THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CATHOLIC BISHOPS    30 November 1971
     DESCRIPTION OF THE SITUATION.........................................1
     PRINCIPLES OF DOCTRINE...............................................5
     1. Christ, Alpha and Omega...........................................5
     2. Coming to Christ in the Church....................................6
     4. The origin and nature of the hierarchical ministry................6
     5. Permanence of the priesthood......................................8
     6. For the service of fellowship.....................................8
     7. The priest and temporal matters...................................9
     1. Mission: Evangelization and sacramental life......................9
     2. Secular and political activity...................................12
     3. The spiritual life of priests....................................13
     4. Celibacy.........................................................14
     II. PRIESTS IN THE COMMUNION OF THE CHURCH..........................17
     1. Relations between priests and bishop.............................17
     2. Relations of priests with each other.............................18
     3. Relations between priests and laity..............................19
     4. Economic affairs.................................................19
               In  recent  times,  especially since the close of the Second
     Vatican  Council,  the  Church  is experiencing a profound movement of
     renewal,  which  all  Christians should follow with great joy and with
     fidelity  to  the  Gospel.  The power of the Holy spirit is present to
     illumine, strengthen and perfect our mission.
               Every  true  renewal brings the Church undoubted benefits of
     great  value.   We  well  know that through the recent Council priests
     have  been  fired with new zeal and that they have contributed much to
     fostering  this renewal by their daily solicitude.  We have before our
     minds  our  many  heroic  brothers who, in fidelity of their ministry,
     live  lives  dedicated to God with joy, either among the peoples where
     the  Church  is subjected to a harsh yoke or in mission lands.  At the
     same  time,  however, the renewal also entails difficulties, which are
     especially felt by all in the priesthood, whether bishops or priests.
               We  should all scrutinize the signs of the times in this age
     of  renewal  and  interpret  them in the light of the Gospel1 in order
     that we may work together in distinguishing between spirits, to see if
     they  come  from  God,  lest ambiguity cloud the unity of the Church's
     mission  or  excessive  uniformity hinder needed adaptation.  Thus, by
     testing  everything  and  holding  fast  to  what is good, the present
     crisis can give occasion for an increase of faith.
               In  accordance  with  its  importance,  the  Holy Father put
     forward  the  ministerial  priesthood  for  discussion  by this year's
     Synod.   Before  the  Synod  many  episcopal conferences examined this
     theme  together  with  priests  and  quite frequently with lay people.
     Some priests were also 'called to the Synod' as "auditores", to assist
     the bishops in dealing with important questions.
               We  wish to fulfill our duty with the evangelical simplicity
     which  befits  pastors  who  are  serving the Church.  Considering our
     responsibility before the fraternal community of the Church, we desire
     to  strengthen  the faith, uplift the hope and stimulate the love both
     of our brothers in the ministerial priesthood and of all the faithful.
     May  our  words  bring  solace  tot  he  People of God and the priests
     dedicated to their service and renew their joy!
                          DESCRIPTION OF THE SITUATION
               1.  The  extent  of  the Church's mission was illustrated at
     length   by   the   Second  Vatican  Council.   Indeed,  the  Church's
     relationship with the world was the subject especially of the pastoral
     constitution  GAUDIUM  ET  SPES.   Many  good  results followed from a
     closer  consideration  of  this  matter:  it is more clearly seen that
     salvation  is not an abstract category outside, as it were, of history
     and  time,  but that it comes from God and ought to permeate the whole
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     of  man  and  the  whole  history  of  men and lead them freely to the
     Kingdom of God, so that at last "God may be all in all."2
               However,   as  is  understandable,  difficulties  have  also
     arisen:  some  priests  feel  themselves  estranged from the movements
     which  permeate  society  and unable to solve the problems which touch
     men  deeply.   Often  too  the problems and troubles of priests derive
     from  their  having,  in  their  pastoral  and missionary care, to use
     methods  which  are now perhaps obsolete to meet the modern mentality.
     Serious  problems  and  several  questions then arise, especially from
     real  difficulties  which they experience in exercising their function
     and  not  -  although this is sometimes the case - from an exasperated
     spirit  of  protest or from selfish personal concerns.  Is it possible
     to   exhort  the  laity  as  if  from  the  outside?   Is  the  Church
     sufficiently  present to certain groups without the active presence of
     the  priest?   If the situation characteristic of a priest consists in
     segregation  from  secular  life,  is  not the situation of the laymen
     better?   What  is to be thought of the celibacy of Latin-rite priests
     in  present-day  circumstances,  and of the personal spiritual life of
     the priest immersed in the world.
               2.   Many   priests,   experiencing  within  themselves  the
     questionings  that  have  arisen with the secularization of the world,
     feel  the  need  to  sanctify  worldly  activities  by exercising them
     directly  and bring the leaven of the Gospel into the midst of events.
     Similarly,  the  desire  is  developing  of cooperating with the joint
     efforts  of  men  to build up a more just and fraternal society.  In a
     world   in   which   almost   all  problems  have  political  aspects,
     participation  in  politics  and  even in revolutionary activity is by
     some considered indispensable.
               3.    The   Council   emphasized  the  pre-eminence  of  the
     proclamation  of  the  Gospel,  which should lead through faith to the
     fulness  of  the  celebration of the sacraments.  But current thinking
     about the religious phenomenon fosters doubts in many minds concerning
     the  sense  of  a  sacramental  and cultic ministry.  Many priests not
     suffering  from  a  personal  identity  crisis  ask themselves another
     question: What methods should be used so that sacramental practice may
     be  an  expression of faith really affecting the whole of personal and
     social  life,  in  order  that Christian worship should not be wrongly
     reduced to a mere external ritualism?
               Since  priests  are very concerned with the image of herself
     that  the  Church  seems to present to the world, and at the same time
     are deeply conscious of the singular dignity of the human person, they
     desire   to   bring  bout  a  change  within  the  Church  herself  in
     inter-personal   relationships,   in   relations  between  person  and
     institutions, and in the very structures of authority.
               4.  And still, relationships between bishops and priests and
     between priests themselves are growing more difficult by the very fact
     that  the  exercise  of  the  ministry  is  becoming more diversified.
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     Present-day  society  is  divided  into  many  groups  with  different
     disciplines,  which call for differing skills and forms of apostolate.
     This  gives  rise  to  problems  concerning  brotherhood,  union,  and
     consistency in the priestly ministry.
               Happily  the  recent  Council  recalled  the traditional and
     fruitful  teaching  on  the common priesthood of the faithful.3  That,
     however,  gives  rise,  as  by  a  swing  of  the pendulum, to certain
     questions  which seem to obscure the position of the priestly ministry
     in  the  Church and which deeply trouble the minds of some priests and
     faithful.   Many activities which in the past were reserved to priests
     -  for  instance,  catechetical  work,  administrative activity in the
     communities,   and  even  liturgical  activities  -  are  today  quite
     frequently  carried  out  by  lay people, while on the other hand many
     priests,   for  reasons  already  mentioned,  are  trying  to  involve
     themselves in the condition of life of lay persons.  Hence a number of
     questions  are  being  asked:  Does  the  priestly  ministry  have any
     specific  nature?   Is  this  ministry  necessary?   Is the priesthood
     incapable  of being lost?  What does being a priest mean today?  Would
     it  not be enough to have for the service of the Christian communities
     presidents designated for the preservation of the common good, without
     sacramental  ordination,  and  exercising  their  office  for  a fixed
               5. Still more serious questions are posed, some of them as a
     result  of  exegetical and historical research, which show a crisis of
     confidence  in  the  Church: Is the present-day Church too far removed
     from its origins to be able to proclaim the ancient Gospel credibly to
     modern man?  Is it still possible to reach the reality of Christ after
     so  many  critical investigations? Are the essential structures of the
     early  Church  well  enough  known  to us so that they can and must be
     considered an invariable scheme for every age, including our own?
               6.  The  above-mentioned questions, some of them new, others
     already  long  familiar  but  appearing  in new forms today, cannot be
     understood  outside  the  whole  context  of modern culture, which has
     strong  doubts  about  its meaning and value.  New means of technology
     have stirred up a hope based excessively on enthusiasm and at the same
     time they have aroused profound anxiety.  One rightly asks whether man
     will  be  capable  of being master of his work and directing it toward
               Some,  especially  the young, despair of the meaning of this
     world  and  look  for  salvation  in  purely meditative systems and in
     artificial  marginal  paradises,  abandoning  the  common  striving of
               Others  dedicate  themselves with ardent utopian hope devoid
     of  reference  to  God  to  the  attainment  of  some  state  of total
     liberation,  and  transfer  the  meaning of their whole personal lives
     from the present to the future.
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               There  is  therefore  a profound cleavage between action and
     contemplation,  work and recreation, culture and religion, and between
     the immanent and the transcendental aspects of human life.
               Thus  the  world  itself is obscurely awaiting a solution to
     this  dilemma  and  is  paving a way whereby the Church may go forward
     proclaiming  the  Gospel.   Certainly,  the  only  complete  salvation
     offered to men is Christ himself, Son of God and Son of Man, who makes
     himself  present  in history through the Church.  He joins inseparably
     together love for God and the love which God has until the end for men
     as  they  seek their way amid the shadows, and the value of human love
     whereby  a man gives his life for his friends.  In Christ, and only in
     him,  do  all  of  these  become  one whole, and in this synthesis the
     meaning  of human life, both individual and social, shines forth.  The
     mission  of  the  Church,  Christ's  Body, far from being obsolete, is
     therefore  rather  of  the  highest  relevance for the present and the
     future:   the  whole  Church is the witness and effective sign of this
     union,  especially  through  the  priestly  ministry.   The minister's
     proper  task  in  the Church's midst is to render present, by the word
     and  sacrament, the love of God in Christ for us, and at the same time
     to  promote  the  fellowship of men with God and with each other.  All
     this  of  course  demands  that  we  should  all, especially those who
     perform  the  sacred  office,  strive  to  renew  ourselves  daily  in
     accordance with the Gospel.
               7.  We  know that there are some parts of the world in which
     that  profound  cultural  change has hitherto been less felt, and that
     the  questions raised above are not being asked everywhere, nor by all
     priests,  nor  in  the same way.  But since communications between men
     and  peoples have today become more frequent and more speedy, we judge
     it good and opportune to examine these questions in the light of faith
     and  to  give  humbly  but  in  the  strength  of the Holy Spirit some
     principles  for  finding more concrete answers to them.  Although this
     response must be applied differently according to the circumstances of
     each  region,  it  will have the force of truth for all those faithful
     and  priests who live in situations of great tranquillity.  Therefore,
     ardently  desiring  to strengthen the witness of faith, we fraternally
     urge  all  the faithful to strive to contemplate the Lord Jesus living
     in  his  Church and to realize that he wishes to work in a special way
     through  his ministers; they will thus be convinced that the Christian
     community  cannot fulfill its complete mission without the ministerial
     priesthood.   Let  priests  be  aware  that  their anxieties are truly
     shared  by the bishops,and that the bishops desire to share them still
                                    * * *
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               Moved  by  this  desire, the Synod Fathers, in the spirit of
     the  Gospel,  following  closely  the  teaching  of the Second Vatican
     Council,  and  considering  also  the  documents  and addresses of the
     Supreme  Pontiff  Paul VI, intend to set forth briefly some principles
     of  the  Church's  teaching on the ministerial priesthood which are at
     present  more  urgent,  together  with  some  guidelines  for pastoral
                                    Part One
                             PRINCIPLES OF DOCTRINE
                           1. Christ, Alpha and Omega
               Jesus  Christ, the Son of God and the Word, "whom the Father
     sanctified and sent into the world,"4 and who was marked with the seal
     of  the fullness of the Holy Spirit,5 proclaimed to the world the Good
     News  of  reconciliation  between  God  and  men.   His preaching as a
     prophet, confirmed by signs, reaches it summit in the paschal mystery,
     the  supreme  word  of the divine love with which the Father addressed
     us.  On the cross Jesus showed himself to the greatest possible extent
     to  be the Good Shepherd who laid down his life for his sheep in order
     to  gather them into that unity which depends on himself.6  Exercising
     a  supreme  and  unique  priesthood  by  the  offering  of himself, he
     surpassed,   by  fulfilling  them,  all  the  ritual  priesthoods  and
     holocausts  of  the  Old  Testament  and indeed of the pagans.  In his
     sacrifice  he  took  on  himself the miseries and sacrifices of men of
     every  age  and  also the efforts of those who suffer for the cause of
     justice  or who are daily oppressed by misfortune.  He took on himself
     the  endeavors of those who abandon the world and attempt to reach God
     by  asceticism  and  contemplation  as well as the labors of those who
     sincerely  devote  their lives to a better present and future society.
     He  bore  the  sins  of  us all on the cross; rising from the dead and
     being  made Lord,7 he reconciled us to God; and he laid the foundation
     of the people of the New Covenant, which is the Church.
               He  is the "one mediator between God and men, the man Christ
     Jesus,"8  "for  in  him  were  created  all things"9 and everything is
     brought  together  under him, as head.10  Since he is the image of the
     Father  and manifestation of the unseen God,11 by emptying himself and
     by  being  raised  up  he  brought  us into the fellowship of the Holy
     Spirit which he lives with the Father.
               When  therefore  we  speak  of  the priesthood of Christ, we
     should  have  before  our  eyes  a unique, incomparable reality, which
     includes the prophetic and royal office of the Incarnate Word of God.
               So  Jesus  Christ  signifies  and manifests in many ways the
     presence  and effectiveness of the anticipatory love of God.  The Lord
     himself, constantly influencing the Church by his Spirit, stirs up and

                                                                    Page -5-
     fosters  the  response of al those who offer themselves to this freely
     given love.
                       2. Coming to Christ in the Church
               The  way  to the person and mystery of Christ lies ever open
     in  the  Holy  Spirit  through the Scriptures understood in the living
     tradition  of the Church.  All the Scriptures, especially those of the
     New  Testament,  must  be  interpreted  as intimately inter-linked and
     inter-related  by  their  single  inspiration.   The  books of the New
     Testament  are  not  of  such differing value that some of them can be
     reduced to mere late inventions.
               A  personal  and  immediate  relationship with Christ in the
     Church  should  still  for  the  faithful of today sustain their whole
     spiritual lives.
                  The Church from Christ through the Apostles
               The  Church  which  he had declared would be built on Peter,
     Christ  founded on the Apostles.12  In them are already manifested two
     aspects  of  the Church: in the Group of the Twelve Apostles there are
     already   both  fellowship  in  the  Spirit  and  the  origin  of  the
     hierarchical  ministry.13  For that reason, the New Testament writings
     speak  of the Church as founded on the Apostles.14  This was concisely
     expressed  by  ancient  tradition:  "The Church from the Apostles, the
     Apostles from Christ, Christ from God."15
               The  Church, which was founded on the Apostles and sent into
     the world and is a pilgrim there, was established to be a sacrament of
     the  salvation which came to us from God in Christ.  In her, Christ is
     present  and  operative  for  the  world as a savior, so that the love
     offered  by God to men and their response meet.  The Holy Spirit stirs
     up  in  and through the Church impulses of generous free will by which
     man participates in the very work of creation and redemption.
             4. The origin and nature of the hierarchical ministry.
               The  Church, which through the gift of the Spirit is made up
     organically, participates in different ways in the functions of Christ
     as  Priest,  Prophet  and  King,  in order to carry out her mission of
     salvation in his name and by his power, as a priestly people.16
               It  is clear from the New Testament writings that an Apostle
     and  a  community of faithful united with one another by a mutual link
     under  Christ  as  head  and the influence of his Spirit belong to the
     original  inalienable  structure  of  the Church.  The Twelve Apostles
     exercised  their mission and functions, and "they not only had helpers
     in  their  ministry,17 but also, in order that the mission assigned to
     them  might  continue  after  their  death,  they  passed  on to their
     immediate  cooperators, as a kind of testament, the duty of perfecting
     and  consolidating  the  work  begun by themselves,18 charging them to
                                                                   Page -6-
     attend  to  the  whole  flock  in which the Holy spirit placed them to
     shepherd  the  Church  of  God.19   They  appointed such men, and made
     provision  that,  when  these men should die, other approved men would
     take up their ministry.20
               The  letters  of  Saint  Paul  show that he was conscious of
     acting by Christ's mission and mandate.21  The powers entrusted to the
     Apostle for the Churches were handed on to others insofar as they were
     communicable,22  and  these others were obliged to hand them on to yet
               This  essential  structure  of  the Church - consisting of a
     flock  and  of pastors appointed for this purpose24 - according to the
     Tradition  of  the  church  herself  was  always and remains the norm.
     Precisely  as  a result of this structure, the Church can never remain
     closed in on herself and is always subject to Christ as her origin and
               Among  the  various  charisms  and  services,  the  priestly
     ministry  of  the  New Testament, which continues Christ's function as
     mediator,  and  which  in essence and not merely in degree is distinct
     from  the  common  priesthood of all the faithful,25 alone perpetuates
     the  essential  work  of  the Apostles: by effectively proclaiming the
     Gospel,  by gathering together and leading the community, by remitting
     sins,  and  especially  by celebrating the Eucharist, it makes Christ,
     the  head  of  the  community,  present in the exercise of his work of
     redeeming mankind and glorifying God perfectly.
               Bishops  and,  on a subordinate level, priests, by virtue of
     the sacrament of Orders, which confers an anointing of the Holy spirit
     and  configures  to  Christ,26  become  sharers  in  the  functions of
     sanctifying,  teaching  and  governing,  and  the  exercise  of  these
     functions is determined more precisely by hierarchical communion.27
               The  priestly ministry reaches its summit in the celebration
     of  the  Eucharist,  which  is  the  source and center of the Church's
     unity.   Only  a  priest  is  able  to  act in the person of Christ in
     presiding  over  and  effecting  the  sacrificial  banquet wherein the
     People of God are associated with Christ's offering.28
               The  priest  is  a  sign  of  the  divine  anticipatory plan
     proclaimed  and  effective  today in the Church.  He makes Christ, the
     Savior  of  all  men,  sacramentally  present  among  his brothers and
     sisters,  in  both their personal and social lives.  He is a guarantor
     both  of  the  first  proclamation  of  the  Gospel  for the gathering
     together  of  the  church  and  of the ceaseless renewal of the Church
     which  has  already  been  gathered together.  If the Church lacks the
     presence  and activity of the ministry which is received by the laying
     on  of  hands  with  prayer,  she  cannot  have  full certainty of her
     fidelity and of her visible continuity.
                                                                   Page -7-
                         5. Permanence of the priesthood
               By  the  laying  on of hands there is communicated a gift of
     the  Holy  Spirit which cannot be lost.29  This reality configures the
     ordained  minister  to  Christ the Priest, consecrates him30 and makes
     him  a  sharer  in Christ's mission under its two aspects of authority
     and service.
               That  authority  does not belong to the minister as his own;
     it  is  a  manifestation  of the "exousia"31 of the Lord, by which the
     priest  is  an  ambassador  of  Christ  in  the eschatological work of
     reconciliation.32   He also assists the conversion of human freedom to
     God for the building up of the Christian community.
               The  lifelong  permanence  of this reality, which is a sign,
     and  which  is  a  teaching  of  the  faith  and is referred to in the
     Church's  tradition as the priestly character, expresses the fact that
     Christ  associated  the  Church with himself in an irrevocable way for
     the  salvation  of the world, and that the Church dedicates herself to
     Christ  in  a  definitive  way  for the carrying out of his work.  The
     minister  whose  life  bears the seal of the gift received through the
     sacrament  of  Orders  reminds  the  Church  that  the  gift of God is
     irrevocable.   In the midst of the Christian community which, in spite
     of  its  defects,  lives by the Spirit, he is a pledge of the salvific
     presence of Christ.
               This  special  participation in Christ's priesthood does not
     disappear  even  if  a  priest  for  ecclesial  or personal reasons is
     dispensed or removed from the exercise of his ministry.
                        6. For the service of fellowship
               Even if he exercises his ministry in a determined community,
     the  priest nevertheless cannot be exclusively devoted to a particular
     group  of faithful.  His ministry always tends toward the unity of the
     whole  Church  and  to the gathering together in her of all men.  Each
     individual  community of faithful needs fellowship with the bishop and
     the  universal  Church.   In  this  way  the  priestly ministry too is
     essentially  communitarian within the presbyterium and with the bishop
     who,  preserving  communion  with the Successor of Peter, is a part of
     the  body  of bishops.  This holds also for priests who are not in the
     immediate  service of any community or who work in remote and isolated
     territories.   Religious  priests  also,  within  the  context  of the
     special  purpose  and  structure  of their institute, are indissolubly
     part of a mission which is ecclesially ordered.
               Let the whole life and activity of the priest be imbued with
     a  spirit  of  catholicity,  that  is,  with  a sense of the universal
     mission  of  the  Church,  so that he will willingly recognize all the
     gifts  of  the  Spirit,  give  them freedom and direct them toward the
     common good.
                                                                   Page -8-
               Let  priests  follow Christ's example and cultivate with the
     bishop  and with each other that brotherhood which is founded on their
     ordination  and  the  oneness  of their mission so that their priestly
     witness may be more credible.
                       7. The priest and temporal matters
               All   truly   Christian  undertakings  are  related  to  the
     salvation  of  mankind,  which,  while  it  is  of  an  eschatological
     nature,also  embraces  temporal  matters.  Every reality of this world
     must  be  subjected  to the lordship of Christ.  This however does not
     mean that the Church claims technical competence in the secular order,
     with disregard for the latter's autonomy.
               The  proper mission entrusted by Christ to the priest, as to
     the  Church, is not of the political, economic or social order, but of
     the religious order;33 yet, in the pursuit of his ministry, the priest
     can  contribute  greatly  to  the establishment of a more just secular
     order,  especially in places where the human problems of injustice and
     oppression  are  more  serious.   He  must  always,  however, preserve
     ecclesial communion and reject violence in words or deeds as not being
     in accordance with the Gospel.
               In  fact,  the  word of the Gospel which he proclaims in the
     name  of Christ and the Church, and the effective grace of sacramental
     life which he administers should free man from his personal and social
     egoism  and  foster  among men conditions of justice, which would be a
     sign of the love of Christ present among us.34
                                    Part Two
               Considering the priestly mission in the light of the mystery
     of  Christ and the communion of the Church, the Fathers of this Synod,
     united  with  the  Roman  Pontiff and conscious of the anxieties which
     bishops  and  priests  are  experiencing  in  the fulfillment of their
     common role today, present the following guidelines to clarify certain
     questions and to give encouragement.
                1. Mission: Evangelization and sacramental life
               a) "By their vocation and ordination, the priests of the New
     Testament  are indeed set apart in a certain sense within the midst of
     God's  people.  But this is so, not that they may be made distant from
     this  people  or  from any man, but that they may be totally dedicated
     tot  he  work  for  which the Lord has raised them up."35 Priests thus
     find  their identity to the extent that they fully live the mission of
     the  Church  and  exercise  it in different ways in communion with the
     entire  People  of  God,  as  pastors and ministers of the Lord in the
     Spirit,  in  order  to  fulfill by their work the plan of salvation in
                                                                   Page -9-
     history. "By means of their own ministry, which deals principally with
     the  Eucharist  as the source of perfecting the Church, priests are in
     communion  with  Christ  the  Head  and  are  leading  others  to this
     communion.   Hence  they cannot help realizing how much is yet wanting
     to the fulness of that Body, and how much therefore must be done if it
     is to grow from day to day."36
               b)  Priests are sent to all men and their mission must begin
     with  the  preaching  of  God's word.  "Priests have as their duty the
     proclamation of the Gospel of Christ to all ... For through the saving
     Word the spark of faith is struck in the hearts of unbelievers and fed
     in  the hearts of the faithful."37 The goal of evangelization is "that
     all who are made sons of God by faith and baptism should come together
     to  praise  God  in  the  midst  of  his  Church,  to take part in her
     sacrifice  and  to eat the Lord's Supper."38 The ministry of the Word,
     if  rightly  understood,  leads to the sacraments and to the Christian
     life, as it is practiced in the visible community of the church and in
     the world.
               The  sacraments  are  celebrated  in  conjunction  with  the
     proclamation   of   the   Word  of  God  and  thus  develop  faith  by
     strengthening  it  with  grace.   They  cannot be considered of slight
     importance,  since  through them the word is brought to fuller effect,
     namely communion in the mystery of Christ.
               Let  priests  then perform their ministry in such a way that
     the   faithful  will  "have  recourse  with  great  eagerness  to  the
     sacraments which were instituted to nourish the Christian life."39
               An  enduring  evangelization  and a well-ordered sacramental
     life  of  the  community  demand,  by  their  nature,  a 'diaconia' of
     authority,  that  is, a serving of unity and a presiding over charity.
     Thus   the   mutual   relationship   between  evangelization  and  the
     celebration  of  the  sacraments is clearly seen in the mission of the
     Church.   A  separation  between the two would divide the heart of the
     Church  to  the point of imperilling the faith, and the priest, who is
     dedicated  to  the service of unity in the community, would be gravely
     distorting his ministry.
               Unity  between evangelization and sacramental life is always
     proper  to  the  ministerial  priesthood and must carefully be kept in
     mind  by  every  priest.  And yet the application of this principle to
     the  life  and  ministry  of  individual  priests  must  be  made with
     discretion,  for  the  exercise  of  the  priestly  ministry  often in
     practice needs to take different forms in order better to meet special
     or new situations in which the Gospel is to be proclaimed.
               c)  Although  the  pedagogy  of  faith  demands  that man be
     gradually   initiated   into  the  Christian  life,  the  Church  must
     nevertheless  always proclaim to the world the Gospel in its entirety.
     Each  priest  shares  in  the  special responsibility of preaching the
                                                                  Page -10-
     whole of the Word of God and of interpreting it according to the faith
     of the Church.
               The  proclamation  of the Word of God is the announcement in
     the  power  of  the  Spirit  of  the  wonders performed by God and the
     calling  of  men to share the paschal mystery and to introduce it as a
     leaven  into concrete human history.  It is the action of God in which
     the power of the Holy Spirit brings the Church together interiorly and
     exteriorly.   The  minister of the word by evangelization prepares the
     ways  of the Lord with great patience and faith, conforming himself to
     the  various  conditions of individuals' and peoples' lives, which are
     evolving more or less rapidly.
               Impelled  by  the need to keep in view both the personal and
     social  aspects  of  the  announcement of the Gospel, so that in it an
     answer  may  be  given to all the more fundamental questions of men,40
     the  Church not only preaches conversion to God to individual men, but
     also,  to  the best of her ability, as the conscience of humanity, she
     addresses   society  itself  and  performs  a  prophetic  function  in
     society's regard, always taking pains to affect her own renewal.
               As  regards  the  experiences  of  life,  whether  of men in
     general  or  of  priests,  which  must  be  kept  in  mind  and always
     interpreted  in  the  light of the Gospel, these experiences cannot be
     either the sole or the principle norm of preaching.
               d) Salvation, which is effected through the sacraments, does
     not come from us but from God; this demonstrates the primacy of action
     of  Christ,  the  one  priest  and mediator, in his body, which is the
               Since  the  sacraments are truly sacraments of faith,41 they
     require  conscious  and  free participation by every Christian who has
     the  use  of  reason.   This  makes  clear  the  great  importance  of
     preparation  and  of  a disposition of faith on the part of the person
     who  receives  the sacraments; it also makes clear the necessity for a
     witness  of  faith  on the part of the minister in his entire life and
     especially  in  the  way  he  values  and  celebrates  the  sacraments
               To  bishops  and, in the cases foreseen by law, to episcopal
     conferences  is  committed  the  role  of  authentically promoting, in
     accordance with the norms given by the Holy See, pastoral activity and
     liturgical  renewal  better  adapted  to  each  region,  and  also  of
     determining  the  criteria  for  admission  to  the sacraments.  These
     criteria,  which  must  be  applied  by  priests,  are  likewise to be
     explained  to  the faithful, so that a person who asks for a sacrament
     may become more aware of his own responsibility.
               Let   priests,   with   consciousness  of  their  office  of
     reconciling  all  men  in the love of Christ and with attention to the
     dangers  of divisions, strive with great prudence and pastoral charity
                                                                  Page -11-
     to  form  communities  which  are imbued with apostolic zeal and which
     will  make  the  Church's missionary spirit present everywhere.  Small
     communities,   which  are  not  opposed  to  the  parish  or  diocesan
     structure,  ought  to  be  inserted  into  the  parochial  or diocesan
     community  in  such  a  way  that  they  may  serve  it as a leaven of
     missionary spirit.  The need to find apt forms of effectively bringing
     the  Gospel  message  to all men, who live in differing circumstances,
     furnishes  a  place for the multiple exercise of ministries lower than
     the priesthood.
                       2. Secular and political activity
               a)  The  priestly  ministry,  even  if  compared  with other
     activities,  not  only  is  to  be  considered  as a fully valid human
     activity  but  indeed  as more excellent than other activities, though
     this  great  value can be fully understood only in the light of faith.
     Thus,  as  a  general rule, the priestly ministry shall be a full-time
     occupation.   Sharing  int he secular activities of men is by no means
     to  be considered the principal end nor can such participation suffice
     to  give  expression  to  priests'  specific responsibility.  Priests,
     without  being of the world and without taking it as their model, must
     nevertheless live in the world,42 as witnesses and stewards of another
               In  order  to  determine  in  concrete circumstances whether
     secular  activity  is  in  accord  with the priestly ministry, inquiry
     should  be  made  whether  and in what way those duties and activities
     serve  the  mission of the Church, those who have not yet received the
     Gospel  message  and  finally  the Christian community.  This is to be
     judged  by the local bishop with his presbyterium, and if necessary in
     consultation with the episcopal conference.
               When  activities  of  this sort, which ordinarily pertain to
     the  laity,  are  as  it were demanded by the priest's very mission to
     evangelize,  they  must  be  harmonized  with  his  other  ministerial
     activities,  in  those  circumstances  where they can be considered as
     necessary forms of true ministry.44
               b)  Together with the entire Church, priests are obliged, to
     the  utmost  of their ability, to select a definite pattern of action,
     when  it is a question of the defense of fundamental human rights, the
     promotion  of  the  full development of persons and the pursuit of the
     cause  of peace and justice; the means must indeed always be consonant
     with  the  Gospel.   These  principles  are  all valid not only in the
     individual  sphere,  but  also  int  he  social  field; in this regard
     priests  should  help  the laity to devote themselves to forming their
     consciences rightly.
               In circumstances in which there legitimately exist different
     political, social and economic options, priests like all citizens have
     a right to select their personal options.  But since political options
     are  by  nature  contingent  and  never  in  an  entirely adequate and
                                                                  Page -12-
     perennial  way interpret the Gospel, the priest, who is the witness of
     things to come, must keep a certain distance from any political office
     or involvement.
               In  order  that  he  may remain a valid sign of unity and be
     able to preach the Gospel in its entirety, the priest can sometimes be
     obliged  to abstain from the exercise of his own right in this matter.
     Moreover,  care  must be taken lest his option appear to Christians to
     be  the  only  legitimate  one or become a cause of division among the
     faithful.  Let priests be mindful of the laity's maturity, which is to
     be valued highly when it is a question of their specific role.
               Leadership  or  active  militancy on behalf of any political
     party  is  to  be  excluded  by  every  priest unless, in concrete and
     exceptional  circumstances,  this is truly required by the good of the
     community,  and  receives the consent of the bishop after consultation
     with  the priests' council and, if the circumstances call for it, with
     the episcopal conference.
               The  priority  of  the  specific  mission which pervades the
     entire  priestly  existence  must  therefore always be kept in mind so
     that,  with  great  confidence, and having a renewed experience of the
     things   of  God,  priests  may  be  able  to  announce  these  things
     efficaciously and with joy to the men who await them.
                        3. The spiritual life of priests
               Every priest will find in his very vocation and ministry the
     deep  motivation for living his entire life in oneness and strength of
     spirit.   Called  like  the  rest  of  those who have been baptized to
     become a true image of Christ,45 the priest, like the Apostles, shares
     besides  in a special way companionship with Christ and his mission as
     the  Supreme  Pastor:  "And  he  appointed twelve; they were to be his
     companions  and to be sent out to preach."46 Therefore in the priestly
     life  there  can  be no dichotomy between love for Christ and zeal for
               Just as Christ, anointed by the Holy spirit, was impelled by
     his  deep  love for his Father to give his life for me, so the priest,
     consecrated  by  the  Holy  Spirit,  and in a special way made like to
     Christ  the  Priest,  dedicates  himself  to  the  work  of the Father
     performed  through the Son.  Thus the whole rule for the priest's life
     is  expressed  in the words of Jesus: "And for their sake I consecrate
     myself, that they also may be consecrated in truth."47
               Following  the  example  of  Christ  who  was continually in
     prayer,  and  led  by  the Holy spirit in whom we cry, "Abba, Father,"
     priests should give themselves to the contemplation of the Word of God
     and  daily  take  the opportunity to examine the events of life in the
     light  of  the  Gospel  so  that  having become faithful and attentive
     hearers  of  the Word they may become true ministers of the Word.  Let
     them  be  assiduous  in  personal prayer, in the Liturgy of the Hours,
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     infrequent  reception  of  the  sacrament of penance and especially in
     devotion  to  the  mystery  of  the  Eucharist.  Even if the Eucharist
     should  be  celebrated  without  participation  by  the  faithful,  it
     nevertheless  remains  the center of the life of the entire Church and
     the heart of priestly existence.
               With  his mind raised to heaven and sharing in the communion
     of  saints,  the  priest  should turn very often to Mary the Mother of
     God,  who  received  the Word of God with perfect faith, and daily ask
     her for the grace of conforming himself to her Son.
               The  activities  of the apostolate for their part furnish an
     indispensable  nourishment  for  fostering  the  spiritual life of the
     priest:  "By  assuming  the  role of the Good Shepherd, they will find
     precisely  in  the  pastoral  exercise  of  love  the bond of priestly
     perfection  which  will  unify  their  lives and activities."48 In the
     exercise of his ministry the priest is enlightened and strengthened by
     the  action  of  the  Church  and  the  example  of  he faithful.  The
     renunciations  imposed by the pastoral life itself help him to acquire
     an  ever  greater sharing in Christ's Cross and hence a purer pastoral
               This  same  charity of priests will also cause them to adapt
     their  spiritual  lives to the modes and forms of sanctification which
     are  more  suitable  and  fitting  for  the men of their own times and
     culture.   Desiring  to  be  all things to all men, to save all,49 the
     priest  should  be  attentive to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit in
     these  days.   Thus he will announce the Word of God not only by human
     means, but he will be taken as a valid instrument by the Word himself,
     whose  message  is  "living  and active and sharper than any two-edged
                                  4. Celibacy
                           a) The basis for celibacy.
               Celibacy for priests is in full harmony with the vocation to
     the  apostolic  following  of  Christ  and also with the unconditional
     response  of  the  person  who  is  called and who undertakes pastoral
     service.  Through celibacy, the priest, following his Lord, shows in a
     fuller  way  his  availability,  and embarking up the way of the Cross
     with  paschal  joy  he  ardently desires to be consumed in an offering
     which can be compared to the Eucharist.
               If  celibacy is lived in the spirit of the gospel, in prayer
     and  vigilance,  with  poverty, joy, contempt of honors, and brotherly
     love,  it is a sign which cannot long be hidden, but which effectively
     proclaims  Christ  to  modern  men also.  For words today are scarcely
     heeded, but the witness of a life which displays the radical character
     to the Gospel has the power of exercising a strong attraction.
                                                                  Page -14-
                           b) Convergence of motives.
               Celibacy, as a personal option for some more important good,
     even  a  merely  natural  one,  can  promote  the  full  maturity  and
     integration  of  the  human  personality. This is all the more true in
     regard to celibacy undertaken for the Kingdom of heaven, as is evident
     in  the  lives  of  so many saints and of the faithful who, living the
     celibate  life,  dedicated  themselves  totally to promoting human and
     Christian progress for the sake of God and men.
               Within  modern  culture,  in which spiritual values are to a
     great  extent  obscured, the celibate priest indicates the presence of
     the  Absolute  God,  who invites us to be renewed in his image.  Where
     the  value  of  sexuality  is  so  exaggerated  that  genuine  love is
     forgotten,  celibacy  for  the sake of the Kingdom of Christ calls men
     back  to  the  sublimity  of  faithful  love  and reveals the ultimate
     meaning of life.
               Furthermore,  one rightly speaks of the value of celibacy as
     an eschatological sign.  By transcending every contingent human value,
     the celibate priest associates himself in a special way with Christ as
     the  final  and  absolute  good  and shows forth, in anticipation, the
     freedom  of  the  children  of  God.   While the value of the sign and
     holiness  of  Christian marriage is fully recognized, celibacy for the
     sake  of the Kingdom nevertheless more clearly displays that spiritual
     fruitfulness  or  generative power of the New Law by which the apostle
     knows that in Christ he is the father and mother of his communities.
               From  this special way of following Christ, the priest draws
     greater strength and power for the building up of the Church; and this
     power can be preserved and increased only by an intimate and permanent
     union with Christ's Spirit.  The faithful people of God wish to see in
     their  pastors  this union with Christ, and they are able to recognize
               Through  celibacy, priests are more easily able to serve God
     with  undivided  heart  and spend themselves for their sheep, and as a
     result  they are able more fully to be promoters of evangelization and
     of  the  Church's  unity.   For this reason, priests, even if they are
     fewer  in number, but are resplendent with this outstanding witness of
     life, will enjoy greater apostolic fruitfulness.
               Priestly  celibacy,  furthermore, is not just the witness of
     one  person  alone,  but  by  reason of the special fellowship linking
     members of the presbyterium it also takes on a social character as the
     witness of the whole priestly order enriching the People of God.
                                                                    Page -15-
                      c) Celibacy to be kept in the Latin Church.
               The   traditions   of  the  Eastern  Churches  shall  remain
     unchanged, as they are now in force in the various territories.
               The  Church has the right and duty to determine the concrete
     form  of  the  priestly ministry and therefore to select more suitable
     candidates,  endowed  with  certain  human and supernatural qualities.
     When  the  Latin  Church demands celibacy as a necessary condition for
     the  priesthood,51 she does not do so out of a belief that this way of
     life  is the only path to attaining sanctification.  She does so while
     carefully  considering the concrete form of exercising the ministry in
     the community for the building up of the Church.
               Because  of  the intimate and multiple coherence between the
     pastoral function and a celibate life, the existing law is upheld: one
     who freely wills total availability, the distinctive characteristic of
     this  function, also freely undertakes a celibate life.  The candidate
     should  feel  this  form  of  living  not  as having been imposed from
     outside,  but rather as a manifestation of his free self-giving, which
     is  accepted  and  ratified by the Church through the bishop.  In this
     way  the  law  becomes  a  protection  and  safeguard  of  the freedom
     wherewith  the priest gives himself to Christ, and it becomes "an easy
                        d) Conditions favoring celibacy
               We   know  well  that  in  the  world  of  today  particular
     difficulties  threaten  celibacy  from  all sides; priests have indeed
     already  experienced  them  in  the course of centuries.  But they can
     overcome  these  difficulties  if  suitable  conditions  are fostered,
     namely:  growth  of the interior life through prayer, renunciation and
     fervent  love  for  God  and  one's  neighbor and by other aids to the
     spiritual  life;  human  balance through well-ordered integration into
     the   fabric   of  social  relationships;  fraternal  association  and
     companionship with other priests and with the bishop, through pastoral
     structures  better suited to this purpose and with the assistance also
     of the community of the faithful.
               It  must be admitted that celibacy, as a gift of God, cannot
     be preserved unless the candidate is adequately prepared for it.  From
     the  beginning,  candidates  should  give  attention  to  the positive
     reasons for choosing celibacy, without letting themselves be disturbed
     by  objections,  the  accumulation and continual pressure of which are
     now rather  a  sign  that  the  original value of celibacy itself has
     been called  in question.  Let them also remember that the power with
     which  God  strengthens  us is always available for those who strive to
     serve him faithfully and entirely.
               A  priest  who  leaves  the ministry should receive just and
     fraternal treatment; even though he can give assistance to the service
                                                                  Page -16-
     of  the  Church,  he  is not however to be admitted to the exercise of
     priestly activities.
                             e) The law of Celibacy
               The law of priestly celibacy existing in the Latin Church is
     to be kept in its entirety.52
                                     * * *
                            f) The ordination of married men
               Two formulas were proposed to the vote of the Fathers:53
               Formula  A:  Excepting  always  the  right  of  the  Supreme
     Pontiff, the priestly ordination of married men is not permitted, even
     in particular cases.
               Formula  B:  It  belongs  solely  to the Supreme Pontiff, in
     particular  cases,  by  reason  of  pastoral needs and the good of the
     universal  Church to allow the priestly ordination of married men, who
     are of mature age and proven life.
                                     * * *
                    1. Relations between priests and bishop
               Priests  will  adhere  more  faithfully to their mission the
     more  they  know  and  show  themselves  to  be  faithful to ecclesial
     communion.  Thus the pastoral ministry, which is exercised by bishops,
     priests  and  deacons, is an eminent sign of this ecclesial communion,
     in that they have received a special mandate to serve this communion.
               But  in order that this ministry may really become a sign of
     communion,  the  actual  conditions  in  which it is exercised must be
     considered to be of the greatest importance.
               The  guiding  principle  expressed  by  the  Second  Vatican
     Council  in  the  decree  PRESBYTERORUM  ORDINIS, namely that the very
     unity  of consecration and mission requires the hierarchical communion
     of  priests  with the order of bishops, is considered fundamental to a
     practical  restoration or renewal, with full confidence, of the mutual
     relationship  between  the  bishop and the presbyterium over which the
     bishop  presides.   This  principle  is more concretely to be put into
     practice especially by the diligence of the bishops.
               The service of authority on the one hand and the exercise of
     not  merely  passive obedience on the other should be carried out in a
     spirit  of  faith,  mutual charity, filial and friendly confidence and
     constant and patient dialogue.  Thus the collaboration and responsible
                                                                  Page -17-
     cooperation  of  priests with the bishop will be sincere, human and at
     the same time supernatural.54
               Personal  freedom, responding to the individual vocation and
     to the charisms received from God, and also the ordered solidarity for
     all  the  service  of  the community and the good of the mission to be
     fulfilled  are  two  conditions which should shape the church's proper
     mode  of  pastoral action.55  The guarantee of these conditions is the
     bishop's authority, to be exercised in a spirit of service.
               The  Council  of  Priests,  which is of its nature something
     diocesan,  is  an institutional manifestation of the brotherhood among
     priests which has its basis in the sacrament of Orders.
               The  activity of this council cannot be fully shaped by law.
     Its effectiveness depends especially on a repeated effort to listen to
     the  opinions of all in order to reach a consensus with the bishop, to
     whom it belongs to make the final decision.
               If  this  is  done with the greatest sincerity and humility,
     and  if  all  one- sidedness is overcome, it will be easier to provide
     properly for the common good.
               The  Priests'  Council  is  an  institution in which priests
     recognize,  at  a  time when variety in the exercise of their ministry
     increases  every  day, that they are mutually complementary in serving
     one and the same mission of the Church.
               It  is the task of this Council, among other things, to seek
     out  clear  and  distinctly  defined  aims,  to suggest priorities, to
     indicate  methods  of acting, to assist whatever the Spirit frequently
     stirs  up  through  individuals or groups, and to foster the spiritual
     life, whence the necessary unity may more easily be attained.
               New  forms  of  hierarchical  communion  between bishops and
     priests56   must  be  found,  to  facilitate  contacts  between  local
     Churches.   A  search  must  be  made  for  ways  whereby  priests may
     collaborate with bishops in supra-diocesan bodies and enterprises.
               The  collaboration  of  religious priests with the bishop in
     the  presbyterium  is  necessary,  thought  heir  work  is of valuable
     assistance to the universal Church.
                    2. Relations of priests with each other
               Since  priests are bound together by an intimate sacramental
     brotherhood  and  by  their  mission,  and  since  they  work and plan
     together  for  the  same  task,  some  community  of life or a certain
     association  of  life  shall  be  encouraged  among  them and can take
     various  forms,  including  non-institutional  ones.   This  shall  be
     allowed  for  by the law itself through opportune norms and by renewed
     or newly-discovered pastoral structures.
                                                                  Page -18-
               Priestly  associations  should  also  be fostered which in a
     spirit  of  ecclesial  communion and being recognized by the competent
     ecclesiastical  authority,  "through an apt and properly approved rule
     of  life and through brotherly assistance,"57 seek to advance the aims
     which  belong  to  their function and "holiness in the exercise of the
               It  is  desirable  that, as far as possible, ways be sought,
     even  if  they  prove  rather  difficult,  whereby  associations which
     perhaps  divide  the  clergy  into  factions  may  be  brought back to
     communion and to the ecclesial structure.
               There  should  be  greater  communication  between religious
     priests  and  diocesan  priests,  so that true priestly fraternity may
     exist  between  them and that they may provide one another with mutual
     help, especially in spiritual matters.
                     3. Relations between priests and laity
               Let  priests  remember  "confidently to entrust to the laity
     duties  in  the  service of the Church, allowing them freedom and room
     for  action.   In fact, on suitable occasions, they should invite them
     to  undertake  works  on their own initiative."59 The laity, "likewise
     sharing  their  cares, should help their priests by prayer and work to
     the  extent  possible, so that their priests can more readily overcome
     difficulties and be able to fulfill their duties more fruitfully."60
               It is necessary to keep always in mind the special character
     of   the  Church's  communion  in  order  that  personal  freedom,  in
     accordance with the recognized duties and charisms of each person, and
     the  unity  of life and activity of the People of God may be fittingly
               The  pastoral  council,  in  which  specially chosen clergy,
     religious,  and  lay  people  take  part,61 furnishes by its study and
     reflection  elements  necessary for enabling the diocesan community to
     arrange   its   pastoral   program   organically  and  to  fulfill  it
               In  proportion  as  the  co-responsibility  of  bishops  and
     priests  daily  increases62  the  more  desirable  it  becomes  that a
     pastoral council be established in each diocese.
                              4. Economic affairs
               The  economic  questions  of the Church cannot be adequately
     solved  unless  they  are carefully examined within the context of the
     communion and mission of the People of God.  All the faithful have the
     duty of assisting the Church's needs.
               In  treating  these questions account must be taken not only
     of solidarity within the local Church, diocese or religious institute,
                                                                  Page -19-
     but  also  of  the condition of dioceses of the same region or nation,
     indeed of the whole world, especially of the Churches in the so-called
     Mission Territories and of other poor regions.
               The remuneration of priests, to be determined certainly in a
     spirit  of  evangelical  poverty, but as far as possible equitable and
     sufficient, is a duty of justice and ought to include social security.
     Excessive differences in this matter must be removed, especially among
     priests  of the same diocese or jurisdiction, account also being taken
     of the average condition of the people of the region.
               It  seems greatly to be desired that the Christian people be
     gradually  instructed  in  such  a  way  that  priests' incomes may be
     separated  from  the  acts  of  their ministry, especially sacramental
               To  priests  exercising  the ministry of the Spirit63 in the
     midst  of  the  communion  of  the entire Church,new ways are open for
     giving a profoundly renewed witness in today's world.
               It  is  necessary  therefore  to  look  to  the  future with
     Christian  confidence  and to ask the Holy Spirit that by his guidance
     and  inspiration  doors  may  be opened to the Gospel, in spite of the
     dangers which the Church cannot overcome by merely human means.
               Having always before our eyes the Apostles, especially Peter
     and Paul, as the examples for the renewal of the priesthood, we should
     give thanks to God the Father that he has given us all the opportunity
     of manifesting more faithfully the countenance of Christ.
               Already there are true signs of a rebirth of spiritual life,
     while  men  everywhere,  amid  the uncertainties of modern times, look
     forward to fullness of life.  This renewal certainly cannot take place
     without  a  sharing  in  the  Lord's Cross, because the servant is not
     greater than his master.64  Forgetting the past let us strive for what
     is still to come.65
               With  real daring we must show the world the fullness of the
     mystery  hidden  through  all  ages  in  God so that men through their
     sharing in it may be able to enter into the fullness of God.66
               "We  proclaim  to  you  the  eternal life which was with the
     Father and was made manifest to us - that which we have seen and heard
     we  proclaim also to you, so that you may have fellowship with us; and
     our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ."67
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         1. cf. Gaudium et Spes 4
         2. 1 Cor. 15:28
         3. Cf. Lumen Gentium 10
         4. John 10:36
         5. Cf. Luke 4:1, 18:21; Acts 10:38
         6. Cf. John 10:15ff; 11:52
         7. Cf. Phil. 2:9-11
         8. 1 Tim.  2:5
         9. Col. 1:16; cf. John 1:3ff
        10. cf Eph. 1:10
        11. Cf. Col.  1:15
        12. Lumen Gentium 18
        13. Ad Gentes Divinitus 5
        14. Rev. 21:14; Mt. 16:18
        15. Tertullian,  "De  Praescr.  Haer." XXI, 4; cf. also I Letter of
            Clement  "Ad  Cor."  XLII, 1-4; Ignatius of Antioch, "Ad Magn."
            VI  and  passim;  Iraenaeus,  "Adv.  Haer." 4,21,3; Origen, "De
            Princip."   IV,2,1;  Serapion,  Bishop of Antioch, in Eusebius,
            "Hist.  Eccl."  VI,12
        16. Lumen Gentium 10
        17. Cf.  Acts  6:2-  6; 11:30; 13:1; 14:23; 24:17; 1 Thes. 5:12-13;
            Phil. 1:1; Col. 4:11 and passim
        18. Acts  20:25-27;  2  Tim.  4:6 taken together with 1 Tim 5:22; 2
            Tim.  2:2;  Titus 1:5; Saint Clement of Rome to the Corinthians
        19. Acts 20:28
        20. Saint  Clement  of Rome to the Corinthians, 44:2; Lumen Gentium
        21. 2 Cor. 5:18ff
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        22. 2 Tim. 1:6
        23. Titus 1:5
        24. Cf. 1 Pt. 5:1-4
        25. Cf. Lumen Gentium 10
        26. Cf. Presbyterorum Ordinis 2
        27. Lumen Gentium 24, 27- 28
        28. Lumen Gentium 28
        29. 2 Tim. 1:6
        30. Presbyterorum Ordinis 2
        31. the power
        32. 2 Cor. 5:18-20
        33. Gaudium et Spes 42
        34. Gaudium et Spes 58
        35. Presbyterorum Ordinis 3
        36. Ad Gentes Divinitus 39
        37. Presbyterorum Ordinis 4
        38. Sacrosanctum Concilium 10
        39. Sacrosanctum Concilium 59
        40. Christus Dominus
        41. Sacrosanctum Concilium 59
        42. Presbyterorum Ordinis 3, 17; John 17:14-16
        43. Presbyterorum Ordinis 3
        44. Presbyterorum Ordinis 8
        45. Romans 8:29
        46. Mark 3:14
        47. John 17:19
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        48. Presbyterorum Ordinis 14
        49. 1 Cor. 9:22
        50. Hebrews 4:12
        51. Presbyterorum Ordinis 16
        52. Result of the vote on this proposition: "placet 168. Non placet
            10. Placet juxta modum 21. Abstentions 3.
        53. According  to  the  directives  of  the Presidents the vote was
            taken  not  by  Placet  or Non placet, but by the choice of the
            first  or  second  formula.  The first formula, A, obtained 107
            votes; the second,B, obtained 87.  There were 2 abstentions and
            also 2 null votes.
        54. cf.  Lumen  Gentium  28;  Christus  Dominus  15;  Presbyterorum
            Ordinis 7
        55. Presbyterorum Ordinis 7
        56. Cf.  Presbyterorum Ordinis 7
        57. Presbyterorum Ordinis 8
        58. ibid.
        59. Presbyterorum Ordinis 9
        60. ibid.
        61. Christus Dominus 27
        62. especially through priests' councils
        63. 2 Cor. 3:4-12
        64. John 13:16
        65. Phil. 3:13
        66. cf. Eph. 3:19
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