of the cross, saying nothing.

This is the way to incense the altar:

a. If the altar is freestanding, the priest incenses it as he walks around it.

b. If the altar is not freestanding, he incenses it while walking first to the right side, then to the left.

If there is a cross on or beside the altar, he incenses it before he incenses the altar. If the cross is behind the altar, the priest incenses it when he passes in front of it.

PURIFICATIONS

237. Whenever a particle of the eucharistic bread adheres to his fingers, especially after the breaking of the bread or the communion of the people, the priest cleanses his fingers over the paten or, if necessary, washes them. He also gathers any particles that may fall outside the paten.

238. The vessels are purified by the priest or else by the deacon or acolyte after the communion or after Mass, if possible at a side table. Wine and water or water alone are used for the purification of the chalice, then drunk by the one who purifies it. The paten is usually to be wiped with the purificator.

239. If the eucharistic bread or any particle of it should fall, it is to be picked up reverently. If any of the precious blood spills, the area should be washed and the water poured into the sacrarium.

COMMUNION UNDER BOTH KINDS

240. Holy communion has a more complete form as a sign when it is received under both kinds. For in this manner of reception a fuller light shines on the sign of the eucharistic banquet. Moreover there is a clearer expression of that will by which the new and everlasting covenant is ratified in the blood of the Lord and of the relationship of the eucharistic banquet to the eschatological banquet in the Father's kingdom.[68]

241. For the faithful who take part in the rite or are present at it, pastors should take care to call to mind as clearly as possible Catholic teaching according to the Council of Trent on the manner of communion. Above all they should instruct the people that according to Catholic faith Christ, whole and entire, as well as the true sacrament are received even under one kind only; that, therefore, as far as the effects are concerned, those who receive in this manner are not deprived of any grace necessary for salvation.[69]

Pastors are also to teach that the Church has power in its stewardship of the sacraments, provided their substance remains intact. The Church may make those rules and changes that, in view of the different conditions, times, and places, it decides to be in the interest of reverence for the sacraments or the well-being of the recipients.[70] At the same time the faithful should be guided toward a desire to take part more intensely in a sacred rite in which the sign of the eucharistic meal stands out more explicitly.

242. At the discretion of the Ordinary and after the prerequisite catechesis, communion from the chalice is permitted in the case of:[71]

1. newly baptized adults at the Mass following their baptism; adults at the Mass at which they receive confirmation; baptized persons who are being received into the full communion of the Church;

2. the bride and bridegroom at their wedding Mass;

3. deacons at the Mass of their ordination;

4. an abbess at the Mass in which she is blessed; those consecrated to a life of virginity at the Mass of their consecration; professed religious, their relatives, friends, and the other members of their community at the Mass of first or perpetual vows or renewal of vows;

5. those who receive institution for a certain ministry at the Mass of their institution; lay missionary helpers at the Mass in which they publicly receive their mission; others at the Mass in which they receive an ecclesiastical mission;

6. the sick person and all present at the time viaticum is to be administered when Mass is lawfully celebrated in the sick person's home;

7. the deacon and ministers who exercise their office at Mass;

8. when there is a concelebration, in the case of:

a. all who exercise a liturgical function at this concelebration and also all seminarians present;

b. in their churches or oratories, all members of institutes professing the evangelical counsels and other societies whose members dedicate themselves to God by religious vows or by an offering or promise; also all those who reside in the houses of members of such institutes and societies;

9. priests who are present at major celebrations and are not able to celebrate or concelebrate;

10. all who make a retreat at a Mass in which they actively participate and which is specially celebrated for the group; also all who take part in the meeting of any pastoral body at a Mass the celebrate as a group;

11. those listed in nos. 2 and 4, at Masses celebrating their jubilees;

12. godparents, relatives, wife or husband, and lay catechists of newly baptized adults at the Mass of their initiation;

13. relatives, friends, and special benefactors who take part in the Mass of a newly ordained priest;

14. members of communities at the conventual or community Mass, in accord with the provisions of this Instruction no. 76.

Further, the conferences of bishops have the power to decide to what extent and under what considerations and conditions Ordinaries may allow communion under both kinds in other instances that are of special significance in the spiritual life of any community or group of the faithful.

Within such limits, Ordinaries may designate the particular instances, but on condition that they grant permission not indiscriminately but for clearly defined celebrations and that they point out matters for caution. They are also to exclude occasions when there will be a large number of communicants. The groups receiving this permission must also be specific, well-ordered, and homogeneous.

243. Preparations for giving communion under both kinds:

a. If communion is received from the chalice with a tube, silver tubes are needed for the celebrant and each communicant. There should also be a container of water for purifying the tubes and a paten on which to put them afterward.

b. If communion is given with a spoon, only one spoon is necessary.

c. If communion is given by intinction, care is to be taken that the eucharistic bread is not too thin or too small, but a little thicker than usual so that after being partly dipped into the precious blood it can still easily be given to the communicant.

1. RITE OF COMMUNION UNDER BOTH KINDS DIRECTLY FROM THE CHALICE

244. If there is a deacon or another assisting priest or an acolyte:

a. The celebrant receives the Lord's body and blood as usual, making sure enough remains in the chalice for the other communicants. He wipes the outside of the chalice with a purificator.

b. The priest gives the chalice with purificator to the minister and himself takes the paten or ciborium with the hosts; then both station themselves conveniently for the communion of the people.

c. The communicants approach, make the proper reverence, and stand in front of the priest. Showing the host he says: <The body of Christ>. The communicant answers: <Amen> and receives the body of Christ from the priest.

d. The communicant then moves to the minister of the chalice and stands before him. The minister says: <The blood of Christ>, the communicant answers: <Amen>, and the minister holds out the chalice with purificator. For the sake of convenience, communicants may raise the chalice to their mouth themselves. Holding the purificator under the mouth with one hand, they drink a little from the chalice, taking care not to spill it, and then return to their place. The minister wipes the outside of the chalice with the purificator.

e. The minister places the chalice on the altar after all who are receiving under both kinds have drunk from it. If there are others who are not receiving communion under both kinds, the priest gives these communion, then returns to the altar. The priest or minister drinks whatever remains in the chalice and carries out the usual purifications.

245. If there is no deacon, other priest, or acolyte:

a. The priest receives the Lord's body and blood as usual, making sure enough remains in the chalice for the other communicants. He wipes the outside of the chalice with the purificator.

b. The priest then stations himself conveniently for communion and distributes the body of Christ in the usual way to all who are receiving under both kinds. The communicants approach, make the proper reverence, and stand in front of the priest. After receiving the body of Christ, they step back a little.

c. After all have received, the celebrant places the ciborium on the altar and takes the chalice with the purificator. All those receiving from the chalice come forward again and stand in front of the priest. He says: <The blood of Christ>, the communicant answers: Amen, and the priest presents the chalice with purificator. The communicants hold the purificator under their mouth with one hand, taking care that none of the precious blood is spilled, drink a little from the chalice, and then return to their place. The priest wipes the outside of the chalice with the purificator.

d. After the communion from the chalice, the priest places it on the altar and if there are others receiving under one kind only, he gives them communion in the usual way, then returns to the altar. He drinks whatever remains in the chalice and carries out the usual purifications.

2. RITE OF COMMUNION UNDER BOTH KINDS BY INTINCTION

If there is a deacon, another priest assisting, or an acolyte present:

a. The priest hands this minister the chalice with purificator and he himself takes the paten or ciborium with the hosts. The priest and the minister of the chalice station themselves conveniently for distributing communion.

b. The communicants approach, make the proper reverence, stand in front of the priest, and hold the communion plate below their chin. The celebrant dips a particle into the chalice and, showing it, says:<The body and blood of Christ>. The communicants respond: <Amen>, receive communion from the priest, and return to their place.

c. The communion of those who do not receive under both kinds and the rest of the rite take place as already described.

If there is no deacon, assisting priest, or acolyte present:

a. After drinking the blood of the Lord, the priest takes the ciborium, or paten with the hosts, between the index and middle fingers of one hand and holds the chalice between the thumb and index finger of the same hand. Then he stations himself conveniently for communion.

b. The communicants approach, make the proper reverence, stand in front of the priest, and hold a plate beneath their chin. The priest takes a particle, dips it into the chalice, and, showing it, says: <The body and blood of Christ>. The communicants respond: <Amen>, receive communion from the priest, and return to their place.

c. It is also permitted to place a small table covered with a cloth and corporal at a suitable place. The priest places the chalice or ciborium on the table in order to make the distribution of communion easier.

d. The communion of those who do not receive under both kinds, the consumption of the blood remaining in the chalice, and the purifications take place as already described.

3. RITE OF COMMUNION UNDER BOTH KINDS USING A TUBE

248. In this case the priest celebrant also uses a tube when receiving the blood of the Lord.

249. If there is a deacon, another assisting priest, or an acolyte present:

a. For the communion of the body of the Lord, everything is done as described in nos. 224 b and c.

b. The communicant goes to the minister of the chalice and stands in front of him. The minister says: <The blood of Christ> and the communicant responds: <Amen>. The communicant receives the tube from the minister, places it in the chalice, and drinks a little. The communicant then removes the tube, careful not to spill any drops, and places it in a container of water held by the minister. The communicant sips a little water to purify the tube, then puts it into another container presented by the minister.

250. If there is no deacon, other assisting priest, or acolyte present, the priest celebrant offers the chalice to each communicant in the way described already for communion from the chalice (no. 245). The minister standing next to him holds the container of water for purifying the tube.

4. RITE OF COMMUNION UNDER BOTH KINDS USING A SPOON

251. If a deacon, another assisting priest, or an acolyte is present, he holds the chalice and, saying: <The blood of Christ>, ministers the blood of the Lord with a spoon to the individual communicants, who hold the plate beneath their chin. He is to take care that the spoon does not touch the lips or tongue of the communicants.

252. If there is no deacon, other assisting priest, or acolyte present, the priest celebrant himself gives them the Lord's blood, after all receiving communion under both kinds have received the Lord's body.

 

Courtesy of Meeting Christ in the Liturgy E-zine: Weekly reflections on the Scriptures of the sacred Liturgy and the Catechism of the Catholic Church http://www.christusrex.org/www1/mcitl/