CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH

THE PROFESSION OF FAITH

SECTION TWO

III. ORIGINAL SIN

Freedom put to the test

396 God created man in his image and established him in his friendship. A spiritual creature, man can live this friendship only in free submission to God. The prohibition against eating "of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" spells this out: "for in the day that you eat of it, you shall die."[276] The "tree of the knowledge of good and evil"[277] symbolically evokes the insurmountable limits that man, being a creature, must freely recognize and respect with trust. Man is dependent on his Creator, and subject to the laws of creation and to the moral norms that govern the use of freedom.

Man's first sin

397 Man, tempted by the devil, let his trust in his Creator die in his heart and, abusing his freedom, disobeyed God's command. This is what man's first sin consisted of.[278] All subsequent sin would be disobedience toward God and lack of trust in his goodness.

398 In that sin man preferred himself to God and by that very act scorned him. He chose himself over and against God, against the requirements of his creaturely status and therefore against his own good. Created in a state of holiness, man was destined to be fully "divinized" by God in glory. Seduced by the devil, he wanted to "be like God", but "without God, before God, and not in accordance with God".[279]

399 Scripture portrays the tragic consequences of this first disobedience. Adam and Eve immediately lose the grace of original holiness.[280] They become afraid of the God of whom they have conceived a distorted image - that of a God jealous of his prerogatives.[281]

400 The harmony in which they had found themselves, thanks to original justice, is now destroyed: the control of the soul's spiritual faculties over the body is shattered; the union of man and woman becomes subject to tensions, their relations henceforth marked by lust and domination.[282] Harmony with creation is broken: visible creation has become alien and hostile to man.[283] Because of man, creation is now subject "to its bondage to decay".[284] Finally, the consequence explicitly foretold for this disobedience will come true: man will "return to the ground",[285] for out of it he was taken. Death makes its entrance into human history.[286]

401 After that first sin, the world is virtually inundated by sin There is Cain's murder of his brother Abel and the universal corruption which follows in the wake of sin. Likewise, sin frequently manifests itself in the history of Israel, especially as infidelity to the God of the Covenant and as transgression of the Law of Moses. And even after Christ's atonement, sin raises its head in countless ways among Christians.[287] Scripture and the Church's Tradition continually recall the presence and universality of sin in man's history:
What Revelation makes known to us is confirmed by our own experience. For when man looks into his own heart he finds that he is drawn towards what is wrong and sunk in many evils which cannot come from his good creator. Often refusing to acknowledge God as his source, man has also upset the relationship which should link him to his last end, and at the same time he has broken the right order that should reign within himself as well as between himself and other men and all creatures.[288]

The consequences of Adam's sin for humanity

402 All men are implicated in Adam's sin, as St. Paul affirms: "By one man's disobedience many (that is, all men) were made sinners": "sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned."[289] The Apostle contrasts the universality of sin and death with the universality of salvation in Christ. "Then as one man's trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man's act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men."[290]

403 Following St. Paul, the Church has always taught that the overwhelming misery which oppresses men and their inclination towards evil and death cannot be understood apart from their connection with Adam's sin and the fact that he has transmitted to us a sin with which we are all born afflicted, a sin which is the "death of the soul".[291] Because of this certainty of faith, the Church baptizes for the remission of sins even tiny infants who have not committed personal sin.[292]

404 How did the sin of Adam become the sin of all his descendants? The whole human race is in Adam "as one body of one man".[293] By this "unity of the human race" all men are implicated in Adam's sin, as all are implicated in Christ's justice. Still, the transmission of original sin is a mystery that we cannot fully understand. But we do know by Revelation that Adam had received original holiness and justice not for himself alone, but for all human nature. By yielding to the tempter, Adam and Eve committed a personal sin, but this sin affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state.[294] It is a sin which will be transmitted by propagation to all mankind, that is, by the transmission of a human nature deprived of original holiness and justice. And that is why original sin is called "sin" only in an analogical sense: it is a sin "contracted" and not "committed" - a state and not an act.

405 Although it is proper to each individual,[295] original sin does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam's descendants. It is a deprivation of original holiness and justice, but human nature has not been totally corrupted: it is wounded in the natural powers proper to it, subject to ignorance, suffering and the dominion of death, and inclined to sin - an inclination to evil that is called concupiscence". Baptism, by imparting the life of Christ's grace, erases original sin and turns a man back towards God, but the consequences for nature, weakened and inclined to evil, persist in man and summon him to spiritual battle.

406 The Church's teaching on the transmission of original sin was articulated more precisely in the fifth century, especially under the impulse of St. Augustine's reflections against Pelagianism, and in the sixteenth century, in opposition to the Protestant Reformation. Pelagius held that man could, by the natural power of free will and without the necessary help of God's grace, lead a morally good life; he thus reduced the influence of Adam's fault to bad example. The first Protestant reformers, on the contrary, taught that original sin has radically perverted man and destroyed his freedom; they identified the sin inherited by each man with the tendency to evil (concupiscentia), which would be insurmountable. The Church pronounced on the meaning of the data of Revelation on original sin especially at the second Council of Orange (529)[296] and at the Council of Trent (1546).[297]

A hard battle. . .

407 The doctrine of original sin, closely connected with that of redemption by Christ, provides lucid discernment of man's situation and activity in the world. By our first parents' sin, the devil has acquired a certain domination over man, even though man remains free. Original sin entails "captivity under the power of him who thenceforth had the power of death, that is, the devil".[298] Ignorance of the fact that man has a wounded nature inclined to evil gives rise to serious errors in the areas of education, politics, social action[299] and morals.

408 The consequences of original sin and of all men's personal sins put the world as a whole in the sinful condition aptly described in St. John's expression, "the sin of the world".[300] This expression can also refer to the negative influence exerted on people by communal situations and social structures that are the fruit of men's sins.[301]

409 This dramatic situation of "the whole world [which] is in the power of the evil one"[302] makes man's life a battle:
The whole of man's history has been the story of dour combat with the powers of evil, stretching, so our Lord tells us, from the very dawn of history until the last day. Finding himself in the midst of the battlefield man has to struggle to do what is right, and it is at great cost to himself, and aided by God's grace, that he succeeds in achieving his own inner integrity.[303]

IV. "YOU DID NOT ABANDON HIM TO THE POWER OF DEATH"

410 After his fall, man was not abandoned by God. On the contrary, God calls him and in a mysterious way heralds the coming victory over evil and his restoration from his fall.[304] This passage in Genesis is called the Protoevangelium ("first gospel"): the first announcement of the Messiah and Redeemer, of a battle between the serpent and the Woman, and of the final victory of a descendant of hers.

411 The Christian tradition sees in this passage an announcement of the "New Adam" who, because he "became obedient unto death, even death on a cross", makes amends superabundantly for the disobedience, of Adam.[305] Furthermore many Fathers and Doctors of the Church have seen the woman announced in the "Proto-evangelium" as Mary, the mother of Christ, the "new Eve". Mary benefited first of all and uniquely from Christ's victory over sin: she was preserved from all stain of original sin and by a special grace of God committed no sin of any kind during her whole earthly life.[306]

412 But why did God not prevent the first man from sinning? St. Leo the Great responds, "Christ's inexpressible grace gave us blessings better than those the demon's envy had taken away."[307] And St. Thomas Aquinas wrote, "There is nothing to prevent human nature's being raised up to something greater, even after sin; God permits evil in order to draw forth some greater good. Thus St. Paul says, 'Where sin increased, grace abounded all the more'; and the Exsultet sings, 'O happy fault,. . . which gained for us so great a Redeemer!'"[308]

IN BRIEF

413 "God did not make death, and he does not delight in the death of the living. . . It was through the devil's envy that death entered the world" (Wis 1:13; 2:24).

414 Satan or the devil and the other demons are fallen angels who have freely refused to serve God and his plan. Their choice against God is definitive. They try to associate man in their revolt against God.

415 "Although set by God in a state of rectitude man, enticed by the evil one, abused his freedom at the very start of history. He lifted himself up against God, and sought to attain his goal apart from him" (GS 13 # 1).

416 By his sin Adam, as the first man, lost the original holiness and justice he had received from God, not only for himself but for all human beings.

417 Adam and Eve transmitted to their descendants human nature wounded by their own first sin and hence deprived of original holiness and justice; this deprivation is called "original sin".

418 As a result of original sin, human nature is weakened in its powers, subject to ignorance, suffering and the domination of death, and inclined to sin (this inclination is called "concupiscence").

419 "We therefore hold, with the Council of Trent, that original sin is transmitted with human nature, "by propagation, not by imitation" and that it is. . . 'proper to each'" (Paul VI, CPG # 16).

420 The victory that Christ won over sin has given us greater blessings than those which sin had taken from us: "where sin increased, grace abounded all the more" (Rom 5:20).

421 Christians believe that "the world has been established and kept in being by the Creator's love; has fallen into slavery to sin but has been set free by Christ, crucified and risen to break the power of the evil one. . ." (GS 2 # 2).

   ENDNOTES
   1 Cf. Is 44:6.

   2 Roman Catechism I, 2, 2.
   3 Roman Catechism I, 2, 2.

   4 Dt 6:45.

   5 Is 45:22-24; cf. Phil 2:10-11.

   6 Mk 12:29-30

   7 Cf. Mk 12:35-37.

   8 Lateran Council IV: DS 800.

   9 EX 3:6.

   10 EX 3:13-15.

   11 Cf. Is 45:15; Judg 13:18.

   12 EX 3:6, 12.

   13 Cf. EX 3:5-6.

   14 Is 6:5.

   15 Lk 5:8.

   16 Hos 11:9.

   17 I Jn 3:19-20.

   18 Cf. Ex 32; 33: 12-17.

   19 Ex 33:18-19.

   20 Ex 34:5-6; cf. 34:9.

   21 Ex 34:7.

   22 Eph 2:4.

   23 Jn 8:28 (Greek).

   24 Cf. Is 44:6.

   25 Ps 102:26-27.

   26 Jas 1:17.

   27 Ex 34:6.

   28 Ps 138:2; cf. Ps 85:11.

   29 I Jn 1:5; 4:8.

   30 Ps 119:160.

   31 2 Sam 7:28.

   32 Cf. Dt 7:9.
   33 Cf Wis 13:1-9.

   34 Cf Ps 115:15; Wis 7:17-21.
   35 Mal 2:6.

   36 Jn 18:37.

   37 I Jn 5:20; cf. Jn 17:3.

   38 Cf. Dt 4:37; 7:8; 10:15.

   39 Cf. Is 43:1-7; Hos 2.

   40 Jn 3:16; cf. Hos 11:1; Is 49:14-15; 62 :4-5; Ezek 16; Hos 11.

   41 Is 54:8.

   42 Is 54: 10; cf. 54:8.

   43 Jer 31:3.

   44 l Jn 4:8, 16.

   45 Cf. I Cor 2:7-16; Eph 3:9-12.

   46 Job 36:26.

   47 St. Joan of Arc.

   48 I Cor 4:7.

   49 Ps 116:12.

   50 Gen 1:26.

   51 St. Nicholas of Flue; cf. Mt 5:29-30; 16:24-26.

   52 St. Teresa of Jesus, Poesias 30 in The Collected Works of St. Teresa of
   Avila, vol. III, tr. K. Kavanaugh OCD and O.  Rodriguez OCD (Washington DC
   Institute of Carmelite Studies, 1985), 386 no. 9. tr. John Wall.

   53 Mt 28:19.

   54 St. Caesarius of Arles, Sermo 9, Exp. symb.: CCL 103, 47.

   55 Cf. Profession of faith of Pope Vigilius I (552): DS 415.

   56 GCD 43.

   57 GCD 47.

   58 Dei Filius 4: DS 3015.

   59 Cf. Dt 32:6; Mal 2:10.

   60 Ex 4:22.

   61 Cf. 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 68:6.
   62 Cf. Is 66:13; Ps 131:2.

   63 Cf. Ps 27:10; Eph 3:14; Is 49:15.

   64 Mt 11-27.

   65 Jn 1:1; Col 1:15; Heb 1:3.

   66 The English phrases "of one being" and "one in being" translate the
   Greek word homoousios, which was rendered in Latin by consubstantialis.

   67 Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed; cf. DS 150.

   68 Cf. Gen 1:2; Nicene Creed (DS 150); Jn 14:17, 26; 16:13.

   69 Cf. Jn 14:26; 15:26; 16:14.

   70 Cf. Jn 7:39.

   71 Nicene Creed; cf. DS 150.

   72 Council of Toledo VI (638): DS 490.

   73 Council of Toledo XI (675): DS 527.

   74 Nicene Creed; cf. DS 150.

   75 Council of Florence (1439): DS 1300-1301.

   76 Cf. Leo I, Quam laudabiliter (447): DS 284.

   77 Jn 15:26; cf. AG 2.

   78 Council of Florence (1439): DS 1302.

   79 Council of Florence (1442): DS 1331.

   80 Cf. Council of Lyons II(1274): DS 850.

   81 2 Cor 13:14; cf. I Cor 12:4 - 6; Eph 4:4-6.

   82 Paul VI, CPC # 2.

   83 Council of Constantinople II (553): DS 421.

   84 Council of Toledo XI (675): DS 530:26.

   85 Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 804.

   86 Fides Damasi: DS 71.

   87 Council of Toledo XI (675): DS 530:25.

   88 Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 804.

   89 Council of Toledo XI (675): DS 528.

   90 Council of Florence (1442): DS 1330.

   91 Council of Florence (1442): DS 1331.

   92 St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Oratio 40, 41: PG 36,417.

   93 LH, Hymn for Evening Prayer.
   94 Eph 1:4-5, 9; Rom 8:15, 29.

   95 2 Tim 1:9-10.

   96 Cf. AG 2-9.

   97 Council of Florence (1442): DS 1331; cf. Council of Constantinople II
   (553): DS 421.

   98 Council of Constantinople II: DS 421.

   99 Cf. Jn 6:44; Rom 8:14.

   100 Cf. Jn 17:21-23.

   101 Jn 14:23.

   102 Prayer of Blessed Elizabeth of the Trinity.

   103 Cf. Gen 1:1; Jn 1:3; Mt 6:9; 2 Cor 12:9; cf. I Cor 1:18.

   104 Ps 115:3.

   105 Gen 49:24; Is 1:24 etc.; Pss 24:8-10; 135 6.

   106 Cf. Jer 27:5; 32:17; Lk 1:37.

   107 Wis 11:21; cf. Esth 4:17b; Prov 21:1; Tob 13:2.

   108 Wis 11:23.

   109 2 Cor 6:18; cf. Mt 6:32.

   110 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh I, 25, 5, ad I.

   111 1 Cor 1:24-25.

   112 Eph 1:19-22.

   113 Cf. 2 Cor 12:9; Phil 4:13.

   114 Lk 1:37, 49.

   115 Roman Catechism I, 2, 13

   116 Gen 1:1.

   117 GCD 51.

   118 Gen 1:1; cf. Rom 8:18-23.

   119 Cf. Egeria, Peregrinatio at loca sancta 46: PLS 1, 1047; St. Augustine,
   De catechizantis rudibus 3, 5: PL 40, 256.

   120 Cf. NA 2.
   121 Wis 7: 17-22.

   122 Cf. Vatican Council I, can. 2 # I: DS 3026.
   123 Heb 11:3.

   124 Cf. Acts 17:24-29; Rom 1:19-20.

   125 Cf. Is 43:1; Pss 115:15; 124:8; 134:3.

   126 Cf. Gen 15:5; Jer 33:19-26.

   127 Cf. Is 44:24; Ps 104; Prov 8:22-31.

   128 Gen 1:1.

   129 Jn 1:1-3.

   130 Col 1:16-17.

   131 Cf. Nicene Creed: DS 150; Hymn Veni, Creator Spiritus; Byzantine
   Troparion of Pentecost Vespers, "O heavenly King, Consoler".

   132 Cf. Pss 33 6; 104:30; Gen 1:2-3.

   133 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 2, 30, 9; 4, 20, I: PG 7/1, 822, 1032.

   134 Dei Filius, can. # 5: DS 3025.

   135 St. Bonaventure, In II Sent. I, 2, 2, 1.

   136 St. Thomas Aquinas, Sent. II, prol.

   137 Dei Filius I: DS 3002; cf Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 800.

   138 Eph 1:5-6.

   139 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4, 20, 7: PG 7/1, 1037.

   140 AG 2; cf. I Cor 15:28.

   141 Cf. Wis 9:9.

   142 Rev 4:11.

   143 Pss 104:24; 145:9.

   144 Cf. Dei Filius, cann. 2-4: DS 3022-3024.

   145 Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 800; cf. DS 3025.

   146 St. Theophilus of Antioch, Ad Autolycum II, 4: PG 6, 1052.

   147 2 Macc 7:22-21, 28.

   148 Cf. Ps 51:12.

   149 Rom 4:17.
   150 Cf. Gen 1:3; 2 Cor 4:6.

   151 Wis 11:20.

   152 Col 1:15, Gen 1:26.
   153 Cf. Ps 19:2-5; Job 42:3.

   154 Gen 1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 31.

   155 Cf. DS 286; 455-463; 800; 1333; 3002.

   156 Ps 8:1; cf. Sir 43:28.

   157 Ps 145:3.

   158 Acts 17:28.

   159 St. Augustine, Conf: 3, 6, 11: PL 32, 688.

   160 Wis 11:24-26.

   161 Vatican Council I, Dei Filius I: DS 3003; cf. Wis 8:1; Heb 4:13.

   162 Ps 115:3.

   163 Rev 3:7.

   164 Prov 19:21.

   165 Cf. Is 10:5-15; 45:51; Dt 32:39; Sir 11:14.

   166 Cf. Pss 22; 32; 35; 103; 138; et al.

   167 Mt 6:31-33; cf 10:29-31.

   168 Cf. Gen 1:26-28.

   169 Cf. Col 1:24.

   170 I Cor 3:9; I Th 3:2; Col 4:11.

   171 Phil 2:13; cf. I Cor 12:6.

   172 GS 36 # 3.

   173 Cf. Mt 19:26; Jn 15:5; 14:13

   174 Cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, STh I, 25, 6.

   175 Cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, SCG III, 71.

   176 Cf. St. Augustine, De libero arbitrio I, 1, 2: PL 32, 1221- 1223; St.
   Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 79, 1.

   177 St. Augustine, Enchiridion II, 3: PL 40, 236.

   178 Gen 45:8; 50:20; cf. Tob 2:12 (Vulgate).

   179 Cf. Rom 5:20.

   180 Rom 8:28.

   181 St. Catherine of Siena, Dialogue IV, 138 "On Divine Providence".

   182 The Correspondence of Sir Thomas More, ed. Elizabeth F.  Rogers
   (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947), letter 206, lines 661-663.


   183 Julian of Norwich, The Revelations of Divine Love, tr.  James Walshe
   SJ (London: 1961), ch. 32, 99-100.

   184 I Cor 13:12.

   185 Cf. Gen 2:2.

   186 Pss 115:16; 19:2; Mt 5:16.

   187 Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 800; cf. DS 3002 and Paul VI, CPG # 8.

   188 St. Augustine, En. in Ps. 103, 1, 15: PL 37, 1348.

   189 Mt 18:10; Ps 103:20.

   190 Cf. Pius XII, Humani generis: DS 3891; Lk 20:36; Dan 10:9- 12.

   191 Mt 25:31.

   192 Col 1:16.

   193 Heb 1:14.

   194 Cf. Job 38:7 (where angels are called "sons of God"); Gen 3:24; 19;
   21: 17; 22:11; Acts 7:53; Ex 23:20-23; Judg 13; 6:11-24; Is 6:6; 1 Kings
   19:5.

   195 Cf. Lk 1:11, 26.

   196 Heb 1:6.

   197 Lk 2:14.

   198 Cf. Mt 1:20; 2:13,19; 4:11; 26:53; Mk 1:13; Lk 22:43; 2 Macc 10:29-30;
   11:8.

   199 Cf. Lk 2:8-14; Mk 16:5-7.

   200 Cf. Acts 1:10-11; Mt 13:41; 24:31; Lk 12:8-9. The angels in the life
   of the Church

   201 Cf. Acts 5:18-20; 8:26-29; 10:3-8; 12:6-11; 27:23-25.

   202 Cf. Mt 18:10; Lk 16:22; Pss 34:7; 91:10-13; Job 33:23-24; Zech 1:12;
   Tob 12:12.

   203 St. Basil, Adv. Eunomium III, I: PG 29, 656B.

   204 Gen 1:l - 2:4.

   205 Cf. DV 11.

   206 LG 36 # 2.

   207 Cf. St. Augustine, De Genesi adv. Man 1, 2, 4: PL 34, 175.

   208 GS 36 # 1.

   209 Cf. Ps 145:9.

   210 Lk 12:6-7; Mt 12:12.

   211 Cf. Gen 1-26.

   212 St. Francis of Assisi, Canticle of the Creatures.

   213 Gen 2:1-3.

   214 Cf. Heb 4:3-4; Jer 31:35-37; 33:19-26.

   215 Cf. Gen 1:14.

   216 St. Benedict, Regula 43, 3: PL 66, 675-676.

   217 Cf. Roman Missal, Easter Vigil 24, prayer after the first reading.

   218 Gen 1:27.

   219 GS 12 # 3.

   220 GS 24 # 3.

   221 St. Catherine of Siena, Dialogue IV, 13 "On Divine Providence": LH,
   Sunday, week 19, OR.

   222 Cf. GS 12 # 1; 24 # 3; 39 # 1.

   223 St. John Chrysostom, In Gen. sermo 2, 1: PG 54, 587D-588A.

   224 GS 22 # 1.

   225 St. Peter Chrysologus, Sermo 117: PL 52, 520-521.

   226 Acts 17:26; cf. Tob 8:6.

   227 Pius XII. Enc. Summi pontificatus 3; cf. NA 1.

   228 Pius XII Summi pontificatus 3.

   229 Gen 2:7.

   230 Cf. Mt 16:25-26; Jn 15:13; Acts 2:41.

   231 Cf. Mt 10:28; 26:38; Jn 12:27; 2 Macc 6 30.

   232 Cf. I Cor 6:19-20; 15:44-45.

   233 GS 14 # 1; cf. Dan 3:57-80.

   234 Cf. Council of Vienne (1312): DS 902.
   235 Cf. Pius XII, Humani generis: DS 3896; Paul VI, CPC # 8; Lateran
   Council V (1513): DS 1440.

   236 1 Th 5:23.
   237 Cf. Council of Constantinople IV (870): DS 657.
   238 Cf. Vatican Council I, Dei Filius: DS 3005; GS 22 # 5; Humani generis:
   DS 3891.

   239 Cf. Jer 31:33; Dt 6:5; 29:3; Is 29:13; Ezek 36:26; Mt 6:21; Lk 8:15;
   Rom 5:5.

   240 Cf. Gen 2:7, 22.

   241 Cf. Is 49:14-15; 66: 13; Ps 131:2-3; Hos 11:1-4; Jer 3:4- 19.

   242 Gen 2:18.

   243 Gen 2:19-20.

   244 Gen 2:23

   245 Gen 2:24

   246 Gen 1:28.

   247 Cf. GS 50 # 1.

   248 Gen 1:28.

   249 Wis 11:24.

   250 Cf. Council of Trent (1546): DS 1511.

   251 Cf. LG 2.

   252 Cf. Gen 2:17; 3:16, 19.

   253 Cf. Gen 2:25.

   254 Cf. I Jn 2:16.

   255 Cf. Gen 2:8.

   256 Gen 2:15; cf. 3:17-19

   257 St. Augustine, Conf. 7, 7, 11: PL 32, 739.

   258 2 Th 2:7; I Tim 3:16.

   259 Cf. Rom 5:20.

   260 Cf. Lk 11:21-22; Jn 16:11; I Jn 3:8.

   261 Cf. Rom 5:12-21.

   262 Jn 16:8.

   263 Cf. I Cor 2:16.

   264 Cf. GS 13 # 1.

   265 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1513; Pius XII: DS 3897; Paul VI: AAS 58
   (1966), 654.
   266 Cf. Gen 3:1-5; Wis 2:24.

   267 Cf Jn 8:44; Rev 12:9.

   268 Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 800.

   269 Cf. 2 Pt 2:4.

   270 Gen 3:5.

   271 I Jn 3:8; Jn 8:44.

   272 St. John Damascene, Defide orth. 2, 4: PG 94, 877.

   273 Jn 8:44; cf. Mt 4:1-11.

   274 I Jn 3:8.

   275 Rom 8:28.

   276 Gen 2:17.

   277 Gen 2:17.

   278 Cf. Gen 3:1-11; Rom 5:19.

   279 St. Maximus the Confessor, Ambigua: PG 91, 1156C; cf. Gen 3:5.

   280 Cf. Rom 3:23.

   281 Cf. Gen 3:5-10.

   282 Cf. Gen 3:7-16.

   283 Cf. Gen 3:17, 19.

   284 Rom 8:21.

   285 Gen 3:19; cf. 2:17.

   286 Cf. Rom 5:12.

   287 Cf. Gen 4:3-15; 6:5, 12; Rom 1:18-32; I Cor 1-6; Rev 2-3.

   288 GS 13 # 1.

   289 Rom 5:12, 19.

   290 Rom 5:18.

   291 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1512.

   292 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1514.
   293 St. Thomas Aquinas, De malo 4, I.

   294 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1511-1512

   295 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1513.

   296 DS 371-372.
   297 Cf. DS 1510-1516.

   298 Council of Trent (1546): DS 1511; cf. Heb 2:14.

   299 Cf. John Paul II, CA 25.

   300 Jn 1:29.

   301 Cf. John Paul II, RP 16.

   302 I Jn 5:19; cf. I Pt 5:8.

   303 GS 37 3 2.

   304 Cf. Gen 3:9, 15.

   305 Cf. I Cor 15:21-22, 45; Phil 2:8; Rom 5:19-20.

   306 Cf. Pius IXs Ineffabilis Deus: DS 2803; Council of Trent: DS 1573.

   307 St. Leo the Great, Sermo 73, 4: PL 54, 396.

   308 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, I, 3, ad 3; cf. Rom 5:20.