The presence of Christ by the power of his word and the Holy Spirit

1373 "Christ Jesus, who died, yes, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us," is present in many ways to his Church:[195] in his word, in his Church's prayer, "where two or three are gathered in my name,"[196] in the poor, the sick, and the imprisoned,[197] in the sacraments of which he is the author, in the sacrifice of the Mass, and in the person of the minister. But "he is present . . . most especially in the Eucharistic species."[198]

1374 The mode of Christ's presence under the Eucharistic species is unique. It raises the Eucharist above all the sacraments as "the perfection of the spiritual life and the end to which all the sacraments tend."[199] In the most blessed sacrament of the Eucharist "the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ and, therefore, the whole Christ is truly, really, and substantially contained."[200] "This presence is called 'real' - by which is not intended to exclude the other types of presence as if they could not be 'real' too, but because it is presence in the fullest sense: that is to say, it is a substantial presence by which Christ, God and man, makes himself wholly and entirely present."[201]

1375 It is by the conversion of the bread and wine into Christ's body and blood that Christ becomes present in this sacrament. The Church Fathers strongly affirmed the faith of the Church in the efficacy of the Word of Christ and of the action of the Holy Spirit to bring about this conversion. Thus St. John Chrysostom declares:
It is not man that causes the things offered to become the Body and Blood of Christ, but he who was crucified for us, Christ himself. The priest, in the role of Christ, pronounces these words, but their power and grace are God's. This is my body, he says. This word transforms the things offered.[202]
And St. Ambrose says about this conversion:
Be convinced that this is not what nature has formed, but what the blessing has consecrated. The power of the blessing prevails over that of nature, because by the blessing nature itself is changed.... Could not Christ's word, which can make from nothing what did not exist, change existing things into what they were not before? It is no less a feat to give things their original nature than to change their nature.[203]

1376 The Council of Trent summarizes the Catholic faith by declaring: "Because Christ our Redeemer said that it was truly his body that he was offering under the species of bread, it has always been the conviction of the Church of God, and this holy Council now declares again, that by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation."[204]

1377 The Eucharistic presence of Christ begins at the moment of the consecration and endures as long as the Eucharistic species subsist. Christ is present whole and entire in each of the species and whole and entire in each of their parts, in such a way that the breaking of the bread does not divide Christ.[205]

1378 Worship of the Eucharist. In the liturgy of the Mass we express our faith in the real presence of Christ under the species of bread and wine by, among other ways, genuflecting or bowing deeply as a sign of adoration of the Lord. "The Catholic Church has always offered and still offers to the sacrament of the Eucharist the cult of adoration, not only during Mass, but also outside of it, reserving the consecrated hosts with the utmost care, exposing them to the solemn veneration of the faithful, and carrying them in procession."[206]

1379 The tabernacle was first intended for the reservation of the Eucharist in a worthy place so that it could be brought to the sick and those absent outside of Mass. As faith in the real presence of Christ in his Eucharist deepened, the Church became conscious of the meaning of silent adoration of the Lord present under the Eucharistic species. It is for this reason that the tabernacle should be located in an especially worthy place in the church and should be constructed in such a way that it emphasizes and manifests the truth of the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacrament.

1380 It is highly fitting that Christ should have wanted to remain present to his Church in this unique way. Since Christ was about to take his departure from his own in his visible form, he wanted to give us his sacramental presence; since he was about to offer himself on the cross to save us, he wanted us to have the memorial of the love with which he loved us "to the end,"[207] even to the giving of his life. In his Eucharistic presence he remains mysteriously in our midst as the one who loved us and gave himself up for us,[208] and he remains under signs that express and communicate this love:
The Church and the world have a great need for Eucharistic worship. Jesus awaits us in this sacrament of love. Let us not refuse the time to go to meet him in adoration, in contemplation full of faith, and open to making amends for the serious offenses and crimes of the world. Let our adoration never cease.[209]

1381 "That in this sacrament are the true Body of Christ and his true Blood is something that 'cannot be apprehended by the senses,' says St. Thomas, 'but only by faith, which relies on divine authority.' For this reason, in a commentary on Luke 22:19 ('This is my body which is given for you.'), St. Cyril says: 'Do not doubt whether this is true, but rather receive the words of the Savior in faith, for since he is the truth, he cannot lie.'"[210]
Godhead here in hiding, whom I do adore Masked by these bare shadows, shape and nothing more, See, Lord, at thy service low lies here a heart Lost, all lost in wonder at the God thou art.
Seeing, touching, tasting are in thee deceived;
How says trusty hearing? that shall be believed;
What God's Son has told me, take for truth I do;
Truth himself speaks truly or there's nothing true.[211]


1382 The Mass is at the same time, and inseparably, the sacrificial memorial in which the sacrifice of the cross is perpetuated and the sacred banquet of communion with the Lord's body and blood. But the celebration of the Eucharistic sacrifice is wholly directed toward the intimate union of the faithful with Christ through communion. To receive communion is to receive Christ himself who has offered himself for us.

1383 The altar, around which the Church is gathered in the celebration of the Eucharist, represents the two aspects of the same mystery: the altar of the sacrifice and the table of the Lord. This is all the more so since the Christian altar is the symbol of Christ himself, present in the midst of the assembly of his faithful, both as the victim offered for our reconciliation and as food from heaven who is giving himself to us. "For what is the altar of Christ if not the image of the Body of Christ?"[212] asks St. Ambrose. He says elsewhere, "The altar represents the body [of Christ] and the Body of Christ is on the altar."[213] The liturgy expresses this unity of sacrifice and communion in many prayers. Thus the Roman Church prays in its anaphora:
We entreat you, almighty God, that by the hands of your holy Angel this offering may be borne to your altar in heaven in the sight of your divine majesty, so that as we receive in communion at this altar the most holy Body and Blood of your Son, we may be filled with every heavenly blessing and grace.[214]
"Take this and eat it, all of you": communion

1384 The Lord addresses an invitation to us, urging us to receive him in the sacrament of the Eucharist: "Truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you."[215]

1385 To respond to this invitation we must prepare ourselves for so great and so holy a moment. St. Paul urges us to examine our conscience: "Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord. Let a man examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For any one who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon himself."[216] Anyone conscious of a grave sin must receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before coming to communion.

1386 Before so great a sacrament, the faithful can only echo humbly and with ardent faith the words of the Centurion: "Domine, non sum dignus ut intres sub tectum meum, sed tantum dic verbo, et sanabitur anima mea" ("Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul will be healed.").[217] And in the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom the faithful pray in the same spirit:
O Son of God, bring me into communion today with your mystical supper. I shall not tell your enemies the secret, nor kiss you with Judas' kiss. But like the good thief I cry, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom."

1387 To prepare for worthy reception of this sacrament, the faithful should observe the fast required in their Church.[218] Bodily demeanor (gestures, clothing) ought to convey the respect, solemnity, and joy of this moment when Christ becomes our guest.

1388 It is in keeping with the very meaning of the Eucharist that the faithful, if they have the required dispositions, receive communion each time they participate in the Mass.[219] As the Second Vatican Council says: "That more perfect form of participation in the Mass whereby the faithful, after the priest's communion, receive the Lord's Body from the same sacrifice, is warmly recommended."[220]

1389 The Church obliges the faithful "to take part in the Divine Liturgy on Sundays and feast days" and, prepared by the sacrament of Reconciliation, to receive the Eucharist at least once a year, if possible during the Easter season.[221] But the Church strongly encourages the faithful to receive the holy Eucharist on Sundays and feast days, or more often still, even daily.

1390 Since Christ is sacramentally present under each of the species, communion under the species of bread alone makes it possible to receive all the fruit of Eucharistic grace. For pastoral reasons this manner of receiving communion has been legitimately established as the most common form in the Latin rite. But "the sign of communion is more complete when given under both kinds, since in that form the sign of the Eucharistic meal appears more clearly."[222] This is the usual form of receiving communion in the Eastern rites.

The fruits of Holy Communion

1391 Holy Communion augments our union with Christ. The principal fruit of receiving the Eucharist in Holy Communion is an intimate union with Christ Jesus. Indeed, the Lord said: "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him."[223] Life in Christ has its foundation in the Eucharistic banquet: "As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me."[224]
On the feasts of the Lord, when the faithful receive the Body of the Son, they proclaim to one another the Good News that the first fruits of life have been given, as when the angel said to Mary Magdalene, "Christ is risen!" Now too are life and resurrection conferred on whoever receives Christ.[225]

1392 What material food produces in our bodily life, Holy Communion wonderfully achieves in our spiritual life. Communion with the flesh of the risen Christ, a flesh "given life and giving life through the Holy Spirit,"[226] preserves, increases, and renews the life of grace received at Baptism. This growth in Christian life needs the nourishment of Eucharistic Communion, the bread for our pilgrimage until the moment of death, when it will be given to us as viaticum.

1393 Holy Communion separates us from sin. The body of Christ we receive in Holy Communion is "given up for us," and the blood we drink "shed for the many for the forgiveness of sins." For this reason the Eucharist cannot unite us to Christ without at the same time cleansing us from past sins and preserving us from future sins: For as often as we eat this bread and drink the cup, we proclaim the death of the Lord. If we proclaim the Lord's death, we proclaim the forgiveness of sins. If, as often as his blood is poured out, it is poured for the forgiveness of sins, I should always receive it, so that it may always forgive my sins. Because I always sin, I should always have a remedy.[227]

1394 As bodily nourishment restores lost strength, so the Eucharist strengthens our charity, which tends to be weakened in daily life; and this living charity wipes away venial sins.[228] By giving himself to us Christ revives our love and enables us to break our disordered attachments to creatures and root ourselves in him:
Since Christ died for us out of love, when we celebrate the memorial of his death at the moment of sacrifice we ask that love may be granted to us by the coming of the Holy Spirit. We humbly pray that in the strength of this love by which Christ willed to die for us, we, by receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit, may be able to consider the world as crucified for us, and to be ourselves as crucified to the world.... Having received the gift of love, let us die to sin and live for God.[229]

1395 By the same charity that it enkindles in us, the Eucharist preserves us from future mortal sins. The more we share the life of Christ and progress in his friendship, the more difficult it is to break away from him by mortal sin. The Eucharist is not ordered to the forgiveness of mortal sins - that is proper to the sacrament of Reconciliation. The Eucharist is properly the sacrament of those who are in full communion with the Church.

1396 The unity of the Mystical Body: the Eucharist makes the Church. Those who receive the Eucharist are united more closely to Christ. Through it Christ unites them to all the faithful in one body - the Church. Communion renews, strengthens, and deepens this incorporation into the Church, already achieved by Baptism. In Baptism we have been called to form but one body.[230] The Eucharist fulfills this call: "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread:"[231]
If you are the body and members of Christ, then it is your sacrament that is placed on the table of the Lord; it is your sacrament that you receive. To that which you are you respond "Amen" ("yes, it is true!") and by responding to it you assent to it. For you hear the words, "the Body of Christ" and respond "Amen." Be then a member of the Body of Christ that your Amen may be true.[232]

1397 The Eucharist commits us to the poor. To receive in truth the Body and Blood of Christ given up for us, we must recognize Christ in the poorest, his brethren:
You have tasted the Blood of the Lord, yet you do not recognize your brother,.... You dishonor this table when you do not judge worthy of sharing your food someone judged worthy to take part in this meal.... God freed you from all your sins and invited you here, but you have not become more merciful.[233]

1398 The Eucharist and the unity of Christians. Before the greatness of this mystery St. Augustine exclaims, "O sacrament of devotion! O sign of unity! O bond of charity!"[234] The more painful the experience of the divisions in the Church which break the common participation in the table of the Lord, the more urgent are our prayers to the Lord that the time of complete unity among all who believe in him may return.

1399 The Eastern churches that are not in full communion with the Catholic Church celebrate the Eucharist with great love. "These Churches, although separated from us, yet possess true sacraments, above all - by apostolic succession - the priesthood and the Eucharist, whereby they are still joined to us in closest intimacy." A certain communion in sacris, and so in the Eucharist, "given suitable circumstances and the approval of Church authority, is not merely possible but is encouraged."[235]

1400 Ecclesial communities derived from the Reformation and separated from the Catholic Church, "have not preserved the proper reality of the Eucharistic mystery in its fullness, especially because of the absence of the sacrament of Holy Orders."[236] It is for this reason that Eucharistic intercommunion with these communities is not possible for the Catholic Church. However these ecclesial communities, "when they commemorate the Lord's death and resurrection in the Holy Supper . . . profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and await his coming in glory."[237]

1401 When, in the Ordinary's judgment, a grave necessity arises, Catholic ministers may give the sacraments of Eucharist, Penance, and Anointing of the Sick to other Christians not in full communion with the Catholic Church, who ask for them of their own will, provided they give evidence of holding the Catholic faith regarding these sacraments and possess the required dispositions.[238]


1402 In an ancient prayer the Church acclaims the mystery of the Eucharist: "O sacred banquet in which Christ is received as food, the memory of his Passion is renewed, the soul is filled with grace and a pledge of the life to come is given to us." If the Eucharist is the memorial of the Passover of the Lord Jesus, if by our communion at the altar we are filled "with every heavenly blessing and grace,"[239] then the Eucharist is also an anticipation of the heavenly glory.

1403 At the Last Supper the Lord himself directed his disciples' attention toward the fulfillment of the Passover in the kingdom of God: "I tell you I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom."[240] Whenever the Church celebrates the Eucharist she remembers this promise and turns her gaze "to him who is to come." In her prayer she calls for his coming: "Marana tha!" "Come, Lord Jesus!"[241] "May your grace come and this world pass away!"[242]

1404 The Church knows that the Lord comes even now in his Eucharist and that he is there in our midst. However, his presence is veiled. Therefore we celebrate the Eucharist "awaiting the blessed hope and the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ,"[243] asking "to share in your glory when every tear will be wiped away. On that day we shall see you, our God, as you are. We shall become like you and praise you for ever through Christ our Lord."[244]

1405 There is no surer pledge or dearer sign of this great hope in the new heavens and new earth "in which righteousness dwells,"[245] than the Eucharist. Every time this mystery is celebrated, "the work of our redemption is carried on" and we "break the one bread that provides the medicine of immortality, the antidote for death, and the food that makes us live for ever in Jesus Christ."[246]


1406 Jesus said: "I am the living bread that came down from heaven; if any one eats of this bread, he will live for ever; . . . he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life and . . . abides in me, and I in him" (Jn 6:51, 54, 56).

1407 The Eucharist is the heart and the summit of the Church's life, for in it Christ associates his Church and all her members with his sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving offered once for all on the cross to his Father; by this sacrifice he pours out the graces of salvation on his Body which is the Church.

1408 The Eucharistic celebration always includes: the proclamation of the Word of God; thanksgiving to God the Father for all his benefits, above all the gift of his Son; the consecration of bread and wine; and participation in the liturgical banquet by receiving the Lord's body and blood. These elements constitute one single act of worship.

1409 The Eucharist is the memorial of Christ's Passover, that is, of the work of salvation accomplished by the life, death, and resurrection of Christ, a work made present by the liturgical action.

1410 It is Christ himself, the eternal high priest of the New Covenant who, acting through the ministry of the priests, offers the Eucharistic sacrifice. And it is the same Christ, really present under the species of bread and wine, who is the offering of the Eucharistic sacrifice.

1411 Only validly ordained priests can preside at the Eucharist and consecrate the bread and the wine so that they become the Body and Blood of the Lord.

1412 The essential signs of the Eucharistic sacrament are wheat bread and grape wine, on which the blessing of the Holy Spirit is invoked and the priest pronounces the words of consecration spoken by Jesus during the Last Supper: "This is my body which will be given up for you.... This is the cup of my blood...."

1413 By the consecration the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ is brought about. Under the consecrated species of bread and wine Christ himself, living and glorious, is present in a true, real, and substantial manner: his Body and his Blood, with his soul and his divinity (cf. Council of Trent: DS 1640; 1651).

1414 As sacrifice, the Eucharist is also offered in reparation for the sins of the living and the dead and to obtain spiritual or temporal benefits from God.

1415 Anyone who desires to receive Christ in Eucharistic communion must be in the state of grace. Anyone aware of having sinned mortally must not receive communion without having received absolution in the sacrament of penance.

1416 Communion with the Body and Blood of Christ increases the communicant's union with the Lord, forgives his venial sins, and preserves him from grave sins. Since receiving this sacrament strengthens the bonds of charity between the communicant and Christ, it also reinforces the unity of the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ.

1417 The Church warmly recommends that the faithful receive Holy Communion each time they participate in the celebration of the Eucharist; she obliges them to do so at least once a year.

1418 Because Christ himself is present in the sacrament of the altar, he is to be honored with the worship of adoration. "To visit the Blessed Sacrament is . . . a proof of gratitude, an expression of love, and a duty of adoration toward Christ our Lord" (Paul VI, MF 66).

1419 Having passed from this world to the Father, Christ gives us in the Eucharist the pledge of glory with him. Participation in the Holy Sacrifice identifies us with his Heart, sustains our strength along the pilgrimage of this life, makes us long for eternal life, and unites us even now to the Church in heaven, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and all the saints.


   1 Cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 65, 1.

   2 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 65, 3.

   3 Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Divinae consortium naturae: AAS 63
   (1971) 657; cf. RCIA Introduction 1-2.

   4 Cf. Council Of Florence: DS 1314: vitae spiritualis ianua.

   5 Roman Catechism II, 2, 5; Cf. Council Of Florence: DS 1314; CIC, cann.
   204 # 1; 849; CCEO, can. 675 # 1.

   6 2 Cor 5:17; Gal 6:15; Cf. Rom 6:34; Col 2:12.

   7 Titus 3:5; Jn 3:5.

   8 St. Justin, Apol. 1, 61, 12: PG 6, 421.

   9 Jn 1:9; 1 Thess 5:5; Heb 10:32; Eph 5:8.
   10 St. Gregory Of Nazianzus, Oratio 40, 3-4: PG 36, 361C.

   11 Roman Missal, Easter Vigil 42: Blessing of Water.

   12 Cf. Gen 1:2.

   13 Roman Missal, Easter Vigil 42: Blessing of Water.

   14 1 Pet 3:20.

   15 Roman Missal, Easter Vigil 42: Blessing of Water.

   16 Roman Missal, Easter Vigil 42: Blessing of Water: "Abrahae filios per
   mare Rubrum sicco vestigio transire fecisti, ut plebs, a Pharaonis
   servitute liberata, populum baptizatorum praefiguraret."

   17 Cf. Mt 3:13.

   18 Mt 28:19-20; cf. Mk 16:15-16.

   19 Mt 3:15.

   20 Cf. Phil 2:7.

   21 Mt 3:16-17.

   22 Mk 10:38; cf. Lk 12:50.

   23 Cf. Jn 19:34; 1 Jn 5:6-8.

   24 Cf. Jn 3:5.

   25 St. Ambrose, De sacr. 2, 2, 6: PL 16, 444; cf. Jn 3:5.

   26 Acts 2:38.

   27 Cf. Acts 2:41; 8:12-13; 10:48; 16:15.

   28 Acts 16:31-33.

   29 Rom 6:3-4; cf. Col 2:12.

   30 Gal 3:27.

   31 CE 1 Cor 6:11; 12:13.

   32 1 Pet 1:23; cf. Eph 5:26.

   33 St. Augustine, In Jo. ev. 80, 3: PL 35, 1840.

   34 SC 64.

   35 Cf. RCIA (1972).

   36 SC 65; cf. SC 37-40.

   37 Cf. AG 14; CIC, cann. 851; 865; 866.

   38 Cf. CIC, cann. 851, 20; 868.
   39 Cf. Rom 6:17.

   40 Jn 3:5.

   41 Cf. RBC 62.

   42 Gal 3:27.

   43 Mt 5:14; cf. Phil 2:15.

   44 Rev 19:9.

   45 Mk 10 14.

   46 CIC, can. 864; cf. CCEO, can. 679.

   47 AG 14; cf. RCIA 19; 98.

   48 AG 14 # 5.

   49 LG 14 # 3; cf. CIC, cann. 206; 788 # 3.
   50 Cf. Council of Trent (1546): DS 1514; cf. Col 1:12-14.

   51 Cf. CIC, can. 867; CCEO, cann. 681; 686, 1.

   52 Cf. LG 11; 41; GS 48; CIC, can. 868.

   53 Cf. Acts 16:15, 33; 18:8; 1 Cor 1:16; CDF, instruction, Pastoralis
   actio: AAS 72 (1980) 1137-1156.

   54 Cf. Mk 16:16.

   55 Cf. CIC, cann. 872-874.

   56 Cf. SC 67.
   57 Cf. CIC, can. 861 # 1; CCEO, can. 677 # 1.

   58 Cf. 1 Tim 2:4.

   59 Cf. Jn 3:5.

   60 Cf. Mt 28:19-20; cf. Council of Trent (1547) DS 1618; LG 14; AG 5.

   61 Cf. Mk 16:16.

   62 GS 22 # 5; cf. LG 16; AG 7.

   63 Mk 10 14; cf. 1 Tim 2:4.

   64 Cf. Acts 2:38; Jn 3:5.

   65 Cf. Council of Florence (1439): DS 1316.

   66 Council of Trent (1546): DS 1515.

   67 2 Tim 2:5.

   68 2 Cor 5:17; 2 Pet 1:4; cf. Gal 4:5-7.
   69 Cf. l Cor 6:15; 12:27; Rom 8:17.

   70 Cf. l Cor 6:19.

   71 Eph 4:25.

   72 1 Cor 12:13.

   73 1 Pet 2:5.

   74 1 Pet 2:9.

   75 Cf. 1 Cor 6:19; 2 Cor 5:15.

   76 Heb 13:17.

   77 Cf. Eph 5:21; 1 Cor 16:15-16; 1 Thess 5:12-13; Jn 13:12-15.

   78 Cf. LG 37; CIC, cann. 208 223; CCEO, can. 675:2.

   79 LG 11; cf. LG 17; AG 7; 23.

   80 UR 3.

   81 UR 22 # 2.

   82 Cf. Rom 8:29; Council of Trent (1547): DS 1609-1619.

   83 Cf. LG 11.

   84 Cf. LG 10.

   85 St. Augustine, Ep. 98, 5: PL 33, 362; Eph 4:30; cf. 1:13-14; 2 Cor

   86 St. Irenaeus, Dem ap. 3: SCh 62, 32.

   87 Roman Missal, EP I (Roman Canon) 97.

   88 Cf. Roman Ritual, Rite of Confirmation (OC), Introduction 1.

   89 LG 11; Cf. OC, Introduction 2.

   90 Cf. Isa 11:2; 61:1; Lk 4:16-22.

   91 Cf. Mt 3:13-17; Jn 1:33-34.

   92 Jn 3:34.

   93 Cf. Ezek 36:25-27; Joel 3:1-2.

   94 Cf. Lk 12:12; Jn 3:5-8; 7:37-39; 16:7-15; Acts 1:8.

   95 Cf. Jn 20:22; Acts 2:1-14.

   96 Acts 2:11; Cf. 2:17-18.

   97 Cf. Acts 2:38.

   98 Paul VI, Divinae consortium naturae, 659; Cf. Acts 8:15-17; 19:5-6; Heb

   99 Acts 10:38.

   100 Cf. CCEO, Can. 695 # 1; 696 # 1.

   101 Cf. St. Hippolytus, Trad. Ap. 21 SCh 11, 80-95.

   102 Cf. Deut 11:14; Pss 23:5; 104:15.

   103 Cf. Isa 1:6; Lk 1034.

   104 2 Cor 2:15.

   105 Cf Gen 38:18; 41:42; Deut 32:34; CT 8:6.

   106 Cf. 1 Kings 21:8; Jer 32:10; Isa 29:11.

   107 Cf. Jn 6:27.

   108 2 Cor 1:21-22; cf. Eph 1:13; 4, 30.

   109 Cf. Rev 7:2-3; 9:4; Ezek 9:4-6.

   110 Cf. SC 71.

   111 Cf. CIC, can. 866.

   112 OC 25.

   113 Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Divinae consortium naturae, 663.

   114 Cf. St. Hippolytus, Trad. Ap. 21 SCh 11, 80-95.

   115 Rom 8:15.
   116 Cf. LG 11.

   117 Cf. Council Of Florence (1439) DS 1319; LG 11; 12.

   118 SL Ambrose, De myst. 7, 42 PL 16, 402-403.

   119 Cf. Council Of Trent (1547) DS 1609; Lk 24:48-49.

   120 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 72, 5, ad 2.

   121 Cf. CIC, can. 889 # 1.

   122 CIC, can. 890.

   123 Cf. CIC, cann. 891; 883, 3.

   124 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 72, 8, ad 2; Cf. Wis 4:8.

   125 Cf. OC Introduction 3.

   126 Cf. Acts 1:14.

   127 Cf. OC Introduction 5; 6; CIC, Can. 893 ## 1- 2.

   128 Cf. LG 26.

   129 Cf. CIC, Can. 883 # 2.

   130 Cf. CIC, Can. 882.

   131 Cf. CIC, Can. 884 # 2.

   132 Cf. CIC, Can. 883 # 3.

   133 SC 47.

   134 LG 11.

   135 PO 5.

   136 Congregation of Rites, instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, 6.

   137 Cf. 1 Cor 15:28.

   138 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4, 18, 5: PG 7/l, 1028.

   139 Cf. Lk 22:19; 1 Cor 11:24.
   140 Cf. Mt 26:26; Mk 14:22.

   141 Cf. 1 Cor 11:20; Rev 19:9.

   142 Cf. Mt 14:19; 15:36; Mk 8:6, 19.

   143 Cf. Mt 26:26; 1 Cor 11:24.

   144 Cf. Lk 24:13-35.

   145 Cf. Acts 2:42, 46; 20:7, 11.
   146 Cf. 1 Cor 10:16-17.

   147 Cf. 1 Cor 11:17-34.

   148 Heb 13:15; cf. 1 Pet 25; Ps 116:13, 17; Mal 1:11.

   149 Cf. 1 Cor 1016-17.

   150 Apostolic Constitutions 8, 13,12 PG 1,1108; Didache 9, 5; 10:6: SCh:
   248,176- 178.

   151 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Eph. 20, 2 SCh 10, 76.

   152 Cf. Ps 104:13-15.

   153 Gen 14:18; cf. Roman Missal, EP I (Roman Canon) 95.

   154 Cf. Deut 8:3.

   155 1 Cor 10:16.

   156 Cf. Mt 14:13-21; 15:32-39.

   157 Cf. Jn 2:11; Mk 14:25.

   158 Jn 6:60.

   159 Jn 6:67.

   160 In 6:68.

   161 Cf. Jn 13:1-17; 34-35.

   162 Council of Trent (1562): DS 1740.

   163 Cf. Jn 6.

   164 Lk 22:7-20; Cf. Mt 26:17-29; Mk 14:12-25; 1 Cor 11:23-26.

   165 Cf. 2 Cor 11:26.

   166 Acts 2:42, 46.

   167 Acts 20:7.

   168 AG 1; cf. 1 Cor 11:26.

   169 St. Justin, Apol. 1, 65-67: PG 6, 428-429; the text before the
   asterisk (*) is from chap. 67.

   170 SC 56.

   171 Cf. DV 21.

   172 Cf. Lk 24:13-35.

   173 Cf. 1 Thess 2:13.

   174 1 Tim 2:1-2.
   175 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4, 18, 4: PG 7/1, 1027; cf. Mal 1:11.

   176 Cf. 1 Cor 16:1; 2 Cor 8:9.

   177 St. Justin, Apol. 1, 67: PG 6, 429.

   178 Cf. Roman Missal, EP I (Roman Canon) 90.

   179 Jn 6:51.

   180 St. Justin, Apol. 1, 66,1-2: PG 6, 428.

   181 1 Cor 11:24-25.

   182 Cf. Ex 13:3.

   183 Cf. Heb 7:25-27.

   184 LG 3; cf. 1 Cor 5:7.

   185 Lk 22:19-20.

   186 Mt 26:28.

   187 Council of Trent (1562): DS 1740; cf. 1 Cor 11:23; Heb 7:24, 27.

   188 Council of Trent (1562): DS 1743; cf. Heb 9:14, 27.

   189 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrn. 8:1; SCh 10, 138.

   190 PO 2 # 4.

   191 Council of Trent (1562) DS 1743.

   192 St. Monica, before her death, to her sons, St. Augustine and his
   brother; Conf. 9, 11, 27: PL 32, 775.

   193 St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. myst. 5, 9. 10 PG 33, 1116-1117.

   194 St. Augustine, De civ Dei, 10, 6: PL 41, 283; cf. Rom 12:5.

   195 Rom 8:34; cf. LG 48.

   196 Mt 18:20.

   197 Cf. Mt 25:31-46.

   198 SC 7.

   199 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 73, 3c.

   200 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1651.

   201 Paul VI, MF 39.

   202 St. John Chrysostom, prod. Jud. 1:6: PG 49, 380.

   203 St. Ambrose, De myst. 9, 50; 52: PL 16, 405-407.

   204 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1642; cf. Mt 26:26 ff.; Mk 14:22 ff.; Lk
   22:19 ff.; 1 Cor 11:24 ff.

   205 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1641.

   206 Paul VI, MF 56.

   207 Jn 13:1.

   208 Cf. Gal 2:20.

   209 John Paul II, Dominicae cenae, 3.

   210 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 75, 1; cf. Paul VI, MF 18; St. Cyril of
   Alexandria, In Luc. 22, 19: PG 72, 912; cf. Paul VI, MF 18.

   211 St. Thomas Aquinas (attr.), Adoro te devote; tr. Gerard Manley

   212 St. Ambrose, De Sacr. 5, 2, 7: PL 16, 447C.

   213 St. Ambrose, De Sacr. 4, 2, 7: PL 16, 437D.

   214 Roman Missal, EP I (Roman Canon) 96: Supplices te rogamus, omnipotens
   Deus: iube haec perferri per manus sancti Angeli tui in sublime altare
   tuum, in conspectu divinae maiestatis tuae: ut, quotquot ex hac altaris
   participatione sacrosanctum Filii Corpus et Sanguinem sumpserimus, omni
   benedictione caelesti et gratia repleamur.

   215 Jn 6:53.

   216 1 Cor 11:27-29.

   217 Roman Missal, response to the invitation to communion; cf. Mt 8:8.

   218 Cf. CIC, can. 919.

   219 Cf. CIC, can. 917; AAS 76 (1984) 746-747.

   220 SC 55.

   221 OE 15; CIC, can. 920.

   222 GIRM 240.

   223 Jn 6:56.

   224 Jn 6:57.

   225 Fanqith, Syriac Office of Antioch, Vol. 1, Commun., 237 a-b.
   226 PO 5.

   227 St. Ambrose, De Sacr. 4, 6, 28: PL 16, 446; cf. 1 Cor 11:26.

   228 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1638.

   229 St. Fulgentius of Ruspe, Contra Fab. 28, 16-19: CCL 19A, 813-814.

   230 Cf. 1 Cor 12:13.
   231 1 Cor 10:16-17.

   232 St. Augustine, Sermo 272: PL 38, 1247.

   233 St. John Chrysostom, Hom. in 1 Cor. 27, 4: PG 61, 229-230; cf. Mt

   234 St. Augustine, In Jo. ev. 26, 13: PL 35, 1613; cf. SC 47.

   235 UR 15 # 2; cf. CIC, can. 844 # 3.

   236 UR 22 # 3.

   237 UR 22 # 3.

   238 Cf. CIC, can. 844 # 4.

   239 Roman Missal, EP I (Roman Canon) 96: Supplices te rogamus.

   240 Mt 26:29; cf. Lk 22:18; Mk 14 25.

   241 Rev 1:4; 22 20; 1 Cor 16 22.

   242 Didache 10, 6: SCh 248,180.

   243 Roman Missal 126, embolism after the Our Father: expectantes beatam
   spem et adventum Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi; cf. Titus 2:13.
   244 EP III 116: prayer for the dead.

   245 2 Pet 3:13.

   246 LG 3; St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Eph. 20, 2: SCh 10, 76.