You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain. You have heard that it was said to the men of old, "You shall not swear falsely. . But I say to you, Do not swear at all.
2142 The second commandment prescribes respect for the Lord's name. Like the first commandment, it belongs to the virtue of religion and more particularly it governs our use of speech in sacred matters.
2143 Among all the words of Revelation, there is one which is unique: the revealed name of God. God confides his name to those who believe in him; he reveals himself to them in his personal mystery. The gift of a name belongs to the order of trust and intimacy. "The Lord's name is holy." For this reason man must not abuse it. He must keep it in mind in silent, loving adoration. He will not introduce it into his own speech except to bless, praise, and glorify it.
2144 Respect for his name is an expression of the respect owed to the
mystery of God himself and to the whole sacred reality it evokes. The
sense of the sacred is part of the virtue of religion:
Are these feelings of fear and awe Christian feelings or not? . . . I say this, then, which I think no one can reasonably dispute. They are the class of feelings we should have - yes, have to an intense degree - if we literally had the sight of Almighty God; therefore they are the class of feelings which we shall have, if we realize His presence. In proportion as we believe that He is present, we shall have them; and not to have them, is not to realize, not to believe that He is present.
2145 The faithful should bear witness to the Lord's name by confessing the faith without giving way to fear. Preaching and catechizing should be permeated with adoration and respect for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
2146 The second commandment forbids the abuse of God's name, i.e., every improper use of the names of God, Jesus Christ, but also of the Virgin Mary and all the saints.
2147 Promises made to others in God's name engage the divine honor, fidelity, truthfulness, and authority. They must be respected in justice. To be unfaithful to them is to misuse God's name and in some way to make God out to be a liar.
2148 Blasphemy is directly opposed to the second commandment. It consists
in uttering against God - inwardly or outwardly - words of hatred,
reproach, or defiance; in speaking ill of God; in failing in respect
toward him in one's speech; in misusing God's name. St. James condemns
those "who blaspheme that honorable name [of Jesus] by which you are
called." The prohibition of blasphemy extends to language against
Christ's Church, the saints, and sacred things. It is also blasphemous to
make use of God's name to cover up criminal practices, to reduce peoples
to servitude, to torture persons or put them to death. The misuse of God's
name to commit a crime can provoke others to repudiate religion.
Blasphemy is contrary to the respect due God and his holy name. It is in itself a grave sin.
2149 Oaths which misuse God's name, though without the intention of
blasphemy, show lack of respect for the Lord. The second commandment also
forbids magical use of the divine name.
[God's] name is great when spoken with respect for the greatness of his majesty. God's name is holy when said with veneration and fear of offending him.
2150 The second commandment forbids false oaths. Taking an oath or swearing is to take God as witness to what one affirms. It is to invoke the divine truthfulness as a pledge of one's own truthfulness. An oath engages the Lord's name. "You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve him, and swear by his name."
2151 Rejection of false oaths is a duty toward God. As Creator and Lord, God is the norm of all truth. Human speech is either in accord with or in opposition to God who is Truth itself. When it is truthful and legitimate, an oath highlights the relationship of human speech with God's truth. A false oath calls on God to be witness to a lie.
2152 A person commits perjury when he makes a promise under oath with no intention of keeping it, or when after promising on oath he does not keep it. Perjury is a grave lack of respect for the Lord of all speech. Pledging oneself by oath to commit an evil deed is contrary to the holiness of the divine name.
2153 In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus explained the second commandment: "You have heard that it was said to the men of old, 'You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn.' But I say to you, Do not swear at all.... Let what you say be simply 'Yes' or 'No'; anything more than this comes from the evil one." Jesus teaches that every oath involves a reference to God and that God's presence and his truth must be honored in all speech. Discretion in calling upon God is allied with a respectful awareness of his presence, which all our assertions either witness to or mock.
2154 Following St. Paul, the tradition of the Church has understood Jesus' words as not excluding oaths made for grave and right reasons (for example, in court). "An oath, that is the invocation of the divine name as a witness to truth, cannot be taken unless in truth, in judgment, and in justice."
2155 The holiness of the divine name demands that we neither use it for trivial matters, nor take an oath which on the basis of the circumstances could be interpreted as approval of an authority unjustly requiring it. When an oath is required by illegitimate civil authorities, it may be refused. It must be refused when it is required for purposes contrary to the dignity of persons or to ecclesial communion.
2156 The sacrament of Baptism is conferred "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." In Baptism, the Lord's name sanctifies man, and the Christian receives his name in the Church. This can be the name of a saint, that is, of a disciple who has lived a life of exemplary fidelity to the Lord. The patron saint provides a model of charity; we are assured of his intercession. The "baptismal name" can also express a Christian mystery or Christian virtue. "Parents, sponsors, and the pastor are to see that a name is not given which is foreign to Christian sentiment."
2157 The Christian begins his day, his prayers, and his activities with the Sign of the Cross: "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen." The baptized person dedicates the day to the glory of God and calls on the Savior's grace which lets him act in the Spirit as a child of the Father. The sign of the cross strengthens us in temptations and difficulties.
2158 God calls each one by name. Everyone's name is sacred. The name is the icon of the person. It demands respect as a sign of the dignity of the one who bears it.
2159 The name one receives is a name for eternity. In the kingdom, the mysterious and unique character of each person marked with God's name will shine forth in splendor. "To him who conquers . . . I will give a white stone, with a new name written on the stone which no one knows except him who receives it." "Then I looked, and Lo, on Mount Zion stood the Lamb, and with him a hundred and forty- four thousand who had his name and his Father's name written on their foreheads."
2160 "O Lord, our Lord, how majestic is your name in all the earth" (Ps 8:1)!
2161 The second commandment enjoins respect for the Lord's name. The name of the Lord is holy.
2162 The second commandment forbids every improper use of God's name. Blasphemy is the use of the name of God, of Jesus Christ, of the Virgin Mary, and of the saints in an offensive way.
2163 False oaths call on God to be witness to a lie. Perjury is a grave offence against the Lord who is always faithful to his promises.
2164 "Do not swear whether by the Creator, or any creature, except truthfully, of necessity, and with reverence" (St. Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, 38).
2165 In Baptism, the Christian receives his name in the Church. Parents, godparents, and the pastor are to see that he be given a Christian name. The patron saint provides a model of charity and the assurance of his prayer.
2166 The Christian begins his prayers and activities with the Sign of the Cross: "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen."
2167 God calls each one by name (cf. Isa 43:1).
Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work.
The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath; so the Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath.
2168 The third commandment of the Decalogue recalls the holiness of the sabbath: "The seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD."
2169 In speaking of the sabbath Scripture recalls creation: "For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it."
2170 Scripture also reveals in the Lord's day a memorial of Israel's liberation from bondage in Egypt: "You shall remember that you were a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out thence with mighty hand and outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the sabbath day."
2171 God entrusted the sabbath to Israel to keep as a sign of the irrevocable covenant. The sabbath is for the Lord, holy and set apart for the praise of God, his work of creation, and his saving actions on behalf of Israel.
2172 God's action is the model for human action. If God "rested and was refreshed" on the seventh day, man too ought to "rest" and should let others, especially the poor, "be refreshed." The sabbath brings everyday work to a halt and provides a respite. It is a day of protest against the servitude of work and the worship of money.
2173 The Gospel reports many incidents when Jesus was accused of violating the sabbath law. But Jesus never fails to respect the holiness of this day. He gives this law its authentic and authoritative interpretation: "The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath." With compassion, Christ declares the sabbath for doing good rather than harm, for saving life rather than killing. The sabbath is the day of the Lord of mercies and a day to honor God. "The Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath."
2174 Jesus rose from the dead "on the first day of the week." Because it is the "first day," the day of Christ's Resurrection recalls the first creation. Because it is the "eighth day" following the sabbath, it symbolizes the new creation ushered in by Christ's Resurrection. For Christians it has become the first of all days, the first of all feasts, the Lord's Day (he kuriake hemera, dies dominica) Sunday: We all gather on the day of the sun, for it is the first day [after the Jewish sabbath, but also the first day] when God, separating matter from darkness, made the world; and on this same day Jesus Christ our Savior rose from the dead.
2175 Sunday is expressly distinguished from the sabbath which it follows
chronologically every week; for Christians its ceremonial observance
replaces that of the sabbath. In Christ's Passover, Sunday fulfills the
spiritual truth of the Jewish sabbath and announces man's eternal rest in
God. For worship under the Law prepared for the mystery of Christ, and
what was done there prefigured some aspects of Christ:
Those who lived according to the old order of things have come to a new hope, no longer keeping the sabbath, but the Lord's Day, in which our life is blessed by him and by his death. 2176 The celebration of Sunday observes the moral commandment inscribed by nature in the human heart to render to God an outward, visible, public, and regular worship "as a sign of his universal beneficence to all." Sunday worship fulfills the moral command of the Old Covenant, taking up its rhythm and spirit in the weekly celebration of the Creator and Redeemer of his people.
2177 The Sunday celebration of the Lord's Day and his Eucharist is at the
heart of the Church's life.
"Sunday is the day on which the paschal mystery is celebrated in light of the apostolic tradition and is to be observed as the foremost holy day of obligation in the universal Church."
"Also to be observed are the day of the Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ,
the Ascension of Christ,
the feast of the Body and Blood of Christi,
the feast of Mary the Mother of God,
her Immaculate Conception,
the feast of Saint Joseph,
the feast of the Apostles Saints Peter and Paul, and the feast of All Saints."
2178 This practice of the Christian assembly dates from the beginnings of
the apostolic age. The Letter to the Hebrews reminds the faithful
"not to neglect to meet together, as is the habit of some, but to
encourage one another."
Tradition preserves the memory of an ever-timely exhortation: Come to Church early, approach the Lord, and confess your sins, repent in prayer.... Be present at the sacred and divine liturgy, conclude its prayer and do not leave before the dismissal.... We have often said: "This day is given to you for prayer and rest. This is the day that the Lord has made, let us rejoice and be glad in it."
2179 "A parish is a definite community of the Christian faithful established on a stable basis within a particular church; the pastoral care of the parish is entrusted to a pastor as its own shepherd under the authority of the diocesan bishop." It is the place where all the faithful can be gathered together for the Sunday celebration of the Eucharist. The parish initiates the Christian people into the ordinary expression of the liturgical life: it gathers them together in this celebration; it teaches Christ's saving doctrine; it practices the charity of the Lord in good works and brotherly love: You cannot pray at home as at church, where there is a great multitude, where exclamations are cried out to God as from one great heart, and where there is something more: the union of minds, the accord of souls, the bond of charity, the prayers of the priests.
2180 The precept of the Church specifies the law of the Lord more precisely: "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass." "The precept of participating in the Mass is satisfied by assistance at a Mass which is celebrated anywhere in a Catholic rite either on the holy day or on the evening of the preceding day."
2181 The Sunday Eucharist is the foundation and confirmation of all Christian practice. For this reason the faithful are obliged to participate in the Eucharist on days of obligation, unless excused for a serious reason (for example, illness, the care of infants) or dispensed by their own pastor. Those who deliberately fail in this obligation commit a grave sin.
2182 Participation in the communal celebration of the Sunday Eucharist is a testimony of belonging and of being faithful to Christ and to his Church. The faithful give witness by this to their communion in faith and charity. Together they testify to God's holiness and their hope of salvation. They strengthen one another under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
2183 "If because of lack of a sacred minister or for other grave cause participation in the celebration of the Eucharist is impossible, it is specially recommended that the faithful take part in the Liturgy of the Word if it is celebrated in the parish church or in another sacred place according to the prescriptions of the diocesan bishop, or engage in prayer for an appropriate amount of time personally or in a family or, as occasion offers, in groups of families."
2184 Just as God "rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done," human life has a rhythm of work and rest. The institution of the Lord's Day helps everyone enjoy adequate rest and leisure to cultivate their familial, cultural, social, and religious lives.
2185 On Sundays and other holy days of obligation, the faithful are to
refrain from engaging in work or activities that hinder the worship owed
to God, the joy proper to the Lord's Day, the performance of the works of
mercy, and the appropriate relaxation of mind and body. Family needs
or important social service can legitimately excuse from the obligation of
Sunday rest. The faithful should see to it that legitimate excuses do not
lead to habits prejudicial to religion, family life, and health.
The charity of truth seeks holy leisure- the necessity of charity accepts just work.
2186 Those Christians who have leisure should be mindful of their brethren who have the same needs and the same rights, yet cannot rest from work because of poverty and misery. Sunday is traditionally consecrated by Christian piety to good works and humble service of the sick, the infirm, and the elderly. Christians will also sanctify Sunday by devoting time and care to their families and relatives, often difficult to do on other days of the week. Sunday is a time for reflection, silence, cultivation of the mind, and meditation which furthers the growth of the Christian interior life.
2187 Sanctifying Sundays and holy days requires a common effort. Every Christian should avoid making unnecessary demands on others that would hinder them from observing the Lord's Day. Traditional activities (sport, restaurants, etc.), and social necessities (public services, etc.), require some people to work on Sundays, but everyone should still take care to set aside sufficient time for leisure. With temperance and charity the faithful will see to it that they avoid the excesses and violence sometimes associated with popular leisure activities. In spite of economic constraints, public authorities should ensure citizens a time intended for rest and divine worship. Employers have a similar obligation toward their employees.
2188 In respecting religious liberty and the common good of all, Christians should seek recognition of Sundays and the Church's holy days as legal holidays. They have to give everyone a public example of prayer, respect, and joy and defend their traditions as a precious contribution to the spiritual life of society. If a country's legislation or other reasons require work on Sunday, the day should nevertheless be lived as the day of our deliverance which lets us share in this "festal gathering," this "assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven."
2190 The sabbath, which represented the completion of the first creation, has been replaced by Sunday which recalls the new creation inaugurated by the Resurrection of Christ.
2191 The Church celebrates the day of Christ's Resurrection on the "eighth day," Sunday, which is rightly called the Lord's Day (cf. SC 106).
2192 "Sunday . . . is to be observed as the foremost holy day of obligation in the universal Church" (CIC, can. 1246 # 1). "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass" (CIC, can. 1247).
2193 "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound . . . to abstain from those labors and business concerns which impede the worship to be rendered to God, the joy which is proper to the Lord's Day, or the proper relaxation of mind and body" (CIC, can. 1247).
2194 The institution of Sunday helps all "to be allowed sufficient rest and leisure to cultivate their amilial, cultural, social, and religious lives" (GS 67 # 3).
2195 Every Christian should avoid making unnecessary demands on others that would hinder them from observing the Lord's Day.
ENDNOTES 1 Mt 22:37; cf. Lk 10:27:". . . and with all your strength." 2 Deut 6:4. 3 Ex 20:2-5; cf. Deut 5:6-9. 4 Mt 4:10. 5 Deut 6:13-14. 6 Cf. Ex 19:16-25; 24:15-18. 7 St. Justin, Dial. cum Tryphone Judaeo 11, 1: PG 6, 497. 8 Roman Catechism 3, 2,4. 9 Rom 1:5; 16:26. 10 Cf. Rom 1:18-32. 11 CIC, can. 751: emphasis added. 12 Cf. Deut 6:4-5. 13 Lk 4:8; Cf. Deut 6:13. 14 Cf. Lk 1:46-49. 15 Lk 18:1. 16 St. Augustine, De civ Dei 10, 6 PL 41, 283. 17 PS 51:17. 18 Cf. Am 5:21-25; Isa 1:10-20. 19 Mt 9:13; 12:7; Cf. Hos 6:6. 20 Cf. Heb 9:13-14. 21 CIC, can. 1191 # 1. 22 Cf. Acts 18:18; 21:23-24. 23 Cf. CIC, can. 654. 24 LG 42 # 2. 25 Cf. CIC, cann. 692; 1196-1197. 26 DH 1 # 2. 27 DH 2 # 1. 28 NA 2 # 2. 29 DH 14 # 4. 30 DH 1 # 3. 31 AA 13 # 1. 32 Cf. DH 1. 33 Cf. AA 13; Leo XIII, Immortale Dei 3, 17; Pius XI, Quas primas 8, 20. 34 DH 2 # 1. 35 DH 2 # 2. 36 DH 6 # 3. 37 Cf. Leo XIII, Libertas praestantissimum 18; Pius XII AAS 1953, 799. 38 Cf. DH 2. 39 Cf. Pius VI, Quod aliquantum (1791) 10; Pius IX, Quanta cura 3. 40 DH 7 # 3. 41 Cf. Mt 23:16-22. 42 Ps 115:4-5, 8; cf. Isa 44:9-20; Jer 10:1-16; Dan 14:1-30; Bar 6; Wis 13: 1-15:19. 43 Josh 3:10; Ps 42:3; etc. 44 Mt 6:24. 45 Cf. Rev 13-14. 46 Cf. Gal 5:20; Eph 5:5. 47 Origen, Contra Celsum 2, 40: PG 11, 861. 48 Cf. Deut 18:10; Jer 29:8. 49 Cf. Lk 4:9. 50 Deut 6:16. 51 Cf. 1 Cor 10:9; Ex 17:2-7; Ps 95:9. 52 Cf. CIC, cann. 1367; 1376. 53 Cf. Acts 8:9-24. 54 Acts 8:20. 55 Mt 10:8; cf. already Isa 55:1. 56 CIC, can. 848. 57 Mt 10:10; cf. Lk 10:7; 2 Cor 9:5-18; 1 Tim 5:17-18. 58 GS 19 # 1. 59 GS 20 # 2. 60 GS 20 # 2. 61 Cf. Rom 1:18. 62 GS 19 # 3. 63 Cf. GS 20 # 1. 64 GS 21 # 3. 65 GS 21 # 7. 66 Deut 4:15-16. 67 Sir 43:27-28. 68 Wis 13:3. 69 Cf. Num 21:4-9; Wis 16:5-14; Jn 3:14-15; Ex 25:10-22; 1 Kings 6:23-28; 7:23-26. 70 St. Basil, De Spiritu Sancto 18, 45: PG 32, 149C; Council of Nicaea II: DS 601; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1821-1825; Vatican Council II: SC 126; LG 67. 71 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 81, 3 ad 3. 72 Ex 20:7; Deut 5:11. 73 Mt 5:33-34. 74 Cf. Zech 2:13; Ps 29:2; 96:2; 113:1-2. 75 John Henry Cardinal Newman, Parochial and Plain Sermons V, 2 (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1907) 21-22. 76 Cf. Mt 10:32; 1 Tim 6:12. 77 Cf. 1 Jn 1:10. 78 Jas 2:7. 79 Cf. CIC, can. 1369. 80 St. Augustine, De serm. Dom. in monte 2, 5, 19: PL 34, 1278. 81 Deut 6:13. 82 Mt 5:33-34,37; Cf. Jas 5:12. 83 Cf. 2 Cor 1:23; Gal 1:20. 84 CIC, can. 1199 # 1. 85 Mt 28:19. 86 CIC, Can. 855. 87 Cf. Isa 43:1; Jn 10:3. 88 Rev 2:17. 89 Rev 14:1. 90 Ex 20:8-10; cf. Deut 5:12-15. 91 Mk 2:27-28. 92 Ex 31:15. 93 Ex 20:11. 94 Deut 5:15. 95 Cf. Ex 31:16. 96 Ex 31:17; cf. 23:12. 97 Cf. Neh 13:15-22; 2 Chr 36:21. 98 Cf. Mk 1:21; Jn 9:16. 99 Mk 2:27. 100 Cf. Mk 3:4. 101 Cf. Mt 12:5; Jn 7:23. 102 Mk 2:28. 103 Ps 118:24. 104 Cf. Mt 28:1; Mk 16:2; Lk 24:1; Jn 20:1. 105 Cf. Mk 16:1; Mt 28:1. 106 St. Justin, I Apol. 67: PG 6, 429 and 432. 107 Cf. 1 Cor 10:11. 108 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Magn. 9, 1: SCh 10, 88. 109 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II 122, 4. 110 CIC, can. 1246 # 1. 111 CIC, can. 1246 # 2: "The conference of bishops can abolish certain holy days of obligation or transfer them to a Sunday with prior approval of the Apostolic See." 112 Cf. Acts 2:42-46; 1 Cor 11:17. 113 Heb 10:25. 114 Sermo de die dominica 2 et 6: PG 86/1, 416C and 421C. 115 CIC, can. 515 # 1. 116 St. John Chrysostom, De incomprehensibili 3, 6: PG 48, 725. 117 CIC, can. 1247. 118 CIC, can. 1248 # 1. 119 Cf. CIC, can. 1245. 120 CIC, can. 1248 # 2. 121 Gen 2:2. 122 Cf. GS 67 # 3. 123 Cf. CIC, can. 120. 124 St. Augustine, De civ. Dei 19, 19: PL 41, 647. 125 Heb 12:22-23.